Among a variety of alternatives considered at the time, the Apollo configuration of 3-person CSM and 2-person LM, launched atop a single vehicle was considered the optimal choice for its day.
With today's accumulated experience in spaceflight and almost 50 years of technological advancement, would a mission mounted today to fulfill Kennedy's mandate "land a man on the Moon and return him safely to the Earth" look similar?
First, let's exclude from consideration any spaceflight systems currently existing or under development capable of transporting humans beyond low Earth orbit (we can consider the Space Shuttle, but not Orion).
Let's say that the mission must deliver at least one person to the lunar surface such that the astronaut can walk on the surface, and perform physical tasks similar to what was done during Apollo. Let's also say that the science payload (all equipment delivered to surface and samples returned) are mass equivalent, and the durations of both moonwalk and surface stay are similar.
Would such a mission have the same complement (3 to lunar orbit, 2 landing), or would it be more, or less?
Would there be a separate CM and LM at all (perhaps a combined CM/LM, leaving only an unmanned SM in lunar orbit to rendezvous with after lunar ascent and power the ride home)?
Would the mission vehicle(s) be similar in size and configuration? Would a single launch vehicle for the entire mission requirement be optimal or would multiple launch with orbital rendezvous be favoured? Would the Space Shuttle (if not retired) have been a practical way to deliver as far as LEO (by multiple launches) the people and equipment required?
The point of the question is whether 50 years of technological advancement and spaceflight experience has "changed the equation" which was calculated back then, or whether the best answer then would still be the best answer today.