Many rockets (for example Falcon 9) will have a Thick Cloud Rule as one of the launch constraints — if the density of height of a cloud exceeds a particular threshold, the launch will be postponed until the constraint is GO - making your question nonanswerable in some instances. Mission managers realize it can pose a danger so they will scrub. Here are the Falcon 9 weather commit criteria. These conditions are generally measured in the days and hours preceding a launch by the 45th Air Force Weather Squadron (at CCAFS).
Wind shear actually played a small part in the destruction of Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 (although it was essentially doomed from the start):
...However, at around T+36 seconds and an altitude of just over 10,000 feet (3,000 m), Challenger experienced the strongest wind shear ever felt by a Space Shuttle launch. The pitch and yaw commanded by the shuttle's computers in order to counter this wind caused the solid fuel plug to become dislodged from the field joint on the right SRB...
Taken from the STS-51-L Mission Timeline.
In general terms, a rockets outcome can be expressed as a boolean: either the launch is a success and the payload reaches orbit, or the launch is not a success and the rocket will either explode, veer off trajectory (to be destroyed by range safety), or deliver a payload to a suboptimal orbit.
Considering that the most dangerous winds will be found when the vehicle isn't very high or very downrange, if the vehicle cannot self correct its trajectory to account for the wind shear or clouds by either throttling up slightly or gimballing its engines, it will veer outside its preplanned flight corridor, and as I mentioned, by automatically terminated by range safety.