Thrust is thrust and its effects are the same no matter where it comes from. In theory, yes electric propulsion such as hall effect thrusters, electrostatic ion thrusters and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can be used to launch a satellite from the surface of the earth to orbit. However, due to the very high exhaust velocity of electric propulsion systems they have a very high specific impulse, which is a nice way of saying that in theory they can produce a large change in spacecraft velocity for a small amount of propellant.
While a higher specific impulse may sound advantageous, the gravity and atmospheric drag at Earth's surface can counteract the effects of the high specific impulse. By re-arranging the equations of motion and the equation for kinetic jet power we can see that as the specific impulse of an engine increases, the amount of power required to produce a pound of thrust also increases at a near logarithmic rate. Because of this increase in the ratio of power to thrust, electric propulsion systems would require an enormous power source to produce enough thrust to accelerate against gravity and minimize drag losses. Unfortunately, the specific mass of contemporary power systems (chemical, solar and nuclear) is too low to allow for this type of launch system.
So in summary, if we could build power sources that could produce an enormous amount of power for a very low structure mass (~3 kg/kWe or less), that were also compact then yes, it is possible to use electric propulsion systems for launch vehicle applications. However, this is beyond the current state of the art for power systems.