Human powered vehicles used within domed or cavern cities would seem to be extremely plausible. One way to look at it is a simple bicycle is less complex than a powered vehicle. The power source (aka a Human) is extremely complex and maintenance intensive, but given that we already have a functioning human and want to get that human to some other place, a bicycle or scooter is a fine way to do so at minimal cost. Of course, the city needs to be large enough to justify not simply walking.
Humans always need some exercise, and so within a biodome using a human powered vehicle can contribute to some of the exercise requirements of a human. In that sense, it is free.
Outside of an artificial biosphere, in the hard vacuum of space, or under a thin atmosphere we run into more problems. All things being equal, a life support system would sustain a human on a powered vehicle much longer than it would a human-powered vehicle.
I had a little trouble finding exact numbers, but here is one study which shows how much an adult human breathes per minute:
A human simply sitting in a vehicle breathes 9-10L/minute, while doing somewhat strenuous exercise they will be breathing at least 30L/minute. Life support has to work at least 3 times harder - up to 6 times harder. What this means is that every minute spent riding a bike, would be a minute less work which could be done - or 2-5 minutes less work if the work mainly involves standing around. Or if travelling somewhere, the maximum range is halved or worse.
There is an obvious solution - upsize the life support system. This has an equally obvious problem - the human has to carry the life support system under their own power and thus work even harder.
I think we've established that humans become a lot harder to maintain once they are huffing and puffing, putting aside the oxygen problem, the question is, how does the efficiency compare with electric motors? Again it wasn't too easy to find clear answers to this, but one could look at this article: http://physics.ucsd.edu/do-the-math/2011/11/mpg-of-a-human/
That article and other sources assert a human is around 25% efficient at converting food energy into kinetic energy (i.e. on a bicycle). This compares unfavorably with an internal combustion engine, at around 40% efficient, and very unfavorably with an electric motor, at around 90% efficiency. In this case, the lost energy becomes heat. A human outputting 250 watts of power, also generates 750 watts of heat. An electric motor would generate about 30 watts of heat. Unfortunately for the human, all that waste heat is something life support has to get rid of, through radiators (heavy) and/or active cooling (energy intensive).
Now lets look at charging the battery. Solar panels are about 30% efficient at converting sunlight into electricity - it can be higher or lower, but 30% is a fair average assuming the environment is a near vacuum. Charging batteries can be extremely efficient - 80-90% for lithium batteries. So of the captured sunlight, 30% x 90% x 90% = 24% becomes mechanical energy driving the motor.
And lets look at charging the human. The wikipedia article on Photosynthetic efficiency is pretty good. To summarize, most crop plants are 0.25-0.5% efficient at creating food energy. That would give the human an abysmal 0.5% * 25% = 0.125% efficiency. Even with really efficient algae or something we'd still be struggling to break 5% efficiency.
It's looking really bad for the human, but to add insult to injury the solar panels can be just plonked outside in hard vacuum. The plants need a whole life support system of their own, water, atmosphere, temperature, fertilizers - all these things need to be regulated.
TL;DR A human powered vehicle is far less efficient than an electric vehicle: From sunlight to kinetic energy, only about 1% as efficient. Human powered vehicles might be justified within a biodome as humans need exercise anyway. But in a vacuum or hostile atmosphere the excessive life support requirements for a human doing strenuous exercise would make human powered vehicles much less practical than electric vehicles.