The two Kennedy Space Center crawler-transporters, used to transport Saturn V, Shuttle and SLS rockets to the launchpad, move on caterpillar treads:
Here's a SpaceFlight Insider video clip about current work on modifying the crawlers for SLS:
The much lighter Soyuz is instead transported to the launchpad on tracks, a standard Russian gauge railway, it seems.
Rail tracks seem to me an obvious choice for moving super-heavy cargo a short distance between few fixed points. Caterpillar treads are more useful to traverse rough terrain, and is mostly used on construction and military vehicles. Why do the crawler-transporters use caterpillar treads instead of running on rail tracks?
Added: It seems as if Buran and the N1 launcher also had a crawler transporter, the same one, but towed by locomotives on rail tracks (or do I misunderstand that?) Hmm, the book linked to says it was towed by four 100 horsepower locomotive. Hardly.