I realize that the Earth has an atmosphere that protects us from solar radiation, but what if we go beyond the atmosphere? I researched that the atmosphere is 300 miles thick and the moon is 238,400 miles away from earth. So would the shuttle, and, if need be, the suits, have lead within them? Also, I know that the atmosphere isn't spherical from the radiation from the sun. So the atmosphere varies in thickness around the earth, but my logic tells me that it doesn't reach all the way to the moon..... Thank you for your time.

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    $\begingroup$ I think this answer applies to your question. space.stackexchange.com/a/862/10234 - Check the "materials" section of his answer. It specifically addresses lead, but the answer as a whole talks about shielding from radiation. $\endgroup$
    – duzzy
    Jul 13 '15 at 5:41
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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Space.SE. You question is in multiple directions and contains some incorrect assumptions. The magnetic field protects us from solar radiations too. The Shuttle was below the protective layer, except for UV. The atmosphere is spherical, the Van Allen belts aren't. The atmosphere (containing air) is about 100 km width, ending at the Kármán line. $\endgroup$
    – mins
    Jul 13 '15 at 12:43