Questions tagged [mars]

Questions about the science or exploration of the planet Mars. See wiki for related tags.

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125 views

Geolocalizing photographs on astronomical bodies

In Are pictures taken from ISS geolocalized? I was considering photos taken on the Moon by astronauts. How can I determine a photographer's position and lens direction? And further, since there isn't ...
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What are ALL the characteristics for for human habitability of worlds?

We've got a good head start at our original table here, but is there anything else we need or have missed that impact on human habitability of worlds? It's helpful to compare and contrast places in ...
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How would you calculate the maximum bandwidth possible in space?

If you'd take Earth and Mars, and at both their closest and furthest position (ignore the Sun being nearly in-between for a moment), what would be the maximum amount of bandwidth possible between ...
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What's the current state of Mars orbital infrastructure?

As per this Wikipedia article Mars currently has 6 operational artificial satellites: 2001 Mars Odyssey Mars Express Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Atmosphere and Volatile ...
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Terraforming Mars using a combination of aerogel and GM microbes?

Silica aerogel is a technology that's been proposed for colonisation of Mars. Basically, it's a very good insulator that's also transparent to visible light, and could be used to warm up parts of Mars ...
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A retracted paper about Chlorophyll on Mars?

Recently, Gilbert Levin, one of the experimenters behind the Viking labeled release experiment, wrote this letter to the editors of Science. He makes this claim of particular interest Chlorophyll was ...
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What is the baseline for carbon isotope ratios?

In the Martian atmosphere, the ratio between concentrations of carbon-13 to carbon-12 has been measured, for example reported in Mahaffy, Paul R., et al. "Abundance and isotopic composition of ...
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Would Earth fireworks work on the Moon or on Mars?

Fireworks have had a very long history and have evolved into highly engineered devices with simultaneously excellent performance and reliability. Even small tweaks require research, testing, and are ...
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How to determine the distance between Olympus Mons and Valles Marineris?

How can I determine the distance between Olympus Mons and the closest point of Valles Marineris? What tools are available to the general public for these kinds of queries?
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What is the correct rough estimation for the payload to kick-off a sustainable Mars colony?

In this talk, Elon Musk explains our current global capacity required to kick-off a sustainable Mars colony, should be about 1 000 000 tons (including humans). While this is for sure just some rough ...
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How often have dust devils saved a Martian lander or rover?

This answer to How are the Mars Rovers maintained? reminds us that ...much to the surprise of the early Mars scientists and rover teams, Mars takes care of the dust problem for us! Mars' typical ...
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Life on Mars: How do we know it is not from Earth?

Firstly I would like to start the question with the knowledge that we have, that the most basic form of life we want and expect to find in our Solar System is the primitive kind, such as viruses or ...
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How are the Mars Rovers maintained?

I am really curious in finding out how the Mars Rovers are maintained. The communications with the software could be done as long as there are no connection malfunctions, and I suppose they have a ...
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What is the closest distance a human being has come to Mars ever since the beginning of the space age?

Ever since we started space exploration, what is the closest a living human being has come to Mars?
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Is the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator scheduled for any upcoming Mars mission? Is the program still active?

Back in 2014 and 2015, some tests of the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator were performed. The LDSD is intended to land heavier payloads on Mars than is currently possible. Mark Adler (the project ...
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Trying to understand if or how operating a rover on Mars from Earth could work

If you used something like google maps to create a 360° Topographical map of an area on Mars could you use it to create a virtual simulated reality similarly to how you would manipulate google maps ...
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What would be the challenges for a settlement immersed in liquid fluorocarbon on Mars?

Perfluorononane is a fluorocarbon with a density of 1.8 g/mL and a melting point of -16⁰ C. According to this paper it has a vapor pressure of about 0.7 kPa at 15⁰ C, so in regions with low altitude ...
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Why were only three known-negative soil samples used to determine the Viking labeled release experiments' false positive rate?

According to Levin, Gilbert V., and Patricia Ann Straat. "The case for extant life on Mars and its possible detection by the Viking labeled release experiment." Astrobiology 16.10 (2016): ...
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Is the 1970's Viking Orbiter due to contaminate Mars?

From Wiki: The Viking program ended on May 21, 1983. To prevent an imminent impact with Mars the orbit of Viking 1 orbiter was raised on August 7, 1980 before it was shut down 10 days later. Impact ...
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Is there any live classes for learning about Mars and Universe by professionals?

I have 10 year old son and he is crazy about Mars, Space, Blackholes, Universe , Rockets, and Satellites. Right now he goes to youtube and tries to learn. But we don't know which video is good and ...
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Is there any footage from Mars where you can see Deimos or Phobos getting bigger and smaller as it goes through the sky?

This answer mentions that on Mars, you can see its satellite get bigger and smaller as it rises and sets, because the satellite orbits much closer than our own Moon does from Earth. I'm pretty sure ...
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ROV-E compact configuration

Assuming that ROV-E could be employed in a real space mission, which would be the best configuration to store it in a larger spacecraft or linked to a larger spacecraft? Is it possible to modify the ...
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Has Same Beam Interference (SBI) been used or at least tested at Mars? Are there plans to use it in the next few years?

Section 5.4 of Descanso I, Radiometric Tracking Techniques for Deep-Space Navigation by Catherine L. Thornton and James S. Border titled Future directions in Radiometric Tracking; Same Beam ...
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Will InSight be able to pick up vibrations from the landing of Perseverance or Tianwen?

In roughly six months, two spacecrafts will be landing on Mars. Will the seismometers on InSight be able to detect vibrations from any of those landings?
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How to calculate the pressure at the floor of Ganges Cavus on Mars when it is filled to its edge with perfluorobutane?

Perfluorobutane is an inert, high-density colorless gas and has a high Global Warming Potential value of 4800. At about the same temperature of -1.7 ⁰C, it has a density of 11.2 kg/m3, opposed to 2 kg/...
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What if you tried to fly a kite on Mars?

I wonder what kite flying might be like on Mars, in one per cent the atmospheric pressure of Earth, about two per cent the Earth's atmospheric density and 38% the Earth's surface gravity. Are there ...
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Harvesting Venus atmosphere to Terraform Mars

Since Mars has such a thin atmosphere, to Terraform we would need massive amounts of Nitrogen. Would it make sense to import it from Venus? Also since venus's atmosphere is mostly co2, and we can make ...
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Will MOXIE get clogged or chemically degraded by martian dust?

MIXIE, the Mars Oxygen ISRU Experiment is an experiment on the Perseverance rover currently on its way to Mars, that will test solid oxide electrolysis as a way to extract oxygen from atmospheric ...
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Choosing a specific region to live on Mars, how important will the degree of dust there be, compared with the availability of water?

Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU The map above shows underground water ice on Mars, it's from the article NASA's Treasure Map for Water Ice on Mars. The blue and purple represent water ice less than 30 ...
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Would it be easier to put humans on Venus rather than Mars?

With all the speculation of manned missions to Mars, there is very little talk of a manned mission to Venus (whose orbit is closer to the orbit of Earth than mars is). That being said, would it be ...
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Why use a Mars orbital Earth return vehicle for sample return?

NASA's plan is to use two separate missions to bring home the drill core samples that the Perseverance rover will take. The samples will in plan be picked up by a landed mission and launched to Mars ...
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How to calculate the local maximum solar radiation on Mars from day to day throughout a full martian year?

I would like to know where on Mars the least lowest daily temperatures depending on the time of year will be. At first glance one might think, as I did, that it has to be along its equator, but ...
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Could the SS520 be used to return a payload from Mars to Earth?

The Japanese SS520-5 nanosat launcher has a payload of 5kg or so to LEO on an all solid fuel rocket with a total mass of about 2.6 tons. To reach LEO its delta-V totalled over all three stages must be ...
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Could one use an adjusted idealized greenhouse model to calculate the local average temperature on Mars?

The Idealized greenhouse model article on Wikipedia gives the following solution for finding the global surface temperature on an idealized planet with an atmosphere: $$T_s = \left[ \frac{S_0(1 - \...
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Why exactly does Curiosity's RTG make more electricity on cold days?

There is a fascinating factoid in this answer to MMRTG- thermal and electrical output: The electric power of the thermocouples depends on cooling influenced by the environment. On a cold day on Mars ...
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Were there any experiments that produced rocket fuel grade methane on mars?

One of the main reasons that SpaceX's Starship engine raptor uses methane is because it can theoretically be produced there from atmospheric CO2 and subsurface H2O. Where there any experiments that ...
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Has ChemCam been used to characterize the martian atmosphere?

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used to measure the composition of a solid, a liquid or a gas. LIBS is the technology used in ChemCam of the Curiosity rover and in the SuperCam of ...
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How much pressure would the raptor engines experience when Starship does an atmosphere entry burn at Mars?

The Starship second stage has 3 sea level engines and 3 vacuum engines. When doing the atmosphere entry burn to mars, how many Bars will the raptor engines experience? I'm thinking that because of the ...
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What is the highest resolution camera on a Mars orbiter?

The GeoEye-1 satellite has the high resolution imaging system and is able to collect images with a ground resolution of 0.41 meters (16 inches) How about Mars then? From all the Mars orbiter's cameras,...
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magnitude of magnetic anomalies (Earth and Mars)

I've been looking for the magnitude of highest and lowest magnetic anomalies on Earth and Mars (mapped by spacecraft in low orbit), by searching online I couldn't really find a numerical value. From ...
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Is there any current imagery of Mars2020?

Are there any current photos or video from the Mars2020 spacecraft, or since the first burn? It would be cool to check on this daily/weekly.
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If Elon Musk wanted to bring back some Martian soil, would US permission be required?

A scenario occurred to me recently where the Chinese space program decided to go all-in on Mars sample return, and their schedule was such that it would happen before the NASA/ESA mission was ...
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How long could the Mars helicopter Ingenuity keep up with the Perseverance rover if it wanted to?

Wikipedia's Mars Helicopter Ingenuity says: It could potentially cover a distance of up to 300 metres (980 ft) per flight. Perseverance is somewhat similar to Curiosity which drove about 22970 ...
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Is Perseverance still in Safe Mode?

Messages in The Pod Bay and Space.com's NASA: Mars rover Perseverance in 'safe mode' after launch, but should recover both said that Perseverance was in "Safe Mode". Is it still?
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Why do Ingenuity's legs differ?

In the pictures below, I notice that not all of the legs of Ingenuity are the same (look at the end of them, directly touching the surface). It looks like a single one is different than the other 3. ...
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How many Raptor engines will Starship use for TMI and Mars landing?

The Starship second stage has 3 sea level engines and 3 vacuum engines. I don't imagine that all 6 will be used for trans Mars injection, as it isn't very efficient. And for the Mars landing which ...
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Mars Sample Return Earth Return Orbiter — which propulsion system for what?

Many sources (eg this one) show the Mars Sample Return Earth Return Orbiter with both ion and chemical propulsion, and also state that it will be launched on an Ariane 6, but I can't find a clear ...
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What would be the most viable way to have constant communication with a Mars base?

I am currently working on a project involving designing a Mars base, and a major factor is establishing constant communication between Earth and the Mars ground base. I am thinking of utilizing laser ...
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Will surface samples from Mars orbit it in a spherical capsule until captured?

The abstract of the interesting 2001 NASA JPL paper Covering a Sphere with Retroreflectors says: Abstract- One of the future missions for Mars involves returning a soil sample from the Martian ...
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Is there a specific reason why NASA put MOXIE on a rover?

MOXIE or The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment is to be sent to Mars as a part of Perseverance's scientific payload. Sure the experiment is much needed and very anticipated, and ...

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