Questions tagged [acceleration]

Questions regarding acceleration - the rate and/or direction by which an object's speed or velocity vector changes with respect to time.

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7 votes
3 answers
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Can something like SpinLaunch actually work?

Can something like SpinLaunch actually work? It appears that Spinlaunch attempts to accelerate a capsule to very high speeds and then basically throw it into space. A regular rocket is moving slowest ...
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2 votes
0 answers
35 views

How many particles per acceleration cycle in a cyclotron? [closed]

particle accelerators accelerate ''beams of particles'' - do cyclotrons accelerate single particles or a batch of particles per accelerating cycle? How many particles can be accelerated in a batch per ...
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24 votes
6 answers
4k views

Why do rockets have multiple stages?

I guess, almost all the rockets have multiple stages. But, I was wondering, why do they have multiple stages? Couldn't they have just 1 stage? With more stages, they would require more engines (...
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1 vote
1 answer
118 views

Will DART fire its ion engine to accelerate prior to impact?

I'm an avid KSP player. Like some of them, I've been playing the DART simulation on the game. I've typically achieved impact velocities of 5-7 km/s, the higher end being achieved by propulsive ...
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6 votes
3 answers
330 views

Could you survive very high G's if your whole body was accelerated uniformly?

Could you survive high g's if your whole body was accelerated uniformly (not just by the seat of a rocket pushing on your back)? Your body is really only affected by gravity if you are touching ...
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10 votes
4 answers
2k views

How do vibrational isolators reduce the g-forces of a payload on a launch vehicle?

Launch vehicles often use vibrational isolators to reduce g-forces to protect delicate payloads. How are g-forces reduced on the payload while both the payload and the launch vehicle maintain the same ...
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14 votes
4 answers
4k views

Why did the space shuttle's altitude go down after reaching 108,000m?

I recently took a look at this little data sheet by NASA: Math and Science @ Work; Space Shuttle Ascent Time Altitude Velocity Acceleration Comment (s) (m) (m/s) (m/s^2) 20 1244 139 18.62 40 5377 ...
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7 votes
3 answers
307 views

Term disambiguation: acceleration with/without gravity

I'm ashamed to ask this. But a free-falling accelerometer in a gravitational field will read a nice round zero. And if that accelerometer is given some thrust, it will read the acceleration produced ...
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0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Which nD accelerometer symmetric configurations on a cubical LEO spacecraft can serve as a makeshift 3D gyro resolving tumbling from tidal forces?

As they often do @DavidHammen's comment has got me thinking about the following question, which is a mathematical exercise rather than a realistic scenario. On a hypothetical large cubical spacecraft ...
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8 votes
2 answers
723 views

What do ISS astronauts do while the ISS gets reboosted? [duplicate]

For its orbit to not decay, the ISS reboosts itself to higher altitudes once in a while. During the reboost, I wonder how much gravity is felt by the astronauts onboard, and what do they do to avoid ...
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1 vote
2 answers
138 views

Average acceleration of a rocket given average mass and thrust

If we assume that a small scale rocket is launched perpendicularly to the ground and ignore the drag, how can I calculate the average acceleration given that I know the burn time, the average thrust, ...
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3 votes
0 answers
103 views

Lagrange coefficients orbit acceleration

I have an initial position, velocity and acceleration (in x,y,z coordinates) for a certain orbit, and I need to compute the next position, velocity and acceleration after a certain time interval (I ...
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0 votes
1 answer
333 views

How much anti-matter is needed for an anti-matter propelled rocket to reach $P$ % ($P\lt{100}$) of the speed of light (c)?

I think this is a tough one. Imagine a rocket is produced which is propelled by a matter-anti-matter device. Its sole purpose is to reach high velocity. Which means the mass can be kept low, say $m$ ...
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4 votes
1 answer
174 views

Fastest rocket to reach space?

Spaceloft XL can reach space - 100 km - in 60 seconds So I wonder which rockets can reach that limit fastest Balloon-launched sounding rockets count but separately (from the moment they launch from ...
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2 votes
1 answer
363 views

Did the Perseverance rover's Atlas 5 really "leap off the pad"? If so, was it because the payload is tiny, or because it's going to Mars?

Spaceflight Now's ULA’s Atlas 5 is NASA’s go-to rocket for nuclear-powered space probes quotes Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance: “This rocket is going to leap off the pad with ...
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3 votes
0 answers
138 views

How to calculate the maximum heliocentric speed during a flyby?

The following graphs are related to the Voyager 2 / Jupiter flyby occurred on July 1979 (I did the calculation with the SPICE library and NAIF’s data files). We see that the maximum speed relative to ...
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0 votes
0 answers
75 views

Supersonic flow of non-compressible fluids

Will the non-compressible fluids, travelling at Mach 1, at the throat of a CD nozzle, accelerate after they leave the throat?
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1 vote
0 answers
248 views

Is centripetal acceleration around an ellipse with constant tangential velocity always pointed towards the center of the ellipse? [closed]

I've tried to find answers online but surprisingly couldn't find any.
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12 votes
4 answers
5k views

Did any spacecraft ever use the Sun's gravity for acceleration?

Space probes often use planets to accelerate onto a trajectory towards their goal(s) without having to consume too much fuel. But the fastest acceleration would be made through the Sun's gravity if ...
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1 vote
1 answer
178 views

How much is a typical reentry vehicle decelerated by heatshield ablation?

Most spacecraft (or parts thereof) intended to survive atmospheric (re-)entry use an ablative heatshield, which, when exposed to the strong aerodynamic heating of (re-)entry, gradually ablates away, ...
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3 votes
1 answer
180 views

calculating the terminal velocity of a theoretical solar sail when reaching a distance d where acceleration is insignificant

I am trying to calculate the terminal velocity of a solar sail starting at distance 1AU. I know that my sail will accelerate and its acceleration will be inversely proportional to the distance squared....
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4 votes
2 answers
176 views

Tacking a solar sail to increase duration of acceleration

Because the utility of a solar sail diminishes the further it travels away from the sun (max. distance ~50 AU), the longer it can stay in closer proximity to the sun the longer it can accelerate. Is ...
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0 votes
2 answers
489 views

Average acceleration of a rocket

Given a rocket has a minimum acceleration with full tanks of say 1 g and a max acceleration with empty tanks of 3g, what's the average acceleration? Is it just 2
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0 votes
1 answer
104 views

Could Breakthrough Starshot proposed propulsion system be used in a regular size probe to accelerate it faster than any probe has been before?

Supposedly Breakthrough Starshot project wants to accelerate a capsule of the size of a mobile phone - according to one source - and of the size of the chip of a mobile phone - according to another ...
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2 votes
1 answer
73 views

What lateral and rotational accelerations can a spacecraft achieve?

I've found information like the Space Shuttle Orbiter has so many thrusters each generating so much force to maneuver "with redundancy" in orbit. But without knowing something like how many thrusters ...
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  • 4,007
7 votes
1 answer
786 views

What precisely was the character of the non-gravitational acceleration of Oumuamua?

When exactly did Oumuamua accelerate, when did it begin, when did it end, was it uniform across that period, and at what vector did it occur? I've seen some vague references to it lasting 100 days, ...
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1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Apply forces such that a satellite reaches a given point in space

I'd like to find out a strategy for solving the following simplified problem. A small spherical craft at $t=0$ has a position and velocity vectors $\mathbf{x_0}, \mathbf{v_0}$ in a zero gravity ...
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5 votes
1 answer
111 views

How was InSight's vertical seismometer (accelerometer) tested in Earth's stronger gravity?

The BBC article InSight Diary: The silence of space tells an interesting story and has an interesting audio recording of InSight's seismometer signals sped up to audio frequency, made while in ...
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1 vote
2 answers
505 views

Ion thrusters trip time

Suppose we had a fully equipped nuclear powered ion thruster starship. If it had a constant rate of acceleration of 1g, taking into account the fact that at the half way point you would have to turn ...
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1 vote
0 answers
402 views

How long will it take me to get to Mars?

I am a spaceship travelling from Jupiter under constant acceleration of 1g (9.8meters/sec2) provided by fusion drive to Mars. I departed at exactly the same time as an identical ship, travelling the ...
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6 votes
4 answers
2k views

Orbital Railgun for launching deep space probes

I've perused some of the articles and questions on magnetic acceleration using rail guns and they all seem to say that it's possible just not practical. I wanted to know what are the drawbacks to ...
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4 votes
2 answers
643 views

Outgassing as a viable explanation of Oumuamua acceleration excess

A recent paper on Oumuamua claims the following: 'Oumuamua (1I/2017 U1) is the first object of interstellar origin observed in the Solar system. Recently, Micheli et al. (2018) reported that '...
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2 votes
0 answers
68 views

What forces and motion would astronauts experience in a spacecraft in Earth-Moon L1 & L2 Lissajous orbit?

What is the maximum velocity they would experience? Would they be aware of the movement based on the positions of the Earth, Moon, or stars, or would it be too slow to notice? Would they feel any G ...
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0 votes
1 answer
205 views

What could possibly happen if an object accelerates 9.81 m/s^2 upwards if it started from the ground ? [closed]

Will the acceleration of the object and the acceleration due to gravity cancel each other and that object remains at the same space coordinate?
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2 votes
1 answer
173 views

Is there an optimal accelaration for first stage going in LEO?

I know every engineering works is based on compromises, and rocket design is no exception. A rocket should go as quickly as possible to high altitude to avoid flying for a long time and at high speed ...
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6 votes
2 answers
12k views

How do I calculate a rockets burn time from required velocity?

Say my rocket could produce F newtons of thrust while consuming M1 kilograms of fuel per second. It's mass at start is M0, and it keeps burning until it reaches V velocity. How would I find out the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
104 views

Gravitational forces affecting acceleration on a space ship with artificial gravity [closed]

I and my brother are having an argument on gravity on a space ship. For this argument lets say, you are in a void. There are no outside gravity forces, ie planets or solar systems in the near region. ...
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3 votes
2 answers
759 views

What is a non-propulsive vent?

I just hear the term "non-propulsive vent". Is it a thing, a vent that does not cause propulsion? Or is it an event, where a vent of some unwanted gas has occurred which did not result in a ...
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12 votes
2 answers
2k views

How much acceleration g-force can prevent pilot from moving their arms?

Assuming that the craft’s engine is capable of any amount of acceleration, how much g-force would prevent the pilot from being able to move their limbs in order to control the space craft? There is ...
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6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Theoretical Max G forces on Shuttle Launch?

Reading this question Why are rocket engines operating above 100% often considered nominal? leads me to a question about throttling back the SSMEs in the later stages of a Shuttle Launch to limit G ...
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  • 2,668
6 votes
1 answer
256 views

Soyuz seat - return

Every astronaut launching on a Soyuz has a seat custom-made (source). However, I don't believe astronauts typically return on their original Soyuz, and I know that they don't always. In this case, are ...
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14 votes
2 answers
5k views

SpaceX rocket strange velocity

In SpaceX launch on May 1st, 2017, we get to see the full flight path of the first stage rocket of the falcon 9 from launch to land: It accelerates to around 1685m/s ...
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10 votes
2 answers
958 views

Challenging the Kármán line from above

The initial conditions of the thought experiment is (very) LEO / reentry. capsules, space shuttle and other spacecraft can generate lift in upper atmosphere during reentry, in order to reduce ...
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3 votes
1 answer
273 views

Why does not the ISS turn when accelerating?

When spasecraft accelerates its center of masses should be on the line of force vector otherwise it will start to spin. How does ISS hold its orientation when accelerating? Do gyros hold station ...
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  • 31
6 votes
1 answer
474 views

On determining nominal speed of reaction wheel

As part of a project, I am designing a reaction wheel system for a nano-satellite. I am now researching on how to determine the nominal speed of the reaction wheel. I have characterized the deadzone ...
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  • 413
1 vote
3 answers
296 views

Is it possible, using known acceleration laws, to drastically lower force required to leave Earth's Gravitational pull?

Just a silly theory to illustrate my question. If we were to build a globe (or a detached runway, could be any structure really as long as it goes around earth and meets on both ends) around the earth,...
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3 votes
3 answers
2k views

Amount of fuel for accelerating a spaceship

Suppose I have a spaceship and fire up its engines, accelerating to 10000 km / h. Now I turn off my engine and see I have consumed 10 % of my fuel (90 % left). How much fuel does it take to ...
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11 votes
2 answers
624 views

Are we actually that close to techniques of accelerating probes to speeds like a quarter $c$?

As recent research has been started by a team around Stephen Hawking under the name Breakthrough Starshot they are going for accelerating little probes up to 0.2~0.25$c$. There isn't that much ...
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