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Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Left behind photo

After several trips to moon there were several items left behind on the moon's surface, including foot prints. Is there any photo or registry of any of those items taken recently?
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Why did Apollo have a crew of 3?

Why did Apollo have a crew of three when only two actually reached the surface of the moon? I can see it makes sense for the Lunar Module only to seat two astronauts. Less mass to land softly on the ...
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How many Lunar Surface Hasselblad cameras were left on the Moon?

There were six Apollo missions that landed on the Moon. Each mission was equipped with at least two Lunar Surface Hasselblad cameras left on the lunar surface before ascent. But the total number of ...
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Why does the Apollo-8 Trans-Lunar Injection burn appear to be pulsing in this photo?

This tweet called my attention to The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum story Photographing Apollo 8's Orbit Toward the Moon. The story is quite an interesting bit of space history and worth a ...
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Did Apollo's velocity slow down after TLI due to Earth's gravity?

I assume Apollo's velocity slowed down after it left Earth orbit, for how long was it decelerating. Did it start accelerating as it approached the Moon. What was the rate of deceleration due to ...
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Docking of CSM with LM

After separation from the SLA (by about 50-100 feet), the CSM "turned around" and docked with the LM to pull it out. This turning around was done by a 180 degree change in orientation. This could have ...
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Looking for Apollo 11 powered descent video

At a science museum I visited on my 2018 fall vacation (I think it was the Chicago MSI), I saw a video loop that looked and sounded very much like part of the moon landing multimedia show at the ...
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What do you call the Apollo LEM plus CM (Command Module) when they are connected?

In the question How far away can spacecraft be seen with an optical telescope? I used ...Apollo 14 CM & LEM and the Saturn IV B..." for lack of better words. Unlike some people I (don't) ...
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At what time in the Apollo 14 mission did the maneuver shown in this image happen, and what exactly was happening?

In a search for information for this answer I received this google books link of Comment: The Relevance of Space, by Arthur Kantrowitz, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 197, 4 April 1971, pp 32-33. ...
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Docking of Command and Service module with Lunar module

Is there any video available which is shot inside CSM during the process of docking with LM to pull it out of adapter?
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How far from Earth were the Apollo astronauts when they left the Earth's magnetosphere?

I am assuming the Apollo missions recorded radiation levels as they travelled to the Moon. Have those records ever been released, as a way of determining when the Apollo astronauts left the ...
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How did NASA get the video camera on the Moon to track the LM ascent stage, considering the substantial delay?

The Moon's distance can be as much as about 406,000 km from Earth. That's a round trip light time of roughly 2 x 406,000 / 300,000 = 2.7 seconds or more, depending on how the signal was relayed to ...
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Exit film of moon landing departure

On Apollo 15, 16, and 17 NASA filmed the Lunar Module taking off and leaving the moon. With no-one on the moon how could the the camera move to follow it and who brought the exposed film back to ...
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What's the closest that an Apollo mission passed GEO on it's way to the moon?

@Uwe's comment No astronaut ever visited geostationary orbit at 22-23k miles to maintain or deploy satellites. The Apollo astronauts just rushed by on their way to the Moon and back. below the ...
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What was the view from the Apollo spacecraft while travelling to the moon?

From what I read on the internet, I took around 3 days for Apollo 11 to get to the Moon. I'm curious what was the view from the windows of the spacecraft during the journey. What did the astronauts ...
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Puzzler: Precisely what maximum distance from the Earth did the Apollo 13 astronauts achieve?

tl;dr: Both this answer and this answer quote Wikipedia to state that the Apollo 13 astronauts reached 404,171 km from Earth. I'm not able to reproduce that value. According to JPL's Horizons the ...
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Bits per core for the different versions of the Apollo guidance computer core rope memory?

The first version of the Apollo guidance computer had a ROM of only 12 K words of 16 bit. Later it was doubled to 24 K and finaly tripled to 36 K words. The first version of core rope read only ...
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Was there fuel consumption budgeting for Apollo 11 Lunar module?

Did the astronauts aboard Apollo 11's Lunar Module have any stated or imposed limitation or restriction on the amount of fuel they could use while in lunar orbit and performing landing maneuvers? I am ...
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Was splashing down on the USSR-controlled territory a possibility for Apollo missions?

From what I understand, the planned landing areas for Apollo command modules were pre-programmed beforehand and happened in the South Pacific. Was there any remote possibility of an emergency ...
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Did the Apollo astronauts hear any external sounds during a lunar EVA?

Did any sounds resonate through their boots or any part of their environmental suit? Could they hear the folding or rubbing of the material of their suits? Did anything impact their boots that might ...
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What modifications constituted the ‘reorificing’ of F-1 engines on later Saturn V flights?

The topic of uprating the Saturn V’s first stage engines appears to have been widely discussed, and yet there is little agreement as to how it was done. Early Rocketdyne F-1 engines quote lower ...
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Apollo guidance computer ROM addressing using the ROM bank register, what is the bank register size?

The Apollo guidance computer had 36 K words of core rope ROM. To address 36864 words, a 15 bit memory address for up to 32768 words is not enough, 16 bits are needed. This Wikipedia article describes ...
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What was the nature of the visible part of the viscous wake trailing the Apollo CM during reentry?

This diagram suggests a helix in the wake, was it a single-helix, a multiple helix, or a superhelix? Is there any other part of the wake that would be visible?
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Did the Apollo astronauts ever describe reentry deceleration?

Did the Apollo astronauts describe any differences in how it felt in the CM as it passed between the hypersonic, supersonic, transonic and the subsonic zone? Did the CM shake more or less in ...
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How long is the Apollo Lunar Module extraction window?

In Apollo lunar missions, the Command/Service Module extracts the Lunar Module after S-IVB's translunar injection burn. Since all three spacecraft were on a transfer orbit, they would be in the ...
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Apollo recovery zone(s)

For the Apollo missions that left Earth orbit, were there multiple recovery zones for each splashdown? How big was each zone?
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Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator entry to Mars' atmosphere

Is it known whether or not a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator inflation and entry into Mars' atmosphere would produce more violent vibrations and lateral movements than was experienced by ...
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What was the colour of the shoes used by the Apollo astronauts in moon landing?

The pictures from Apollo landing despite being in high resolution, does not reveal the right colour of the shoes used by the astronauts during the EVA on the moon. An example - Buzz Aldrin picture ...
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How did the Apollo Service Module reenter?

I always assumed that after the Apollo Command Module separated from the Service Module, the SM was effectively inert and was simply left to re-enter of its own accord. However, from the Apollo 11 ...
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How easy would opening an Apollo capsule following dry landing be?

To help frame the problem, I have written the following scenario: It's December 19, 1972 and the Apollo 17 has returned to Earth, but something went wrong and they landed in the middle of the Outback....
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How do you find lunar flyby using Apollo 13 mission report data?

Link to mission report: https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a13/A13_MissionReport.pdf So Im trying to do analysis on the mission phases of Apollo 13 but my part is to only focus on the flyby part. My ...
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What coordinate system was used for the Apollo missions?

This is specifically about the Apollo missions, which are not touched in this related question. Did they use one coordinate system throughout the entire mission, or did they switch depending on the ...
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Did astronauts on the moon poop in front of each other?

I know about the Apollo pooping bag. The question is, in the CSM, was there any space to use it privately? I suppose while coasting towards the Moon they could use the LM, but on the return trip? Any ...
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Why did the Apollo cabin repressurization valve cause a banging sound?

As portrayed in the movie Apollo 13, Fred Haise tried to spook his crewmates by trigerring the cabin repressurization valve, which creates a banging sound. Indeed, every Apollo crew reported hearing ...
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How different was the Apollo LM descent trajectory from the most fuel-efficient?

In most diagrams of the Apollo Lunar Module descent profile (example at the start of this video), it looks like the LM turns over and points some of its thrust downward relatively early in the process....
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Calculations Apollo astronauts were trained to do by hand if loss of guidance computer and/or data & coms link to Earth?

This answer to the question is it possible to navigate space travel with no computer? currently contains the line Yes, as long as you don't care where you end up but I am not so sure this is true. ...
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Did the Apollo lunar module descent stage have a role as a sort of service module?

To minimize the re-entry mass of the Apollo command module, essentially all of the mission supply of command module consumables was stored in the service module. Was there a similar arrangement ...
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Should there be black crosses from the Réseau plate in this Apollo mission photograph? If so, where are they?

This answer to the question How did the Apollo astronauts change film in their cameras? mentions the Réseau plate, source of the beloved black crosses in Apollo photographs. I saw the question ...
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How did Apollo missions solve the cosmic radiation problem?

One of the major hurdles of space exploration is cosmic radiation. How did the Apollo missions solve the radiation problem? NASA would have shielded the astronauts to some level by some material. How ...
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What spacecraft control is Margaret Hamilton pressing in this picture?

Margaret Hamilton was the Apollo Director of Software Engineering. In this picture, she is shown inside a mock-up of the Apollo command module. Hamilton is noted for many accomplishments during the ...
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What was NASA's “LUROVA” Operational Thermal Computer Model analog or digital? How were capacitors used?

@GremlinWrangler's answer links to Apollo Rover Lessons Learned Applying Experiences on the Apollo Lunar Rover Project to Rovers for Future Space Exploration by Ronald A. Creel, Space and ...
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Did Charlie Duke actually get the measles?

Deke Slayton: Jim, we've got a problem. I got some blood work back from the lab. Charlie Duke has the measles. Jim Lovell: [Unconcerned] So we need a new back-up. Deke Slayton: You'...
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How was the mass of the Apollo CSM determined?

One of the parameters for any maneuver of the Apollo CSM is the mass of the vehicle: for example, the trans-Earth injection of Apollo 11 specified a vehicle mass of 36,691 pounds. How was this mass ...
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Had Apollo astronauts practiced getting up from a fall?

The question "Could an Apollo astronaut stand up if they fell on the moon?" describes several incidents of Apollo astronauts falling over while on the moon, and their attempts to get back up. Did the ...
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Are there any videos of onboard the Apollo Lunar Module while landed on the Moon?

These would be very worthy videos since there is air in the Lunar Module and they don't wear the heavy spacesuits, so one could see how they behave on the Moon in a breathable atmosphere and without ...
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What advice did NASA give Kennedy prior to his “Go to the moon” speech?

In September 1962 a nice young man ordered the United States to commit to landing on the moon in eight years. What input did NASA have in the decision? Did James Webb support or discard the idea that ...
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Did the Apollo astronauts do any EVAs in mid-flight? [duplicate]

For example on their way to the Moon, did the astronauts also leave the Apollo CSM during their flight? Or did they go outside only on the Moon? Were or could there have been any EVAs in mid-flight of ...
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Why did the S-IV-B refer to “jettison”ing its ullage?

This is based on a recent question about S-IV-B ullage motor shutoff timing, specifically something found in the Technical Information Summary AS-501, page 15: Ullage Jettison ~ 532. But why "...
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Did Apollo-11 have any radiation shielding? [duplicate]

If it did, then what kind? Or if it didn't, was it because the flight didn't last for too long? (7 days or so, from Earth to Moon and back.)
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How much wax is on the Moon? (Lunar Roving Vehicles)

I found the Cody's Lab videos from Scott Manley's video as described in this answer. Browsing through I learned from the first 30 seconds of Hot Wax Bottle? that the phase change of wax was used on ...