Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Was the Lunar Topographic Camera ever used?

From the APOLLO EXPERIENCE REPORT - PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS DURING MANNED SPACE-FLIGHT PROGRAMS NASA TN D-69 However, more detailed photography was required to evaluate the ...
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What would have happened if all Apollo computers failed?

Let's assume all available computers in the command module and the lunar module failed and the astronauts were unable to repair them in flight. Would they have been able to return back home safely ...
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Saturn 1 booster performance/structures

I was recently comparing some basic performance stats and noted that the Saturn 1/ 1B has very similar load to orbit figures to the Falcon 9. This seemed interesting to me, which brings up several ...
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What if Apollo Lunar Rover failed on the Moon?

Let's assume that our Apollo astronauts are on the Moon, driving their Lunar Rover and they are far away from the LM. What if LRV failed during the mission? Would they be able to get back to the LM on ...
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How long was Apollo put on hold after Apollo 1?

After Apollo 1, the Apollo program was put on hold while the accident could be investigated. How long was the program put on hold? How much did it delay the actual Moon landing?
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Could the ascent stage of Apollo 11's Eagle still orbit the Moon?

This video: Is Apollo 11's Lunar Module Still In Orbit Around The Moon 52 Years Later? claims, based on orbital simulations, that there is a chanche that the lunar module of Apollo 11 might be still ...
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Why did Apollo missions open the propulsive Hydrogen vents during the coast phase?

According to Figure 2-1 of the SA-503 flight manual the LH2 continuous vent was opened during the coast phase, and closed during the ullage stage of the S-IVB restart T_6 + 0:00:42.0 (but open for ...
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Are there any markings that uniquely identify each Saturn-Apollo combination?

This question made me wonder: are there any markings on the Saturn I/IB/V launch vehicle, Apollo service module or command module that uniquely identify each vehicle (i.e. AS-5xx)? It doesn't have to ...
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Does anyone know the source of this video?

I would like to know the source of this video? I cannot find it on youtube, but I think it's from the Apollo 17 launch (because it's night). Any ideas? Is my Apollo 17 guess correct? This is the video:...
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Did any Apollo missions have enough fuel left to bring back the LM ascent stage?

A recent question asks why the Apollo lunar module wasn't routinely brought back when returning from the Moon, so it could be used as an Apollo 13 style lifeboat. The answers correctly state that ...
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Apollo 14-17 - Why didn't they keep the Lunar Module docked as a lifeboat for the way back to Earth?

During Apollo 13, the Lunar Module had to be used as a lifeboat in order to save the astronauts. Then, it was only jettisoned from the Command Module shortly before Earth re-entry (even after the ...
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How did the Carbon Dioxide gauges work on Apollo?

The book Lost Moon by Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger had this interesting description in Chapter 10 (page 254 in my copy) regarding the CO2 gauges (emphasis added): Carbon dioxide concentrations in ...
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Would've the CO2 scrubbers failed before the O2 supply ran out during an Apollo moonwalk?

This absurd video on Reddit of the Earth blowing up while Apollo astronauts were walking on the Moon got me thinking. Assuming something catastrophic happened to the Lunar Module the moment the two ...
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How did "ACA Out of detent" work?

This is a related question about the words said during Apollo 11 as soon as the LM touched the ground. My question is specific to ACA out of detent As soon as the LM touched down on the surface it ...
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What is the origin of the Lunar Module in the US Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL?

I recently had a chance to visit the US Space and Rocket Center. While I was there, I saw a lunar module. It is very clear that the ascent portion is a mock-up, but the decent portion looks real, ...
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Where exactly are the Apollo space suit sublimators venting steam into space? is there a photo of an astronaut in space that shows the opening?

This excellent answer to How have space suits dissipated the heat removed from astronauts? shows a diagram including the sublimator unit in the red square where the phase transition of water from ...
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Why were the apollo CM RCS thrusters all placed in only one half of the module?

All the apollo CM RCS thrusters for pitch, roll, and yaw control were placed only in the upper half of the capsule (as seen in the image below). Why is that? (I think I read somewhere that it was due ...
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Other than astronauts, did any equipment go to the moon more than once? [duplicate]

It's been well documented elsewhere that three astronauts made multiple trips to the moon (whether to just orbit it, or actually land), these being Lovell, Young, and Cernan. Other than these 3 ...
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What barge route did the Saturn S-II take from California to Florida?

The first stage (S-IC) of the Saturn V rocket was produced at the Michoud Facility in New Orleans. Too large to be transported by railroad or airplane, it was delivered to Kennedy Space Center by ...
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Was anything manufactured at the Michoud facility between Apollo and the Shuttle?

The Michoud Assembly Facility is a manufacturing complex in New Orleans owned by NASA. During the Apollo program, the first stages of the Saturn I, IB, and V rockets were built there. During the ...
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Back up plan to use LOX-RP1 for Apollo mission

Today it might seem to be an hypothetical question. I read that Surveyor mission confirmed "re-igniting" a LOX+LH2 engine in space is successful. What if the use of H2 was not successful ? - ...
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Lunar Terrain Model in Apollo Guidance Computer

In the book Apollo Guidance Computer by Frank O’ Brian, on page 279, he talks about the lunar terrain model in the Apollo Guidance Computer, which has the several segments of the surface with slope. ...
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Correcting Accelerometer Readings when Offset from Center of Mass: How?

A follow-up to an earlier question. So I've accepted that I need to correct my accelerometer readings for the accelerometer offset from the center of mass. The offset means that whenever the rocket ...
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Was emergency burial of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory planned?

Regarding the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, in Sunburst and Luminary Don Eyles wrote in Debriefing (p.162 of 2019 edition): ...all this in case they had, against expectation, brought home some ...
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Why was a completely new (an "inexperienced" crew, w.r.t. Moon mission) selected for Apollo 11? [duplicate]

Apollo 10 was practically a full dress rehearsal of moon landing, except the landing act. As such, its crew (astronauts) gained all the experience needed for a moon mission. They were best suited to &...
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How did the Apollo guidance computers deal with radiation?

I was wondering how the Apollo guidance computer handled the radiation encountered in space
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What was the volume of the Rocketdyne F-1 engine's main combustion chamber?

In the specifications of the F-1 available online, I can find its dimensions, weight, thrust, etc. but I couldn't find what was the volume of its main combustion chamber. Is this information available?...
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When was the general approach to the Apollo moon landings finalized?

When were the major aspects of the Apollo program decided? Multi-stage rocket, CM pulling the LM out of the rocket through a docking maneuver, LOR, and a parachute landing in the ocean. I've seen ...
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Would the Apollo LM be able to land on Mercury?

If we set aside the question how the Apollo LM got into orbit around the celestial body in question, I wonder which celestial bodies other than the Moon the LM could successfully land on. Mercury for ...
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RCS jet select algorithms (e.g. in space shuttle)?

I'm looking for a clear description of RCS jet selection logic. The space shuttle, for instance, had tens of RCS thrusters, only three of which would be called to fire at a time given a 3D attitude ...
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Dragon ballistic/drag coefficients?

I'm looking for some estimates of Dragon's ballistic or drag coefficients in its reentry (heat shield forward) configuration. Estimates for other spacecraft would be useful also as they would give me ...
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Were all three Mobile Launch Platforms ever in use simultaneously?

With an optimistic view on the future, NASA built a Vertical Assembly Building with four bays and three Mobile Launch Platforms. They were later repurposed for the Space Shuttle and other launch ...
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Could Apollo have used the launch escape system as a booster?

Getting to space requires ruthlessly eliminating weight from launch vehicles. Older spacecraft like Apollo carried big Launch Escape towers. For an Apollo mission flying on a Saturn V, the LES meant ...
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Falcon 9 vs Apollo Landing: Key Differences?

So I'm struggling to model a Falcon 9 vertical landing. And because Falcon 9 info is scarce, I'm looking for more public info sources---like the apollo missions. The Apollos did basically vertical ...
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Is the telemetry from the Apollo Lunar rovers available?

Are there publicly-available datasets of the telemetry from the Apollo lunar rovers? Was rover telemetry even recorded during those missions? If such datasets exist, I would love to retrieve the (...
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What exactly makes the "bang-bang-bang-bang-bang-bang-bang!" sound just before "Houston, we have hard dock." in the Apollo 13 movie?

About seven seconds after "Capture!" and just before "Houston, we have hard dock" in the feature film Apollo 13 there are about seven loud bangs at about 3 Hz repetition. At this ...
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What was the space helmet "vomit port"?

Based upon centrifuge test results, MSC directed Hamilton Standard to modify the space suit helmet. The vomitus port and other obstructions to the line of sight in the downward direction were deleted....
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Lunar sample return cost per kg - Apollo vs Luna vs Chang'e

Lunar samples (rocks, soil etc.) were returned by US Apollo program, Russian Luna and Chinese Chang'e. How does the cost per kg of the samples compare among these missions? Who got it the cheapest per ...
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What does the Moon's gravity feel like? If you don't move, could you still tell you're on the Moon?

I am interested in descriptions and discussion from the Apollo astronauts. Almost all animals and many plants are sensitive to the earth's gravitational field. This is important for large mammals and ...
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Saturn V's external blueprints

I'm not sure if this is the right place to ask but I don't know where to ask. I want to get a high quality orthographic blueprints of NASA's Saturn V rocket with dimensions and everything (I need it ...
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Was the Apollo Programme the best option for long term space exploration?

Let us take the following as axiomatic: The long-term future of humanity is dependent upon the successful colonisation of space, The Apollo Programme was the greatest technological achievement in ...
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Separation of the stages of Saturn V by pyrotechnics, what about electrical and mechanical connections?

We know that the stages of Saturn V were mounted to each other with explosive bolts. Separation was done by ignition of these pyrotechnics. But we also know the control computer of the Saturn V was ...
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Which instrument did astronauts use to measure their position?

I once read up about astronauts measuring their position on the moon, or perhaps it was on the way to the moon and I would like to know more. What I remember reading was they used an instrument that ...
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What is this unlikely-looking contraption ("plutonium battery and scientific equipment") they're making Jim Lovell cary around a parking lot?

The BBC's Did nuclear spy devices in the Himalayas trigger India floods contains the following image and caption. Questions: What scientific equipment and which plutonium battery is this? Since this ...
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How much open source is the Apollo program today?

What percentage of NASA's Apollo program is considered to be open source as of today? I mean if I wanted to replicate a lunar mission from scratch exactly the same way they did it, regardless of the ...
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Lowest possible lunar orbit and has any spacecraft achieved it?

Because the Moon has no atmosphere a spacecraft can theoretically cruise at a very low orbit. What is the lowest possible lunar orbit and which spacecraft achieved it? Was it the Lunar Module of ...
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How was an emergency landing site at Diego Garcia used during the Apollo program?

On the current Starlink mission as the 2nd stage passed over the Indian Ocean I heard mention of contact with a ground station at Diego Garcia. Checking that article I found the subsection Space ...
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Did the Apollo Command module really "skip" within, or off of the atmosphere as a part of its reentry program?

This answer to a question about the Shuttle reentry begins: Skipping reentries aren't unheard of. The Apollo command module performed a single skip when returning from lunar missions. but Wikipedia'...
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Why didn't NASA simulate the conditions leading to the 1202 alarm during Apollo 11?

If I understand it, the alarm during the first Lunar descent was due to the computer being overloaded by too much RADAR data. That sounds like something that they would have thought to simulate, but ...
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Apollo prelaunch timeline?

I'm looking for a resource that will tell me all the important pre-launch events of an Apollo mission from when the rocket rolls out of the VAB to liftoff. Specifically, I'm interested in the Apollo 8 ...

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