Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Apollo 13's plutonium RTG re-entry into the Tonga Trench: Good shootin' or good luck?

Plutonium powered RTGs are encased to survive re-entry. According to the Wikipedia article on Apollo 13 RTGs were used to power … the scientific experiments left on the Moon by the crews of Apollo …...
Woody's user avatar
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Why do the boot prints on the moon appear bright in some photographs or film?

I've seen that in some videos or photos of the moon mission, the boot prints appear brighter relative to the untouched ground: But in some other cases, they are the same brightness as the ground: Is ...
spaceamoeba1010's user avatar
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What document describes the scientific benefits of the LRV through an increase in the diversity of rocks returned by Apollo 15-17?

Logically, it makes sense that the rock samples returned by the Apollo 15-17 missions tend to be more diverse than the ones returned by previous missions. The astronauts could reach regions of ...
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Mass Breakdown of Apollo CSM by Subsystems? (also Cost Breakdown)

I am looking for a mass breakdown of the Apollo Command and Service Module by subsystems, like this Lunar Module's chart from the NASA publication After LM. I am particularly interested in how much of ...
mini earth's user avatar
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1 answer
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How many people would have to keep it a secret if the U.S. hadn't walked on the moon? [closed]

For another question, @user answered: "The kind of people who dismiss the hundreds of thousands who worked directly on the Apollo project, the hundreds of thousands to millions who watched the ...
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Looking for Apollo Flight Control Hardware Blueprints (such as RHC, THC and COAS)

I've been looking to build replicas of Apollo flight control hardware such as RHC, THC, ACA, TTCA and COAS, and am looking for detailed engineering drawings that show dimensions and internal ...
mini earth's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
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What assumptions were made about the sphericity of the Moon for the Apollo program?

I've just been reading about the Apollo program. Apollo 8 seems to have gone into a fairly circular lunar orbit 69 miles at perigee. Apollo 10 was pretty much similar, although they dipped down with ...
mike rodent's user avatar
3 votes
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Where can I find the video of Apollo 16 floodlight mistaken with a UFO?

So, a few years ago (2004) NASA showed that a picture of a supposed UFO captured by the Apollo 16 astronauts through the window of the Command Module was in fact the floodlight protruding from the ...
Swike's user avatar
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What is the object seen in this Apollo 11 film?

At 3:42 in this Apollo 11 (16-mm magazine 1079-H) footage you can see a bright dot traversing the field of view towards the Moon. What is that? Could it be some mirror reflection due to the relative ...
Swike's user avatar
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Mobile Launcher Design

When looking at the Apollo and space shuttle mobile launch platforms side by side, I noticed that the exhaust ports look different and judging by the internal structure of the platform, it seems that ...
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Did the Apollo program deliberately hire younger and less-experienced engineers and staff?

I remember having read some time ago that for the Apollo program (and probably the related Mercury/Gemini ones), NASA deliberately hired younger and less-experienced engineers and staff. The supposed ...
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Was TTCA used during the Apollo 11 landing phase?

Neil selected P66, so he used the ROD switch to adjust the altitude rate (he could not use the TTCA throttle). My question is whether he used the X,Y axis translation feature of TTCA or not. The ...
r2limited's user avatar
2 votes
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What was the mass of each of the 12 completed Apollo Lunar Modules?

The propellant tanks on the Apollo 10 Lunar Module "Snoopy" was famously left not full. There is an urban myth that it was done to prevent Gene Cernan and Thomas Stafford from having any ...
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How high was the Apollo after trans-lunar injection usually?

Nowhere can I find info on how high the Apollo and the S-IVB stage were after engine cutoff following the successful TLI. The S-IVB/Apollo was in a parking orbit usually about 110 mi (180 km) above ...
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Going over the Apollo fuel numbers and I have many questions

I was reading through Apollo by the numbers and I noticed the LM descent to the moons surface consumed 17,414kg of fuel out of a total of 18,184kg leaving only 770kg of fuel. But then in the very next ...
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8 answers
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Apollo: what was the big deal?

I am curious what aspects of the Apollo program were impressive/advanced from an engineering perspective, in the 1960s and 1970s. That is, what would have made an educated engineer say, “Wow, they ...
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Did Apollo astronauts spend any time on the lunar surface during lunar night?

Are there any images from the surface of the moon during lunar night? Preferably taken by Apollo astronauts, but otherwise by rovers etc showing "earthshine" on the lunar surface? I found ...
tomh's user avatar
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Measuring Oxygen Quantity

How did the Apollo program measure Oxygen Quantity? The Command Module had a Pressure Gauge and a Quantity Guage for the oxygen bottles. Measuring pressure is simple, but I don't see how quantity is ...
James Rix's user avatar
30 votes
3 answers
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Were any of the Apollo astronauts smokers and did that cause any problems?

Onboard the Apollo capsule, the astronauts probably weren’t allowed to smoke because of the risk. Apollo 1 blew up because of a small spark in a pure oxygen environment. Even though NASA changed the ...
The Rocket fan's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
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Were the Apollo astronauts constrained in how they could set their PLSS cooling?

During EVA 2 of Apollo 17, Gene Cernan pointed out that having his PLSS on the "min cooling" setting was a little warm for him. That's probably because driving the lunar rover made his ...
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Main engine gimballing in Saturn V

The first stage of Saturn V has 5 main F-1 engines, but only 4 of the outer engines can gimbal and the engine at the center was fixed (Source : https://youtube.com/clip/...
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Is the author mistaken regarding this Apollo transposition and docking photo?

I came across this question, which asks about a photo with caption in this 1971 journal (google books link) of Comment: The Relevance of Space, by Arthur Kantrowitz, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ...
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What is the point of the Artemis program when we had Apollo? [closed]

Considering that NASA evidently already know how to land astronauts on the Moon (thanks to Apollo), what is the point of the Artemis program? For example, the just-launched Artemis 1 is 1) uncrewed ...
Allure's user avatar
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Are Artemis missions launched into a free return trajectory like the Apollo program?

The Apollo program spacecrafts were put on a free return trajectory after during the TLI maneuver. Does Artemis mission also put crafts on a free return trajectory? If no, what are the redundancy ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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Apollo 15: when did the astronauts manually move the LRV?

In Chapter 9 of the Apollo 15 Mission Report it says: In the soft, loose soil at the Apollo lunar surface experiment package site, one occurrence of wheel spin was corrected by manually moving the ...
olamarre's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
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What does a flight path angle of zero degrees mean at launch?

Total beginner here so please be gentle. I'm looking at the Apollo 11 flight path angle plot from Apollo Saturn V Postflight Trajectory AS 506 which shows a zero degree angle at launch. Isn't path ...
Mark Stevenson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
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Duplicated and Distorted Fiducials

In the Apollo photographic record there are dozens of duplicated and distorted fiducials. They mostly occur on color images and when the camera is pointed directly at the sun or the sun is just out of ...
Bruffy's user avatar
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On the LM, what is the difference between ABORT and ABORT STAGE?

The LM had both ABORT and ABORT STAGE buttons. What was the difference and in which scenario would each be used?
Andy's user avatar
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did the Apollo ascent module have a rocket motor?

I was watching this video of an Apollo ascent module taking off (captured by a lunar rover credit: NASA) and there is no evidence of a rocket motor not even a glint of light that would signal rocket ...
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Which is more accurate, a Saturn V IU or an iPhone?

In a comment, I mentioned that a modern cell phone could do almost everything the Saturn V instrument unit could do. How true is that? In particular, which would provide more accurate data for an ...
Mark's user avatar
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4 votes
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Which Saturn IB flights did or did not have hinged SLA panels?

Up until now, I had thought that petal fairings on all Saturn flights had been removed after an incomplete deployment on Apollo 7. But there's a picture of the Skylab 3 mission of the expended S-IVB ...
Brioche's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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What is this beige, pill shaped object on the back of the Apollo Lunar Module?

Is it an antenna, or something else? Image from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Apollo_11_Lunar_Lander_-_5927_NASA.jpg
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3 votes
3 answers
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Media coverage of Artemis vs Apollo

I remember the launch of Apollo 7 - the first crewed flight of the Apollo spacecraft. I was in grade school; we all gathered in the gym/auditorium to watch it on live TV. I was about 9 in 1967, and ...
Anthony X's user avatar
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In Apollo hardware, why were sump tanks needed?

I'm looking at the Apollo CSM Propulsion Systems. These were bi-propellant hypergolic systems. However, for some reason each type of propellant was divided into a storage and sump tank. For example, ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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When was Apollo 11 scheduled for July 1969?

I recently read on Wikipedia about Apollo 8's interesting schedule history. Basically, a lunar orbital mission was supposed to be an F mission for 1969, with the LEM tested in lunar orbit. But they ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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21 votes
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Does the post Apollo 13 roast mixtape still exist?

The debriefing party at the Hofbraugarten was merciless, beginning with a parody of the mission. The tape prepared by the Apollo 13 backup crew and the CapComs was not for the thin-skinned. The parody ...
Yaakov Saxon's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
227 views

Could dust kicked up from the Apollo landings reach Earth intact?

According to various sources (1,2, and 3) lunar landings kick up a lot of dust at very high speeds. Is it possible that some dust was able to get fast enough to escape the moon, fall towards Earth, ...
Starship - On Strike's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Design & selection of Saturn V for Apollo mission [duplicate]

While the Saturn project evolved out of von Braun's efforts to develop more and more powerful rockets to launch heavier payloads into space for the military, Saturn V, it seems was specifically ...
Niranjan's user avatar
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4 votes
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If humans lived on the moon, could they send a mission with the same goals as Apollo to the Earth?

The humans on the moon have similar technology to the humans (us) on Earth.
Daniel's user avatar
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Was Apollo 8 lunar orbit entry speed intentional at 7,777 ft/s?

When Apollo 8 first went behind the back side of the Moon, it was traveling at 7,777 feet per second (https://history.nasa.gov/afj/ap08fj/12day3_lunar_encounter.html). Was the speed being all 7s (the ...
jdude97's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Apollo ALSEP RTG shorting switch to prevent overheat of the RTG?

I found these lines in the Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Journal: 116:07:37 Mitchell: Houston, the current reading is 8. 116:07:42 McCandless: Understand 8 amperes before pressing the (shorting) switch. ...
Uwe's user avatar
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2 votes
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Understanding the Viewgraph by Dr. John Houbolt and the probability of success calculation of a Lunar Landing

The well known Dr. John Houbolt used a viewgraph to explain the much higher probability of success with LOR in comparison to EOR and Direct Flight for a lunar landing. I used Python to check the ...
Uwe's user avatar
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2 votes
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What is the most efficient method of landing for space capsules returning to earth? [closed]

I have read that the Russians don't land on water because they don't have access to a large warm-water coastline like the US. US has large swaths of land and water and most US capsules (Apollo, Dragon,...
user16734390's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
1k views

Were Hasselblad cameras used in space after the Apollo mission?

Analog Hasselblad cameras with photochemical film were used extensively during the Apollo mission to the Moon. Were they used later for Spacelab, Space Shuttle and Mir or ISS?
Uwe's user avatar
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At what point did the Apollo 11's Eagle extend the landing gear?

I am trying to figure out, during Apollo missions, exactly when the lunar-module extended the landing gear. Was it closer to the time the CM and LM connected in the space rendezvous or did they ...
Bruce Miller's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
375 views

Reference request: Rocketdyne Document R-3896-4 "F-1 Rocket Engine Illustrated Parts Breakdown"

Various sections of the Rocketdyne F-1 document R-3896 can be found scattered about the web, but I can't find R-3896-4. It's described as R-3896-4 F-1 Rocket Engine Illustrated Parts Breakdown This ...
Organic Marble's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
343 views

What does it mean to tune the Saturn F-1 engine to a frequency, and how is the tuning done?

Chapter 10 of Chariots For Apollo remarks the following in discussing the pogo problem of Apollo 4 and 6 and the role of the first stage F-1 engines in that: The mission analysts later discovered ...
Ludo's user avatar
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What kind of signals and encodings were used to send tilt/pan commands to TV cameras on the Moon (up through Apollo)?

This answer to Has anyone in space beyond LEO seen or has anything photographed a non-pointer laser from Earth? shows a frame from video shot by Surveyor 7 on the Moon, looking at Earth, and ...
uhoh's user avatar
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Apollo landing abort times T1, T2, T3,

In the transcript (1 and 2) of Apollo 11 lunar landing we can see ground control and crew talking about "T1" moment and "T2" moment: 102:47:09 Duke: ...T1. Over. Eagle, you are ...
jumpjack's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
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Where to find Apollo lunar landing checklists?

Is this the only document where I can read the checklists for Apollo lunar landing? They look more sidenotes than real checklists, and they contain hundreds of acronyms; I would expect instead a "...
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