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Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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How does a Space-Stabilized Inertial Navigation System actually torque its gimbals?

I've been trying to make a fairly-accurate video (with 3D animations coming soon) about Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), in which I plan to cover all the details from each gyroscopes and ...
Muhammad Kemal Abizar's user avatar
-9 votes
1 answer
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When Buzz Aldrin has been asked, at an airport and on a talk show, about the moon landing, why is his answer “It never happened.” It was animation [closed]

Twice seeing video of a reputable Buzz Aldrin replying to questions about the moon landing with “It never happened”, adding it was animation and there were “no cameras on the moon” was believable. ...
Seeker382's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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What proportion of the total fuel load in a Saturn V was used to drive the pumps?

In a liquid propellant rocket, power is needed to pump propellant against the pressure inside the combustion chamber. The Rocketdyne F-1 reportedly used 55,000 HP to drive the pumps. What proportion ...
Woody's user avatar
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Is there any film of Saturn V Stage 1 falling to the ocean?

Although there were more than ten Saturn V launches and the first stage separation is clearly visible, I have never seen any tracking of the huge first stage as it fell 100 km back to the Atlantic ...
Robert Martens's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Apollo Third Stage SLA Separation design change?

Did NASA change the design of the SLA on the Apollo third stage? First leaving it connected and then having the panels separate from the third stage?
Robert Martens's user avatar
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Pressurisation in the Apollo Lunar Module? [duplicate]

After the Apollo 1 fire, the Command Module atmosphere at launch was 15psi of 60:40 nitrogen:oxygen, which was allowed to vent down to 5psi during the ascent, and then slowly changed over to 5psi ...
John Dallman's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
358 views

How long can inertial only navigation systems maintain landing accuracy in LEO?

Inspired by this question, pre GPS all space craft used inertial navigation with periodic fixes from the ground. Inertial systems will drift with time, so the longer between last fix and landing the ...
GremlinWranger's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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How far could Apollo have got from the earth and still return safely?

We know Apollo could not have gotten anyone to Mars and returned them alive. My question is, using Apollo hardware, how far from earth could an astronaut have traveled and still return safely? Notes: ...
Eugene Styer's user avatar
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2 answers
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Could Apollo have survived the lander toppling over?

Did the Apollo mission have a contingency plan for the lander tipping over? For instance, would it have been possible for the two astronauts to somehow right it? EDIT This question is closely related ...
Steve Bennett's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
181 views

Instead of ending the Apollo program, why didn't NASA just decrease the frequency of lunar flights?

Russia is launching the completely non-reusable Soyuz rocket about four times a year on manned missions to the ISS, and even more often if you include the Progress cargo launches, not to mention Soyuz ...
Old Man John's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
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What spares were taken on Apollo missions, and what was left behind? The question of gloves

In the graphic novel based on John Michael Greer's 'The Next 10 Billion Years', there's a haunting picture of the descent stage of a lunar module (the shorter online version, 'Grounded', is here: ...
asylumax's user avatar
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Why does NASA suit color coding not follow conventional navigation color coding?

Pictures of NASA spacesuits like the ones below of Neil Armstrong’s Apollo suit (from the Smithsonian) and Gemini suit usually show the right wrist connection red and the left blue. Color coding for ...
Woody's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
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Changes to Apollo that enabled heavier missions

This question has a table that shows the dry weight of the LM grew by 1600 kg between Apollo 11 and 17. What enabled this weight growth? I know some of it was enabled by improving descent engine ...
Hobbes's user avatar
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Apollo mini-bike? For real?

NASA considered motorcycle style transportation for use on Lunar missions. Apparently, it didn’t make the cut, despite the fact it “got air” in a 1/6-G test run: Fig. 4: Test of an Apollo Motorbike ...
Woody's user avatar
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How are parachutes attached to capsule spacecraft?

Spacecraft capsules (Apollo, Orion, Dragon, Starliner, Soyuz, etc) use an arrangement of pilot, drogue, and main parachutes to land. I'm looking for details regarding how and where these parachutes (...
Retsied's user avatar
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1 answer
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Apollo 13's plutonium RTG re-entry into the Tonga Trench: Good shootin' or good luck?

Plutonium powered RTGs are encased to survive re-entry. According to the Wikipedia article on Apollo 13 RTGs were used to power … the scientific experiments left on the Moon by the crews of Apollo …...
Woody's user avatar
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Why do the boot prints on the moon appear bright in some photographs or film?

I've seen that in some videos or photos of the moon mission, the boot prints appear brighter relative to the untouched ground: But in some other cases, they are the same brightness as the ground: Is ...
spaceamoeba1010's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
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What document describes the scientific benefits of the LRV through an increase in the diversity of rocks returned by Apollo 15-17?

Logically, it makes sense that the rock samples returned by the Apollo 15-17 missions tend to be more diverse than the ones returned by previous missions. The astronauts could reach regions of ...
olamarre's user avatar
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Mass Breakdown of Apollo CSM by Subsystems? (also Cost Breakdown)

I am looking for a mass breakdown of the Apollo Command and Service Module by subsystems, like this Lunar Module's chart from the NASA publication After LM. I am particularly interested in how much of ...
mini earth's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
254 views

How many people would have to keep it a secret if the U.S. hadn't walked on the moon? [closed]

For another question, @user answered: "The kind of people who dismiss the hundreds of thousands who worked directly on the Apollo project, the hundreds of thousands to millions who watched the ...
AoooR's user avatar
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Looking for Apollo Flight Control Hardware Blueprints (such as RHC, THC and COAS)

I've been looking to build replicas of Apollo flight control hardware such as RHC, THC, ACA, TTCA and COAS, and am looking for detailed engineering drawings that show dimensions and internal ...
mini earth's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
5k views

What assumptions were made about the sphericity of the Moon for the Apollo program?

I've just been reading about the Apollo program. Apollo 8 seems to have gone into a fairly circular lunar orbit 69 miles at perigee. Apollo 10 was pretty much similar, although they dipped down with ...
mike rodent's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
337 views

Where can I find the video of Apollo 16 floodlight mistaken with a UFO?

So, a few years ago (2004) NASA showed that a picture of a supposed UFO captured by the Apollo 16 astronauts through the window of the Command Module was in fact the floodlight protruding from the ...
Swike's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
294 views

What is the object seen in this Apollo 11 film?

At 3:42 in this Apollo 11 (16-mm magazine 1079-H) footage you can see a bright dot traversing the field of view towards the Moon. What is that? Could it be some mirror reflection due to the relative ...
Swike's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
203 views

Mobile Launcher Design

When looking at the Apollo and space shuttle mobile launch platforms side by side, I noticed that the exhaust ports look different and judging by the internal structure of the platform, it seems that ...
TRK's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
434 views

Did the Apollo program deliberately hire younger and less-experienced engineers and staff?

I remember having read some time ago that for the Apollo program (and probably the related Mercury/Gemini ones), NASA deliberately hired younger and less-experienced engineers and staff. The supposed ...
Wouter's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Was TTCA used during the Apollo 11 landing phase?

Neil selected P66, so he used the ROD switch to adjust the altitude rate (he could not use the TTCA throttle). My question is whether he used the X,Y axis translation feature of TTCA or not. The ...
r2limited's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
372 views

What was the mass of each of the 12 completed Apollo Lunar Modules?

The propellant tanks on the Apollo 10 Lunar Module "Snoopy" was famously left not full. There is an urban myth that it was done to prevent Gene Cernan and Thomas Stafford from having any ...
Mys_721tx's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
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How high was the Apollo after trans-lunar injection usually?

Nowhere can I find info on how high the Apollo and the S-IVB stage were after engine cutoff following the successful TLI. The S-IVB/Apollo was in a parking orbit usually about 110 mi (180 km) above ...
Johannes's user avatar
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3 answers
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Going over the Apollo fuel numbers and I have many questions

I was reading through Apollo by the numbers and I noticed the LM descent to the moons surface consumed 17,414kg of fuel out of a total of 18,184kg leaving only 770kg of fuel. But then in the very next ...
Brain's user avatar
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32 votes
8 answers
8k views

Apollo: what was the big deal?

I am curious what aspects of the Apollo program were impressive/advanced from an engineering perspective, in the 1960s and 1970s. That is, what would have made an educated engineer say, “Wow, they ...
adam.baker's user avatar
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25 votes
2 answers
6k views

Did Apollo astronauts spend any time on the lunar surface during lunar night?

Are there any images from the surface of the moon during lunar night? Preferably taken by Apollo astronauts, but otherwise by rovers etc showing "earthshine" on the lunar surface? I found ...
tomh's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
180 views

Measuring Oxygen Quantity

How did the Apollo program measure Oxygen Quantity? The Command Module had a Pressure Gauge and a Quantity Guage for the oxygen bottles. Measuring pressure is simple, but I don't see how quantity is ...
James Rix's user avatar
30 votes
3 answers
7k views

Were any of the Apollo astronauts smokers and did that cause any problems?

Onboard the Apollo capsule, the astronauts probably weren’t allowed to smoke because of the risk. Apollo 1 blew up because of a small spark in a pure oxygen environment. Even though NASA changed the ...
The Rocket fan's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
185 views

Were the Apollo astronauts constrained in how they could set their PLSS cooling?

During EVA 2 of Apollo 17, Gene Cernan pointed out that having his PLSS on the "min cooling" setting was a little warm for him. That's probably because driving the lunar rover made his ...
olamarre's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Main engine gimballing in Saturn V

The first stage of Saturn V has 5 main F-1 engines, but only 4 of the outer engines can gimbal and the engine at the center was fixed (Source : https://youtube.com/clip/...
Prasanna B's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
120 views

Is the author mistaken regarding this Apollo transposition and docking photo?

I came across this question, which asks about a photo with caption in this 1971 journal (google books link) of Comment: The Relevance of Space, by Arthur Kantrowitz, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists ...
JanKanis's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
540 views

What is the point of the Artemis program when we had Apollo? [closed]

Considering that NASA evidently already know how to land astronauts on the Moon (thanks to Apollo), what is the point of the Artemis program? For example, the just-launched Artemis 1 is 1) uncrewed ...
Allure's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
444 views

Are Artemis missions launched into a free return trajectory like the Apollo program?

The Apollo program spacecrafts were put on a free return trajectory after during the TLI maneuver. Does Artemis mission also put crafts on a free return trajectory? If no, what are the redundancy ...
Ashvin's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
272 views

Apollo 15: when did the astronauts manually move the LRV?

In Chapter 9 of the Apollo 15 Mission Report it says: In the soft, loose soil at the Apollo lunar surface experiment package site, one occurrence of wheel spin was corrected by manually moving the ...
olamarre's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
796 views

What does a flight path angle of zero degrees mean at launch?

Total beginner here so please be gentle. I'm looking at the Apollo 11 flight path angle plot from Apollo Saturn V Postflight Trajectory AS 506 which shows a zero degree angle at launch. Isn't path ...
Mark Stevenson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
183 views

Duplicated and Distorted Fiducials

In the Apollo photographic record there are dozens of duplicated and distorted fiducials. They mostly occur on color images and when the camera is pointed directly at the sun or the sun is just out of ...
Bruffy's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
830 views

On the LM, what is the difference between ABORT and ABORT STAGE?

The LM had both ABORT and ABORT STAGE buttons. What was the difference and in which scenario would each be used?
Andy's user avatar
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-6 votes
1 answer
235 views

did the Apollo ascent module have a rocket motor?

I was watching this video of an Apollo ascent module taking off (captured by a lunar rover credit: NASA) and there is no evidence of a rocket motor not even a glint of light that would signal rocket ...
Deko Revinio's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
398 views

Which is more accurate, a Saturn V IU or an iPhone?

In a comment, I mentioned that a modern cell phone could do almost everything the Saturn V instrument unit could do. How true is that? In particular, which would provide more accurate data for an ...
Mark's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
131 views

Which Saturn IB flights did or did not have hinged SLA panels?

Up until now, I had thought that petal fairings on all Saturn flights had been removed after an incomplete deployment on Apollo 7. But there's a picture of the Skylab 3 mission of the expended S-IVB ...
Brioche's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
432 views

What is this beige, pill shaped object on the back of the Apollo Lunar Module?

Is it an antenna, or something else? Image from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/Apollo_11_Lunar_Lander_-_5927_NASA.jpg
BDA's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
368 views

Media coverage of Artemis vs Apollo

I remember the launch of Apollo 7 - the first crewed flight of the Apollo spacecraft. I was in grade school; we all gathered in the gym/auditorium to watch it on live TV. I was about 9 in 1967, and ...
Anthony X's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
508 views

In Apollo hardware, why were sump tanks needed?

I'm looking at the Apollo CSM Propulsion Systems. These were bi-propellant hypergolic systems. However, for some reason each type of propellant was divided into a storage and sump tank. For example, ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
213 views

When was Apollo 11 scheduled for July 1969?

I recently read on Wikipedia about Apollo 8's interesting schedule history. Basically, a lunar orbital mission was supposed to be an F mission for 1969, with the LEM tested in lunar orbit. But they ...
DrZ214's user avatar
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