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Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Will the real Snoopy please stand up?${}^†$ Has the candidate object for Apollo 10 lunar module been publicly identified?

This tweet seems to suggest that the details will be released only after a mission is planned and funder, or at least $50 million is put in escrow, or a bitcoin wallet is offered, but I am not sure I ...
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Could the Lunar Rover jump start the Lunar Module in an emergency?

In Scott Manley's video Why Lunar Landers Had Jumper Cables For Emergencies he describes the "LOSS OF ED [Explosive Device] SUB-SYSTEM" procedure, which includes the use of a jumper cable called the "...
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Could an Apollo LM land unmanned?

I believe that Apollo mission control had the ability to upload data and commands to the LM's guidance computer as long as they had an operational communications link. I'm wondering if, from the point ...
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How do flags behave on the Moon?

I have seen many theories and question/answers on this site touching upon this subject but no focused question. So I would like to ask this as a two part question. Is what we saw in the Lunar ...
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Moon Exploration Before the Apollo Missions? [closed]

I'm watching the British movie The First Men in the Moon and it got me wondering if it was scientifically possible to have sent humans to land and explore the moon (or even just orbit) before the NASA ...
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Was planting UN flag on Moon ever discussed?

In the planning of the US missions to the moon was planting the UN flag ever discussed? It just seems to me that would have been a great public relations move.
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Is deformation of the impact attenuation system visible on the surviving Apollo command modules?

As pointed out in this question, the Apollo command module had crushable ribs along one edge of the base of the cone, and crushable struts that suspended the crew couches inside the vehicle. I've ...
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Has in-space refueling been done?

Before the Apollo program committed to the lunar orbit rendezvous mode, one of the Earth orbit rendezvous proposals involved launching two Saturn Vs, one with the Apollo spacecraft and large lunar ...
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How does the Apollo LM ascent guidance program P12 actually work?

P12 is the AGC guidance program for normal ascent from the lunar surface to orbit. According to the mission planning documents, after separation and ignition, the ascent stage holds its initial ...
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Apollo SM RCS specific impulse?

What is the specific impulse of the RCS thrusters on the Apollo Service Module? This document cites 281 seconds for the LM's RCS thrusters, but I cannot find similar specs for the SM.
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Apollo 15 State Vector recreation

I am trying to get the state vectors for Apollo 15 before, during, and after critical manoevers [sp]. IE TLI, LOI1, LOI2, lunar launch, preocking, postdocking, and TEI. I am a totally newbie at all ...
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How did NASA get the video camera on the Moon to track the LM ascent stage, considering the substantial delay?

The Moon's distance can be as much as about 406,000 km from Earth. That's a round trip light time of roughly 2 x 406,000 / 300,000 = 2.7 seconds or more, depending on how the signal was relayed to ...
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Which Apollo-era contractors are still building aerospace components today?

This list of major Apollo manufacturers is from Chariots for Apollo. Which of them still make aerospace (spacecraft or aircraft) components today? AC Delco: inertial measuring unit, gyroscopes ...
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How was Apollo supposed to rendezvous in the case of a lunar abort?

If the LEM had to abort at the point of landing on the moon, the CM/SM would be about 1000 miles ahead of it when the LEM reached the same orbit. How could the 2 craft achieve rendezvous ?
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How did Apollo missions solve the cosmic radiation problem?

One of the major hurdles of space exploration is cosmic radiation. How did the Apollo missions solve the radiation problem? NASA would have shielded the astronauts to some level by some material. How ...
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What is that hissing and buzzing background noise on some of NASA Apollo audio recordings?

As example: https://archive.org/details/Apollo10/10-030702_4-OF-6.wav Buzzing, sometimes pulsating and rather loud background sound, very annoying. Reminds me of old time dial-up modem or something ...
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Why was this point chosen as the origin for the Saturn V coordinate system?

David Hammen gently corrected my erroneous comment on this fine answer to the question: How is the height of a rocket measured? by pointing out the following figure in the Project Apollo Coordinate ...
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Apollo CSM thruster quad orientations vs LM

Can anyone explain to me the reasoning behind the differences in the placement and orientation of the thruster quad packages on the CSM and LM? On the CSM a quad is a + shape and are located in a ...
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Human-rating the Saturn V using modern standards

Would a complete Apollo-Saturn stack (like e.g. AS-506) be human-rated according to the latest human-rating process (NPR 8705.2C) of NASA? If not, what are the biggest show-stoppers? This question ...
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Apollo CSM RCS maximum number of simultaneously active engines?

Reading the RCS subsystem manual, it seems like each RCS quad of the Apollo SM consisted of four hypergolic engines. Am I correct in saying that all four engines of each of the four quads could be ...
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What happened to boiled-off gases from the storage tanks at Launch Complex 39?

Both Apollo and the Shuttle launched from KSC complex 39, and used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. These cryogenic liquids were held in storage tanks near the perimeter of each ...
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Apollo CSM mass, inertia and RCS parameters?

Is there a document specifying the total mass, the 3-by-3 inertia tensor of the Apollo CSM assembly, as well as the geometry of the service module and command module RCS assemblies (in other words, ...
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How did the Apollo guidance computer handle parity bit errors?

The following answers mention the use of parity bits in the Apollo guidance computer: this answer to Bits per core for the different versions of the Apollo guidance computer core rope memory? this ...
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Is there a realtime, uncut video of Saturn V ignition through tower clear?

"Hi, I'm Organic Marble and I'm bad at searching Youtube." Inspired by this question What event determined the transfer of control from Kennedy Space Center to Houston?, I'd like to watch a 1:1 (...
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Why could the Lunar Ascent Engine be used only once?

The Lunar Ascent Engine was used during the Apollo missions to ascent from the lunar surface back to the Command and Service Module. There was one risky aspect of that engine: it was not possible to ...
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What were the hammerhead cranes used for?

During Apollo, the three Launch Umbilical Towers had a hammerhead crane at the top: Until 1994, the Space Shuttle's Fixed Service Structures were topped by literally the same cranes. The linked ...
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Which module had more 'comfort' in terms of living space, the Lunar Module or the Command module?

I wonder where were the astronauts more comfortable spending the day, sleeping, dressing the space suits, etc: the LM or the Command Module? Considering, of course, that the Command Module would ...
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Did NASA have a term for the “sky” during the Apollo missions

Did NASA have a distinct word to describe what the Apollo astronauts saw when they looked at out at the stars, when traveling between the Earth and the Moon? Sky does not seem right, as that word ...
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Why was the origin of the Apollo lunar module coordinate system “underground”?

Even stranger than the origin of the Saturn V coordinate system is that of the lunar module: The X-axis station reference measurements (inches) start at a design reference point identified as ...
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Was CNC milling used in the 1960's for making the Apollo/Saturn rocket engines?

As far as I know, CNC machining was being used in the aerospace industry in the 1960s. Were such machines use for the F1 engines?
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Apollo 6, reason for premature engine shutdown of two engines of second stage of Saturn V?

I found different versions in the English and German Wikipedia articles about the Apollo 6 flight. "Das zweite Triebwerk wurde vom Steuerungssystem fälschlicherweise deaktiviert, weil die ...
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Why was Gemini VIII terminated after recovering from the OAMS thruster failure?

This NASA source states that the mission was terminated after Neil Armstrong used 75% of the RCS propellent to cancel the rotation from the OAMS thruster failure. If the mission had enough RCS left to ...
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What was mylar used for on the Apollo Command Module space craft? Why is it gold after returning from space?

I lived in Hawaii when Apollo 15 returned from the moon. I saw the crew return by helicopter from the ship to Hickham A.F.B. and when the helicopter carrier, the USS Okinawa (LPH 3), returned to ...
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Where are the Apollo forward heat shields currently located?

The Apollo Experience Report: Thermal Protection Subsystem explains that there are three sections to the Apollo heat shield: The aft heat shield, at the "base" of the cone and adjacent to the SM. ...
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Bits per core for the different versions of the Apollo guidance computer core rope memory?

The first version of the Apollo guidance computer had a ROM of only 12 K words of 16 bit. Later it was doubled to 24 K and finaly tripled to 36 K words. The first version of core rope read only ...
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Did any Apollo astronaut remain disrobed to simplify his waste disposal? $\;$

This comment claims As I recall, at least one of the Apollo crews spent much of the transit time au naturel due to the hassles of waste management. Is this true to any extent? (As @OrganicMarble ...
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What was Apollo 13's “Little Jolt” after MECO?

Disclaimer: This is a question about the 1995 film Apollo 13; I know Hollywood should always be taken with a moon-sized grain of salt, so the question should read as both "Is this true" and "What was ...
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Could an Apollo Lunar Module have landed and returned without Earth assistance?

From the Apollo 12 flight journal: 087:31:29 Conrad (onboard): [Laughter] Yes. Let's take the LM down and land on the back side. Wouldn't that shake them up? [Laughter]. 087:31:36 Bean (...
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What would be the longest hypothetical emergency which would confine the Apollo astronauts to their suits?

This answer poses the possibility of an emergency that would require Apollo astronauts to spend the rest of the mission in their suits: A hole in the CSM might be more of an issue, since large ...
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Why does this rocket have a nose cone “cozy”?

A tea cozy keeps the tea in a teapot warmer longer by insulating it. Why does the nose of the rocket shown in Apollo-era file footage used in this video (lower your volume before watching) have a ...
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Was it really necessary for the Lunar Module to have 2 stages?

We all know the 2 stages LM design used by Grumman was intended to discard the mass of the landing gear (+ other components) at the moment of launching off the Moon surface to reach back the Service ...
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How many stages will be used to bring NASA astronauts to the Moon's south pole and safely back to Earth?

UPDATE: See Space News' NASA tweaks call for lunar lander concepts which links to: FedBizOpps: Human Landing System - Integrated Lander NASA.gov: NextSTEP H: Human Landing System - Integrated Lander; ...
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What athletic shoes have astronauts been given over the years for ground training (Apollo program etc..)?

I've seen mention of P.F. Flyers for the Mercury program, but I'm unsure if that's accurate.
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Did any of the Apollo lunar modules land significantly off level?

I'm pretty sure I recall some images of a lunar module sitting on a slope, although perhaps it just looked that way due to a tilt of the camera. Anyway, my question is: whether any of the lunar ...
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Apollo 10 - CSM / LM in orbit

Given the comments that are made regarding Mike Collins' 'loneliness' while flying Columbia around the far side of the Moon on Apollo 11, would I be right in assuming that the Apollo 10 CSM and LM ...
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Did Apollo-11 astronauts rehearse their photoshoots on Earth?

After asking Have astronauts in space suits ever taken selfies? If so, how? I started to think about the photo below, and especially the cropped and rotated section that I found in the Wikipedia ...
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Apollo command module space walk?

Could the Apollo astronauts have done an eva, from the Command Module, during the flight to or from the Moon?
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Apollo 11 space mission Lunar Orbit Insertion

I'm doing a basic analysis of the trip to the Moon. I've estimated the speed as follows: ...
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How many AGC keystrokes did an Apollo rendezvous take?

My kids have a rather nice picture book about the first moon landing titled “One Giant Leap”. I find it to be a fairly accurate retelling of the events of Apollo 11 in a poetic style. However, one ...
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Why do the two Apollo 11 PSEP solar panels appear to have different backing materials?

The PSEP (Passive Seismic Experiment Package) was powered by a pair of solar panels mounted on extended arms. The one on the left (when looking towards the LEM) appears to have a matt grey backing: ...