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Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Where did the famous “end of decade” deadline come from?

In his address to Congress on 25th of May 1961, John F Kennedy committed for the first time to land a man on the Moon and bring him safely back before the end of the decade. But the feasibility ...
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To what extent was Apollo program training specific to each mission?

In comments and answer to this question, the time it takes to train for an Apollo mission is mentioned several times as a factor on the big rotation of crews. I figure that would actually play in ...
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What data was used to estimate accumulated radiation dose for the Apollo astronauts?

Half-year, and occasional one-year stints aboard the ISS, and especially lifetime totals nearing 2.5 years are possible ethically because these missions take place within the Earth's magnetosphere ...
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Was there any “practical” advantage to having different crews for each Apollo landing?

So, out of the 24 men that went to Moon orbit and back during the Apollo program, just three of them did the trip twice, but landings where always done by a different crew. From the politician's ...
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Nozzle material of Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine?

There are some photos of the Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine, see 1, 2, 3. The nozzle looks like being made of epoxy and fiberglass. The fibers are wound in two different directions. Is it true ...
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What was the reason to use different fuel for the Apollo Service Module propulsion system and reaction control system?

The Apollo Lunar Module LM used the same fuel/oxidizer combination (Aerozine 50 fuel / nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) oxidizer) for both descent and ascent stage engines and reaction control system. This ...
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How exactly did the floor of an Apollo LM look like after EVA(s)? Seeking photo!

Almost five years ago I posted a question entitled "How was dust-mitigation addressed during the Apollo program?". While the question was answered rather comprehensively, it left me even more curious. ...
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Attitude error needles on Apollo FDAI

Did the Apollo Flight Director Attitude Indicator (FDAI) error needles relate in any direct way to the position of the ball under them, or were they only ever interpreted in relation to the white bars ...
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Were the Apollo lunar ALSEP transmitter signals ever analyzed or used after the experiments were shut down?

This answer to the question Why were the “perfectly functioning” seismometers placed by Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 astronauts all shut off in 1977? links to a NASA News Release No: 77-47 dated September ...
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Why were the “perfectly functioning” seismometers placed by Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 astronauts all shut off in 1977?

The Wikipedia subsection Moonquake says: Information about moonquakes comes from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from 1969 through 1972. The instruments placed by the Apollo 12,...
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How much lighter could a modern, working replica of an Apollo payload and crew be at launch?

When I was young a zillion years ago I visited the Smithsonian's Air and Space museum, and admired what I think must have been a mercury capsule. Upon peering through the window, what struck me first ...
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Would NASA be financially self-sufficient if it could keep all revenues from patents?

I am wondering if NASA could be financially self-sufficient if they kept all revenues from patents of technologies they have developed since the Apollo program. To answer this, I would like to ...
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Lunar Ascent Module Off-Center Thrust

I was recently told that for parts of the Lunar Module's ascent from the surface of the Moon to its rendezvous in orbit, its thrust vector was not in line with its center of gravity, and actually ...
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How was temperature and humidity maintained inside the Apollo mission capsules?

What mechanism was used to control the temperature and humidity inside the Apollo mission capsules? For example, did they employ an electric heater? Did they utilize solar radiation? Was humidity ...
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What was the approximate cabin temperature and humidity of the Apollo mission capsules?

I learned that Apollo missions used a simple system providing 100% oxygen atmosphere in the cabin at lower air pressure from the question, "Decision factors for using 100% O2 cabin atmosphere in early ...
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Timing accuracy of the Apollo Guidance Computer?

The AGC timing reference came from a 2.048 MHz crystal clock. But how accurate was this clock circuit? Note 3 of this schematic: "The value of the follwing components to be determined at unit test" is ...
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Was Houston able to control to the Apollo spacecraft if needed? [duplicate]

Was every aspect of a flight, aside from liftoff, solely the responsibility of the crew? Or was Houston able to command parts of the spacecraft and its computers remotely in an emergency or if ...
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First call to the moon 1969

During the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, there was a phone call where the POTUS at that time, Richard Nixon, was able to speak to astronauts Neil Armstrong and "Buzz" Aldrin. How was this possible?
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What was the backup plan if apollo 11 failed?

Presumably NASA blocked off time with major TV stations to show the landings. What were they preparing to show if the landing failed? Was there any alternative programming supplied in case Neil did ...
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How accurate is this Apollo Command Module replica, and why would it be copper-colored?

Reading the Quartz article How do you design an office for robots? I saw what is certainly a replica of most likely an Apollo command module ("space capsule") in several of the photos, the largest of ...
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How was the Apollo lunar liftoff video transmitted to Earth?

There is video of the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 lunar modules lifting off from the Moon. I recall watching it live for Apollo 17 at least. I know the images were captured by a camera mounted on the lunar ...
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Did the Apollo astronauts suffer any health effects from inhaling lunar regolith?

Lunar regolith is nasty stuff - essentially tiny obsidian shards, and the Apollo astronauts had nothing like decent decon on the LEM. Did they have health problems that arose from that? Obviously, ...
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Were all the switches on the Command Module and LM control panels used during a mission?

Given there are so many switches on the control panels, and they each served a specific purpose, was every single switch used during a mission to the moon (with the exception of the abort switch ...
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Did the Saturn V rocket have any purely aesthetic features that didn't serve an actual function?

The rocket itself is magnificent, yes, but with so many ins and outs to it, curious if the entire design was solely purpose built, or if there were features specifically for aesthetic purposes.
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As they were all qualified, how/why were the Apollo Astronauts chosen for their individual missions? [duplicate]

Why did some fly multiple Apollo missions, while others flew only once?
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Was the Apollo sextant used (or tested) to determine position while in Earth orbit?

The video Apollo Program Guidance and Navigation System 79974 explains that the spacecraft's sextant could be used together with the navigation computer to determine a position fix while in Earth ...
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Did a fuel tank ruptured by a ballpoint pen really sever an engineers finger?

In Ars' series on the Apollo program Eric tells a story about the Lunar Module from NASA lore... ...recounted in Apollo: The Race to the Moon, a technician working with a test version of the ...
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Looking for information about a space-related footage and film resource [closed]

There once was a website called Space Films, I think that was it. The web site featured restored official video footage from NASA and others of various space launches over the years (i.e. Gemini, ...
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Reasons why the Lunar Rover DID NOT become “a jumble of loosely assembled broken parts on Launch”?

A number of comments and some answers at the question Can I drive Elon Musk's Tesla in 100 Years? suggets the Tesla Roadster "would not survive launch... it would be a jumble of loosely assembled ...
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Was computer aided design used on the Space Shuttle Program?

With the Space Shuttle system being as complex as it was I was wondering the following; did the initial engineering teams in the 70's use any form of CAD/CAE or did they simply utilize the same ...
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Why such a large observed doppler shift from Apollo 17 orbiting the moon?

Following the links in this comment by @Uwe I've found some interesting sources of information on Ham (amateur) radio operators trying to listen in on Apollo transmissions. One of them is Sven Grahn's ...
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Apollo 17; what is a barber pole, and what did “it is gray” mean?

Following the links in this comment by @Uwe I've found some interesting sources of information on Ham (amateur) radio operators trying to listen in on Apollo transmissions. At the bottom of Sven ...
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Is anything being done to honor Gene Cernan today? (14 Dec. 2017)

14 December 1972 05:40:56 UTC US astronaut Gene Cernan returned to the Apollo 17 Lunar Excursion Module, becoming "the last man on the Moon" for forty-five years, so far. (as reported in my Space ...
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Calculating Apollo launch azimuth

The launch azimuth for Apollo missions to the general area of the lunar equator was approximately 70 degrees. Could someone explain in simple terms how this figure is arrived at? I presume that if ...
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Apollo 6, reason for prematurely engine shutdown of two engines of second stage of Saturn V?

I found different versions in the english and german Wikipedia articles about the Apollo 6 flight. "Das zweite Triebwerk wurde vom Steuerungssystem fälschlicherweise deaktiviert, weil die ...
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Why does this rocket have a nose cone “cozy”?

A tea cozy keeps the tea in a teapot warmer longer by insulating it. Why does the nose of the rocket shown in Apollo-era file footage used in this video (lower your volume before watching) have a ...
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How complex was the math and physics necessary to place Apollo 11 on the moon?

Specifically, I'm interested in how closely the models used to calculate the various burns and course corrections represented reality. Was standard Newtonian mechanics sufficient or were relativistic ...
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What will J002E3 be like on its return?

J002E3 is believed to be the S-IVB third stage of the Apollo 12 rocket. It is expected to return to temporary Earth orbit in the 2040's. If some enterprising soul decided to build a rocket capable ...
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How did NASA choose who descended in the LEM during the Apollo missions?

Referring to the Apollo missions, As many know, during Apollo 11, Michael Collins didn't descend with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin towards the moon. I can only begin to imagine the sadness of not ...
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How did the Lunar Module dock with the rest of Apollo 11 and what is the “CSM”?

I'd like to ask if anyone can, in layman's terms, describe the procedure by which the Apollo 11 astronauts were able to get back to their ship? I ask because the most accessible literature on this ...
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Roughly what is the rate of energy loss of survivable capsule re-entries?

In this answer I've estimated the peak rate of energy loss of a particularly unwise re-entry as 3 to 4 gigawatts. Never mind that it's 15-20 gees of acceleration, that's a lot of power injected into ...
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What documentation remains from Apollo?

This question has not been answered. This is different from the blueprints because it is a more general question. Off the top of my head there exists: The testing data available on the NASA website ...
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How were these NASA engineers able to take men to the moon and bring them back with this limited computing capability?

The Apollo Guidance Computer had only 2k RAM and 32kb storage. Also what O.S. did they use, and who made it?
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Have all the lunar landers been photographed?

I know that LRO photographed some landing sites. Did they get all of them? Are there still missing landers?
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Is there a demand for large liquid engines (> 5 MN)?

In other words, why was the F1 rocket engine programme stopped? Is there a sense that solid motors can take care of high thrust cases in a better way? Or is it an unfortunate fallout of the end of the ...
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How did the Apollo engineers decide what to include in their cargo? [closed]

The Apollo missions, like all missions really, were limited in what they could bring into space. How did they decide what would make the trip? Were there any tests or failures that they learned from?
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Apollo Suit sublimation coolers

Should there be a visible steam plume from the Apollo astronauts sublimation cooler in the lunar EVA videos?
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Why was the Service Module Retained? [duplicate]

After the Apollo 13 explosion, the service module was retained almost until re-entry. Why was this if it was just dead weight?
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How much did the Apollo boilerplate rockets cost?

The point of a boilerplate is to test out the features of a system at a reduced cost. I would like to know what it cost to build the Apollo boilerplates. There was a series of such rockets so I would ...
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Apollo era remote control of vehicle

I am wondering what kind of ability NASA had during the Gemini or Apollo program era to control the vehicle from the ground. From reading some capcom transcripts and looking through some random ...