Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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What is the current location of Link-built Apollo Mission Simulators?

There seems to be confusion about the final disposition of, and even the number of, Apollo Mission Simulators built by Link Flight Simulation Division. This question is not about any simulator built ...
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Reentry without pressure suits in Apollo: was there a formal risk assesment?

In Apollo 11 Flight Journal the following is stated: The crew will make re-entry without suits or helmets on. Although this was a controversial decision on the first Apollo flight, Apollo 7, when ...
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What went wrong with Apollo 15 astronaut Al Worden's seat when he was all alone, circularizing?

The X article NASA shock: Apollo 15 astronaut's Moon landing confession - 'Can't do anything to me now' says "NASA astronaut Alfred "Al" Worden dropped an astonishing Apollo 15 confession, claiming ...
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Why was the Apollo 6 service module painted white?

All other SM's were silver except Apollo 6. I'm wondering what the justification for this was, if any?
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How many spacesuits were specifically manufactured for John Young?

John W. Young was a legendary astronaut: The first American in space after the original Mercury Seven, as Gus Grissom's co-pilot in Gemini 3. He got in trouble during this flight for smuggling ...
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Is anything being done to honor Gene Cernan today? (14 Dec. 2017)

14 December 1972 05:40:56 UTC US astronaut Gene Cernan returned to the Apollo 17 Lunar Excursion Module, becoming "the last man on the Moon" for forty-five years, so far. (as reported in my Space ...
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Were flown lunar rover miniature license plates approved for the Apollo-15 flight?

A page in Space Flown Artifacts describes miniature lunar rover license plates that Dave Scott carried to the moon and back: These miniature license plates were manufactured by Boeing (makers of ...
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Before the Apollo 1 fire, what was the plan for the missions leading up to a lunar landing?

The actual Apollo flights 2-6 were test launches of the Saturn rocket, the CM and LM (1 was retired due to the fire). What were the original plans? Did they intend to launch people on a Saturn ...
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Does the Apollo 10 “music” still occur on modern spacecraft?

In the news today, are reports of "outer-space-type music" that the Apollo 10 crew heard. From the mission transcript (page 197 of the PDF): ...
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How was the flammability of Velcro addressed after the Apollo 1 fire?

In a spacecraft review meeting held with Shea on August 19, 1966 (a week before delivery [of Apollo 1]), the crew expressed concern about the amount of flammable material (mainly nylon netting and ...
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Did Apollo 13 CM reach thermal equilibrium when it was powered down?

It was reported that the CM cabin temperature dropped to 43°F. Was that the equilibrium, or would it have gotten colder if it had remained in space longer. If that wasn't equilibrium was there an ...
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What modifications constituted the ‘reorificing’ of F-1 engines on later Saturn V flights?

The topic of uprating the Saturn V’s first stage engines appears to have been widely discussed, and yet there is little agreement as to how it was done. Early Rocketdyne F-1 engines quote lower ...
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Were the Apollo lunar ALSEP transmitter signals ever analyzed or used after the experiments were shut down?

This answer to the question Why were the “perfectly functioning” seismometers placed by Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 astronauts all shut off in 1977? links to a NASA News Release No: 77-47 dated September ...
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Source for Apollo 11 descent time series data?

I'd like to find the state of the Apollo LM at various times during the powered descent phase: its position relative to the Moon's surface and/or the final touchdown point; its attitude in space, and ...
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What is known about the trajectory of J002E3 (Saturn V IV-B stage of Apollo 12)?

This answer taught me about J002E3, an object detected in Earth orbit in 2002 that is assumed to be the Saturn V IV-B stage from Apollo 12. It's trajectory through space is fascinating: (source) ...
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Was there any approval to interrupt the Apollo program for 2 years for Skylab?

In researching an answer for another question, I came across this claim on a NASA history page: On September 2 [1970] Paine called a press conference to announce NASA's interim operating plan for ...
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Did anyone predict no return to the Moon for 50 years?

Back in the Apollo days, did anyone predict that there would be no return (of humans) to the Moon for 50 years? I remember some scepticism about the scientific, economic or military value of such ...
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Are any Apollo Launch Mission Rule Documents available for downloading?

Apollo Flight Mission Rule Documents (from JSC) are easy to find on the internet, but the Launch Mission Rule Documents (from KSC) - not so much. I found a couple paper copies for sale, but that's ...
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Why was the origin of the Apollo lunar module coordinate system “underground”?

Even stranger than the origin of the Saturn V coordinate system is that of the lunar module: The X-axis station reference measurements (inches) start at a design reference point identified as ...
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Apollo J Mission CSM- EPS Radiators

Were the EPS radiators on the J Mission CSM's upgraded or enlarged to accommodate the increased electrical load imposed by the sim bay equipment?
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To what extent was Apollo program training specific to each mission?

In comments and answer to this question, the time it takes to train for an Apollo mission is mentioned several times as a factor on the big rotation of crews. I figure that would actually play in ...
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Apollo re-entry guidance

I am referencing chapter 7 of the book "Spacecraft Navigation and Guidance" by Maxwell Noton. Can anyone tell me how to determine control gains C1 and C2 in equation 7.58 and 7.59 in respective ...
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Was the kill-the-moon-bugs disinfectant the same as the kill-the-Earth-bugs disinfectant?

During the Apollo program, measures were taken to prevent Earth microbes from contaminating the moon, and to prevent hypothetical moon life from infecting the Earth. What were the disinfectants used ...
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Where can I find Captain REFSMMAT?

One of the longer NASA acronyms is REFSMMAT (REFerence to a Stable Member MATrix) Ed Pavelka was one of the flight controllers who occupied the FIDO console at mission control. As a way to cement ...
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Did the Apollo astronauts hear any external sounds during a lunar EVA?

Did any sounds resonate through their boots or any part of their environmental suit? Could they hear the folding or rubbing of the material of their suits? Did anything impact their boots that might ...
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Revisiting moon landing sites?

Are there any current plans to return to the moon, preferably close to an existing landing site? After all, it seems like a sound scientific project given that there's talk of human colonization of ...
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Where can I find the amended/improvised checklists for Apollo 13 post-accident?

I have been trying to find this online without too much avail. For my own reference and cross checking, I wanted to know where I could find the emergency checklists and the "made up on the spot" CM ...
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Puzzler: which Apollo 8 astronaut would have been positioned furthest sunwards 20 minutes after lunar insertion?

This Classic @DavidHammen answer to the question Who has been the closest to/furthest from the Sun? says: This bodes well for an Apollo astronaut being the person closest to the Sun, but bodes ill ...
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Was Arthur J. Schwaniger one of very few US born NASA scientists using metric units?

Free-return trajectories were studied by Arthur Schwaniger of NASA in 1963 with reference to the Earth–Moon system. Those trajectories were used for the first Apollo missions. Mr. Schwaniger, who ...
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What do these three historical IBM staff at NASA insignias designate?

The question Where are these historical IBM + Apollo related locations within NASA? What do these computers do? shows four images. Three of them show different IBM insignias on shirts of IBM staff. ...
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What athletic shoes have astronauts been given over the years for ground training (Apollo program etc..)?

I've seen mention of P.F. Flyers for the Mercury program, but I'm unsure if that's accurate.
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Why do the two Apollo 11 PSEP solar panels appear to have different backing materials?

The PSEP (Passive Seismic Experiment Package) was powered by a pair of solar panels mounted on extended arms. The one on the left (when looking towards the LEM) appears to have a matt grey backing: ...
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What did Apollo 11's SSTV signal sound like?

The TV signal from Apollo 11 had limited bandwidth, and an oddball format was used to send and convert the signal. All of the modern SSTV demos I've seen on YouTube seem to take around a minute to ...
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What was the nature of the visible part of the viscous wake trailing the Apollo CM during reentry?

This diagram suggests a helix in the wake, was it a single-helix, a multiple helix, or a superhelix? Is there any other part of the wake that would be visible?
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Apollo recovery zone(s)

For the Apollo missions that left Earth orbit, were there multiple recovery zones for each splashdown? How big was each zone?
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Had Apollo astronauts practiced getting up from a fall?

The question "Could an Apollo astronaut stand up if they fell on the moon?" describes several incidents of Apollo astronauts falling over while on the moon, and their attempts to get back up. Did the ...
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At what size of engine does pogo oscillation become significant

I am jist trying to understand the thresholds involved in pogo oscillation. I'm not sure where to start. But I will give a guess. As rocket size increases the tension exterted on rocket walls ...
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Have all the lunar landers been photographed?

I know that LRO photographed some landing sites. Did they get all of them? Are there still missing landers?
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What was the best late Nova rocket design among the request for proposals NASA received?

According to Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nova_%28rocket%29) the late Nova rocket was a "larger version" of the Saturn 5, meant to send manned missions to Mars. Some requests for proposals ...
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How far from Earth were the Apollo astronauts when they left the Earth's magnetosphere?

I am assuming the Apollo missions recorded radiation levels as they travelled to the Moon. Have those records ever been released, as a way of determining when the Apollo astronauts left the ...
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Moment of inertia of apollo 11 lunar module

I'm currently modeling the lunar landing in 2D. When I set up the momentum balance: $\ddot{\theta} = \frac{dF_l}{J}$ where $d$ is the distance between the sidethruster and the center of mass. $F_l$ ...