Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Was “Apollo” an acronym for “America’s Program for Orbiting Lunar and Landing Operations”?

I came across this paper which, on page 9, says the following: The guidance or “shooting” algorithm is based on the Linear Peturbation Theory (Battin) developed for the America’s Program for Orbiting ...
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Did Apollo have braking rockets for soft landing on Earth?

Did Apollo have braking rockets for soft landing on Earth? I have checked Google but cannot find an answer.
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Why did the Apollo capsule have seats if the astronauts never were sitting in it?

The Apollo capsule had three lying seats on its bottom, but the astronauts actually never sat in the capsule: during launch, reentry and in the ocean the astronauts were lying down, while in space ...
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What do these three historical IBM staff at NASA insignias designate?

The question Where are these historical IBM + Apollo related locations within NASA? What do these computers do? shows four images. Three of them show different IBM insignias on shirts of IBM staff. ...
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Apollo Mission Insignia patches, were they stitched by hand or numeric control?

An Apollo Mission Insignia Patch made in the late sixties looked like this: Patches made today and sold by a NASA shop for $5.75 look a bit different: The new patches were made using a computer ...
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Have any Apollo (or earlier) astronauts reported seeing Earth's aurora or related luminescent atmospheric effects?

Earth's aurora and related luminescent atmospheric effects are generally quite dim, and mostly but not always located in the general area of Earth's magnetic poles. That means to be seen easily by eye ...
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How do we know the Apollo Moon landings are real?

Since about 1976, conspiracy theories denying the Moon landing and claiming it was all faked have cropped up. As a website devoted to answering questions about space exploration, we receive questions ...
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What magnitude stars were seen from lunar surface?

I've seen a claim* that some of the Apollo astronauts stepped into the shadow of the LM, raised their gold visors, and looked up into the sky to see the stars. If this is true any mention of what ...
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Why would such a powerful computer (or a computer at all) be needed to go to the Moon?

I keep hearing people say things like: Duuuude! It's so insane that we're carrying around phones in our pockets that are a thousand times faster than the computers that took us to the moon! Why do ...
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Technical historical books covering the Apollo-Saturn program

In the preface of "Stages to Saturn", the author Robert E. Bilstein writes: This book is a technological history. [...] Two other histories, already published, deal with subjects keyed to ...
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Apollo training simulator cgi requirements

https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/graphicshistory/chapter/13-4-nasa/ says that cgi was used for Apollo trainers. I just want to know the quality of this cgi. A modern computer runs at 2560 lines on ...
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Vibration and noise during launch of the Saturn V and Spaceshuttle in comparison?

I just saw a TV docu about the Apollo mission. Apollo 8 astronaut William Anders said the vibrations and noise during launch were much heavier than expected. I later heard a speech by the Shuttle ...
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Help understanding this Apollo 11 docking probe image, what are we looking at, and from where?

The New York Times mix media "article" Apollo 11 As They Shot It shows original photographic images taken by the astronauts and related quotes by them. In one section the text says: ...
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On which celestial bodies could you use the Apollo moon suits too?

If you wore the Apollo lunar suit on celestial bodies other than the Moon, on which bodies would you survive (until oxygen run out)? You obviously couldn't wear them on any (recognized) planet because ...
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What is the current location of Link-built Apollo Mission Simulators?

There seems to be confusion about the final disposition of, and even the number of, Apollo Mission Simulators built by Link Flight Simulation Division. This question is not about any simulator built ...
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Did Apollo's velocity slow down after TLI due to Earth's gravity?

I assume Apollo's velocity slowed down after it left Earth orbit, for how long was it decelerating. Did it start accelerating as it approached the Moon. What was the rate of deceleration due to ...
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What was Apollo “Moon rope” made out of? Was it ever used?

This excellent answer to Did Conrad and Bean balk at entering the 650-foot-wide Surveyor Crater, or just express concern? What data had they seen? contains several references to a 30 foot length of &...
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Did Conrad and Bean balk at entering the 650-foot-wide Surveyor Crater, or just express concern? What data had they seen?

The New York Times' The Moon Is a Hazardous Place to Live says: Throw in the intense contrast between light and dark — unlike anything we see here on Earth — and those changes in the terrain can play ...
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Are there any possible proxies for dust accumulation on the retroreflectors on the moon?

New York Times' How Do You Solve a Moon Mystery? Fire a Laser at It links to the new open access paper First two-way laser ranging to a lunar orbiter: infrared observations from the Grasse station to ...
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What does “all systems are internal” mean?

When watching (once again) a large History Channel documentary series about Gemini and Apollo, in some launch scenes with the original audio, the person doing the countdown usually says "all ...
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Confusion with Apollo CSM attitude maneuvers (roll, pitch and yaw) during coasting to/from the Moon

Some time after Transposition, Docking, and Extraction maneuver (when coasting to the Moon) or after Trans Earth Injection (when coasting back from the Moon), the spacecraft's (CSM) guidance platform ...
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Parachutes of Apollo and Crew Dragon capsules, what is different and what is the same?

The number of main chutes is different, Apollo three, Crew Dragon four. Both capsules used drogue and main chutes. Apollo had two drogue chutes with single stage reefing. Apollo used a two stage ...
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Was Apollo 7 flooded with approx. 400 pounds of water after splashdown?

I found this in the APOLLO EXPERIENCE REPORT COMMAND MODULE UPRIGHTING SYSTEM on page 23: I tried to find other reports of that Apollo 7 leak, but I could find none. Does anybody know another source? ...
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Did some Apollo astronauts actually carry a sandwich and bacon in their launch suit?

Normally I consider the Apollo Experience Reports as a reliable source, but the following claim is so bizarre that I'm asking if this claim can be verified by an independent source? THE APOLLO 14 ...
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Usage of Apollo Lunar Surface Hasselblad Camera with 500 mm lens?

Here is a list of photographic cameras used for Apollo 16. There were two Lunar Surface Data Hasselblads equipped with a 60 mm lens for both astronauts to be used with chest mounts to the space suits....
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Were these Apollo 14 and 15 recovery images taken (by a Navy frogman) using an underwater camera?

These images were taken after the flotation collar was mounted and inflated by the frogmen. Also the raft was inflated. The divers jumped off a helicopter before, no rescue ship was present. Camera ...
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Where did the floatation collar and sea anchor attach to the command module?

When the recovery helicopters arrived after an Apollo splashdown, one of the first tasks was for Navy divers to attach a flotation collar and sea anchor to the spacecraft. The flotation collar kept ...
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What is the cause of the data discrepancy between these two Apollo 11 Reports

Table 7-11 on page 7-9 of MSC-00171 Apollo 11 Mission Report lists the CSM/S-IVB separation occurring 3 hours, 17 minutes and 4.6 seconds into the mission, at an altitude of 4110.9 nautical miles, at ...
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How many people have witnessed Earthrise?

How many astronauts orbited or went around the moon and saw Earthrise? Am I correct in the conclusion that nine missions orbited the moon or used a free-return trajectory around the moon, Apollos 8, ...
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What was the nature of the communication problems during Apollo 11's Eagle's descent? How were other antennas selected?

In the video of Los Angeles station KTLA's Frank Buckley interviewing astronaut & Apollo 11 CAPCOM Charlie Duke a communication problem and antenna selection is described: BUCKLEY: Many of us who ...
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How exactly did the floor of an Apollo LM look like after EVA(s)? Seeking photo!

Five years ago I posted a question entitled "How was dust-mitigation addressed during the Apollo program?". While the question was answered rather comprehensively, it left me even more ...
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Procedure to deal with the death of Apollo astronaut during a lunar mission

During Apollo lunar missions, had the command module pilot have died while the other two astronauts were on the Moon, or had only one of the two lunar walkers died, did NASA have a procedure for such ...
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Could the Apollo astronauts distinguish Earth's continents and oceans from the moon?

This article "Earthshine Reflects Earth's Oceans And Continents From The Dark Side Of The Moon" indicates that the difference in reflection of light from the Earth’s land masses and oceans can be seen ...
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If a car or train freely drove on flat terrain on the Moon, would it eventually be stopped by something?

If you start an Apollo LRV on the Moon and let it go on flat terrain (with motor off), would it be stopped by ground friction eventually, or doesn't that stop a car? Same question for a train on rails ...
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Why did the Apollo lunar suits have two visors?

Why did the A7L and A7LB moonsuits have two visors? The astronaut initially had both visors down on his helmet and later during the lunar EVA put the outermost visor up (a yellowish one) and could ...
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In designing the Apollo capsule, was consideration given to lashing it down?

At https://history.nasa.gov/afj/ap11fj/cm-107_graffiti.html, there is a picture of CM-107, alias the Apollo 11 Command Module Columbia, aboard the recovery ship Hornet. So, after splash-down, the ...
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Who carried the slide rule to the moon?

The Apollo stowage lists show that each mission had exactly one slide rule "on crew" (i.e. in somebody's spacesuit) at launch. Who carried the slide rule? Was it always the same role (CDR, ...
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Why is Apollo CSM and LM separated by pyrotechnics?

The docking tunnel of the Apollo CSM is cut by pyrotechnics when the LM is jettisoned. (See Fig. 2.13-11 in Apollo Operation Handbook, Fig. 19 in Apollo Spacecraft Pyrotechnics) After this, docking ...
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Other than Surveyor 3, were any landers within rover distance of Apollo?

Apollo 12 landed within walking distance of the unmanned Surveyor 3 lander, which had arrived on the moon 2 years earlier. The astronauts photographed and returned parts of Surveyor 3. The last three ...
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Was the Apollo lunar rover ever “airborne”?

The last three Apollo missions included a lunar roving vehicle. The picture below shows one driven with the front two wheels off the ground (a "wheelie"). A car that is "airborne" ...
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Were the Apollo lunar activities observed from Earth?

I understand that all manned landings on the Moon were on the near side, so technically they could be visible from Earth. Was it possible to observe landings and/or extravehicular activities (EVAs) ...
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What is the cheapest possible way to land a crew of 2 on the moon?

During the Apollo moon missions, a single very large rocket sent both the Apollo CSM and the LM to the moon in a single shot and it took only around 3 days to get there. However, after the Apollo ...
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What would have happened if the third stage of Saturn V had exploded during TLI? Could the CM have safely returned to earth?

What would have happened if the third stage of Saturn V had exploded during TLI? Could the CM of Apollo 11 have safely returned to earth?
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What is the backstory of this silly picture of the Apollo 1 crew?

The photograph below shows the first Apollo crew of Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee wearing silly hats and acting less seriously than typical NASA publicity photos. All three were later ...
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Why did Charlie Duke catch the brass ring?

Okay, the ring was actually made of gold. Nor did it give Charlie Duke dominion over Middle Earth. According to the Apollo 16 Flight Journal: 219 25 49 Duke (onboard): Guess what I caught ...
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Who zoomed the video camera in and out when David Scott dropped the feather and hammer on the Moon?

This answer to Have optical zoom systems been used in space exploration? explains that there were video cameras on the Moon that could zoom. In the video below someone (or something) is zooming the ...
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How often is duct tape used during crewed space missions?

It seems Apollo missions carried some variety of gray tape, likely Duct Tape or similar. There's the scene in the movie Apollo 13 and the reality behind it discussed in the video below. Question: How ...
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How did the Apollo computers evaluate transcendental functions like sine, arctangent, log?

Navigation with a sextant or maneuvers using gimbal angles might be two examples of cases where an Apollo computer might need to do trigonometry. Trigonometric functions like sine, arctangent, etc. ...
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What do astronauts eat for pre-flight breakfast?

I’m currently reading W. David Wood’s rather excellent “How Apollo Flew To The Moon” which details the technological development and execution in reaching the moon with the Apollo program. Part of ...
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Did Apollo leave poop on the moon?

If you google the question, you will find an abundance of sources discussing the alleged fact that the Apollo missions left bags of fecal matter on the moon. A conversation on reddit got me looking ...

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