Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Apollo Mission Insignia patches, were they stitched by hand or numeric control?

An Apollo Mission Insignia Patch made in the late sixties looked like this: Patches made today and sold by a NASA shop for $5.75 look a bit different: The new patches were made using a computer ...
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apollo 11 moon landing longitude latitude from PDI to Touchdown

I'm reconstructing the entire apollo 11 mission trajectory. I'm now at the moon landing. Does someone know specific documents specifying longitudes and latitude at the different interfaces starting ...
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Were crew assignments ever made to avoid grouping astronauts with similar first names?

Thinking primarily of the Apollo missions with this question, but could be expanded in an answer with a more general response, if appropriate... With several Apollo-era astronauts sharing similar-...
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How many spacesuits were specifically manufactured for John Young?

John W. Young was a legendary astronaut: The first American in space after the original Mercury Seven, as Gus Grissom's co-pilot in Gemini 3. He got in trouble during this flight for smuggling ...
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Why is there a Saturn V in the background of this Gemini-Titan launch?

In this photo, a Gemini-Titan is lifting off in the foreground, while a Saturn V is visible in the background. The last Gemini flight was in late 1966, but the first flight of a Saturn V wasn't ...
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Why did the hose connectors on Apollo spacesuits come in pairs?

Apollo lunar spacesuits had four hose connectors for air: The EV PGA, however, is provided with two sets: two [blue] inlet connectors interconnected by a plenum chamber and two [red] outlet ...
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What spacesuits did the Apollo astronauts wear on Earth in their training for the Moon?

Even on the Moon the Apollo spacesuits were so heavy and bulky that the Apollo astronauts couldn't move quite well in them, except in the Apollo 15-17 missions where they were improved. However on ...
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How was the flammability of Velcro addressed after the Apollo 1 fire?

In a spacecraft review meeting held with Shea on August 19, 1966 (a week before delivery [of Apollo 1]), the crew expressed concern about the amount of flammable material (mainly nylon netting and ...
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Was the Apollo 13 CO2 problem a matter of capacity, or of rate?

During Apollo 13, an explosion in the service module caused the command module to lose electrical power. This required using the environmental control system of the lunar module to remove carbon ...
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Could the Apollo Lunar Module be flown to a landing without the LEM Guidance Computer?

Inspired by answers to Could the lunar module have moved to a different spot? question but not talking about that specific relaunch scenario: Could the LEM stack (descent configuration) be flown ...
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Could the Apollo astronauts distinguish Earth's continents and oceans from the moon?

This article "Earthshine Reflects Earth's Oceans And Continents From The Dark Side Of The Moon" indicates that the difference in reflection of light from the Earth’s land masses and oceans can be seen ...
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Apollo Command Module heatshield tube - what was it for?

I went to the Science Museum in London last year, where I saw (amongst many other wonderful things!) the Apollo 10 CM, Charlie Brown. Looking at the heat shield, I saw two circular indentations with a ...
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Could the lunar module have moved to a different spot?

Suppose Neil Armstrong had landed with plenty of spare fuel, only to decide it really wasn't a good spot after all. Could he have lifted back off and landed again, perhaps a couple of hundred feet ...
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How did astronauts frame photos without a viewfinder?

On specially built Hasselblad cameras, how did astronauts operate the camera controls with bulky gloves on, and how did they frame photos without a viewfinder?
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Lunar landing module and orbiting space craft personnel transfer [duplicate]

How did the crew of Apollo get from the orbiting capsule into the Lunar lander, as the orbiter rocket engine was between the orbiter and Lunar lander?
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Apollo 4 vs Apollo 8 plume

I was recently browsing photos of early Apollo missions and noticed that the plume of the Apollo 4 during launch is significantly bigger than that of Apollo 8. Wondering why is that? Apollo 4 (top) ...
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Apollo 11 Moon orbital elements [duplicate]

I'm simulating several pieces of the Apollo 11 mission. I'm now at the point of performing lunar landing sequence, and I'm looking for data. I found this report, but it only has partial data, while ...
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Could Apollo astronauts see other planets with the CM Scanning Telescope?

The Apollo Command Module had the Scanning Telescope for navigating, "Apollo astronaut located a specific star using a single-power, wide-field telescope." I'm not concerned whether it could ...
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Loose items in Apollo CM during reentry?

Would there have been any danger to the astronauts or the equipment if a soft item, like a crumpled up napkin or tissue, was loose during the Apollo CM reentry, or did everything have to be secured?
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Saturn V Small Rectangles On S-II Stage

On the Saturn V there was a line of several small black rectangles running vertically on the upper part of the S-II stage. What were they for? edit here is a picture from the McMahan Photo ...
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Did the Apollo LM's cockpit altitude displays account for the pointing angle of the radar altimeter?

The Apollo LM had a radar altimeter which was particularly critical in the final stages of landing. It could be set to two different pitch angles, either aimed backwards by 24º to be used during the ...
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was Saturn V engine J-2 throttleable?

Were the J-2 engines of the third stage of Saturn V throttable? I know that the F-1 for first was not, but what about J-2? I could not find any information about it. Any reference or info for this? ...
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How exactly was Apollo CSM attitude changed (from a current one to a new required one)?

This answer to a related question suggests that the order in which rotations around three principal axes are applied (in order to estimate the conversion of an attitude to a set of roll, pitch and yaw ...
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Confusion with Apollo CSM attitude maneuvers (roll, pitch and yaw) during coasting to/from the Moon

Some time after Transposition, Docking, and Extraction maneuver (when coasting to the Moon) or after Trans Earth Injection (when coasting back from the Moon), the spacecraft's (CSM) guidance platform ...
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What did the Apollo missions do with old LiOH canisters & the water they produced?

We all love the Apollo 13 story, but the famous lithium hydroxide CO2 scrubber of that mission has made it hard for me to find information about its regular use. What happened to the old canisters ...
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Are there any close-up photos of the screens used in the MOCR2 from the Apollo era where text features can be distinguished?

The question is mostly about the fonts used in those screens. AFAIK, the images were slides superimposed with data generated by computers that was captured from CRTs by cameras and piped into the MOCR ...
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Help understanding how these components of a Honeysuckle Creek dish antenna work

@Fred's comment links to the Curious Droid video How Australia Helped Save Apollo 13 and a little after 02:15 and 03:00 it shows ...
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Apollo altitude vs rate-of-descent schedule

In the final phase of the Apollo landings, the commander would go into "P66 attitude hold" mode, where the computer maintained a steady rate of descent while allowing the commander to change the ...
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Apollo 11 trajectory logs [duplicate]

is there any place where to download the log files of the entire Apollo 11 mission? I want to rebuild it in Matlab and I'd use it as reference. I've seen that there is AGI's reconstruition with STK, ...
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Source for Apollo 11 descent time series data?

I'd like to find the state of the Apollo LM at various times during the powered descent phase: its position relative to the Moon's surface and/or the final touchdown point; its attitude in space, and ...
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Apollo PTC roll orientation and communication with earth

I have a 2 part question. With the Sun, Earth and Moon on the same plane, I do not understand the difference in heat distribution between perpendicular or parallel orientation with reference to the ...
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Has there been any serious prospect of human landing on the far side of the Moon?

As far as I know, the only serious projects for human exploration of the Moon have been the Apollo project, some other US studies with Gemini capsules and a couple of embryonic Soviet projects. I see ...
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Who are these people inside Apollo Command Module (presumably posing for advertisement photoshoot)?

In an attempt to find photos from any of Apollo missions that portray Sony TC-50 voice recorder/player that was used in these missions I came across the following picture: There is better quality of ...
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What was the transmitting power of the Apollo astronauts' PLSS VHF radio transmitters?

I'm assuming many of you are familiar with Larry Baysinger. A radio amateur who independently detected and recorded the transmissions from the Apollo 11 EVA using a homemade antenna. Larry Baysinger ...
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Did Apollo astronauts play on the Moon their pre-recorded music?

Apollo astronauts were equipped with Sony TC-50 cassette voice recorder/player (described in this answer) primarily for recording voice with mission related notes, but they could (and did) listen to ...
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In multiple parachutes, is each offset by a weight/hole?

Source: NASA via wikimedia.org As the image shows, in multiple parachutes, each assumes a position away from the center. The post, Why don't 3-parachute descent systems collide and collapse?, ...
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How was the S-IVB stage configured for the post-extraction retrograde dump?

When answering How exactly did the separation between Saturn V stage 3 and the Command / Lunar Module work? I first wrote that the retrograde dump after LM extraction happened "through the engine". ...
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How exactly did the separation between Saturn V stage 3 and the Command / Lunar Module work?

After Apollos 3rd stage burn to get to the moon the Command Module (CM) turned around and pulled the Lunar Module out of the 3rd stage. Both the CM and the LM turned around and flew to the moon. But ...
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Why is there no image of the Earth taken from the lunar surface during Apollo 12,15 and 16?

I know there are photographs of the Earth from the lunar surface taken during Apollo 11, 14 and 17. Here are some for reference (there are many for Apollo 17). Apollo 11 (AS11-40-5923): Apollo 14 (...
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How much did it cost to rush the Apollo program? [closed]

We know how much the Apollo program cost: The United States spent \$28 billion to land men on the Moon between 1960 and 1973, or approximately \$288 billion when adjusted for inflation. Source ...
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How hot was the surface of RTG radiator which powered ALSEP on Apollo-12?

The last 5 Apollo missions that landed on the moon (starting from Apollo-12) deployed Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which was powered by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) ...
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Exactly how does one lope on the Moon?

This answer includes several quotes from apollo astronauts that have walked on the moon. They describe a form of bipedal locomotion they call loping. Question: Exactly how does one lope on the Moon? ...
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What biomedical data indicated Apollo astronauts were sleeping?

What particular biomedical data did NASA use to determine if an Apollo astronaut was awake or asleep? From the APOLLO 11 MISSION COMMENTARY, page 72/1 "Our Flight Surgeon reported a short while ago ...
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How much piloting did the Apollo astronauts actually do?

I understand Armstrong landed the Eagle manually, and Apollo 13 did a manual burn. Other than emergencies like that, did the Apollo astronauts do much piloting of the spacecraft.
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How would the state vector be updated in the Apollo Guidance Computer during coasting to/from the moon if communication with Earth was lost entirely?

This source https://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/alsj-average_g.html states that: From time to time, Houston could update the onboard SV using tracking and other available date; [sic] but, generally, it ...
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What do these Apollo era terms mean?

@Ludo's answer to If I wanted to reconstruct an entire Apollo mission's crewed spacecraft trajectories, what are the key sources of historical data I'd look for? links to Apollo Mission 11, ...
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Were flown lunar rover miniature license plates approved for the Apollo-15 flight?

A page in Space Flown Artifacts describes miniature lunar rover license plates that Dave Scott carried to the moon and back: These miniature license plates were manufactured by Boeing (makers of ...
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Apollo CM heat shield burnt pattern around RCS thrusters

Looking through photos of Apollo CM capsules after reentry, I was trying to have a feel for how the heat was distributed on the sides of the capsule. By the look of surviving patches of Mylar tape ...
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If I wanted to reconstruct an entire Apollo mission's crewed spacecraft trajectories, what are the key sources of historical data I'd look for?

The last few images in Robert A. Braeunig's Apollo 11's Translunar Trajectory; and how they avoided the heart of the radiation belts are fascinating and a bit perplexing as discussed in this answer ...
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Did the Apollo missions fly “over the top” of the Van Allen radiation belts?

In the video The Moon Trees That Flew To The Moon On Apollo 14 after about 08:47 Scott Manley says that Apollo 14 "flew up over the top" of the Van Allen radiation ...

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