Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Can I find detailed flight parameters of some space mission(s)?

I'm studying dynamic models and creating a mathematical model for spaceflight simulation. I need to check the correctness of my model. Can I find detailed parameters of a spaceflight (say, position ...
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Why was Apollo mission launched on one big rocket? Wouldn't rendezvous in earth orbit using a smaller rocket have been an easier challenge?

Apollo already had some hardware for rendezvous on lunar orbit, so why not do the same on earth orbit and use smaller rocket? I suppose designing smaller rocket is simpler and also building double ...
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What data was used to estimate accumulated radiation dose for the Apollo astronauts?

Half-year, and occasional one-year stints aboard the ISS, and especially lifetime totals nearing 2.5 years are possible ethically because these missions take place within the Earth's magnetosphere ...
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Why was the Apollo 6 service module painted white?

All other SM's were silver except Apollo 6. I'm wondering what the justification for this was, if any?
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To what extent was Apollo program training specific to each mission?

In comments and answer to this question, the time it takes to train for an Apollo mission is mentioned several times as a factor on the big rotation of crews. I figure that would actually play in ...
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Nozzle material of Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine?

There are some photos of the Apollo Lunar Module ascent engine, see 1, 2, 3. The nozzle looks like being made of epoxy and fiberglass. The fibers are wound in two different directions. Is it true ...
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Why did moon dust not cause problems on Apollo during the return flight from the Moon?

The Apollo Command Module and the LEM were built in clean rooms free of dust on earth and yet (knowing that they didn't have air locks on either module) the astronauts came in directly from the moon ...
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How did astronauts navigate the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) over the surface of the Moon?

The Lunar Roving Vechicle (LRV), also known as Moon Buggy, was used as a form of transportation on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo program. What system did the astronauts use for ...
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Why did Apollo mission numbering skip 2,3,4,5 and 6?

Apollo 1 was a ground test that ended in a fire. The next Apollo mission I have any reference to is Apollo 7. What happened to Apollo 2,3,4,5 and 6?
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“Failure is not an option” is really a quote of flight director Gene Kranz?

"Failure is not an option" is attributed to Gene Kranz, flight director of Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle missions. In the movie Apollo 13, Ed Harris says it but IMDB trivia states that it was not ...
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The maximum depth Apollo astronauts dug into lunar regolith?

Almost on every mission the astronauts did some digging, but how deep did they reach? According to this article: The regolith is generally from 4 to 5 metres thick in mare areas and from 10 to 15 ...
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Attitude error needles on Apollo FDAI

Did the Apollo Flight Director Attitude Indicator (FDAI) error needles relate in any direct way to the position of the ball under them, or were they only ever interpreted in relation to the white bars ...
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Why were the “perfectly functioning” seismometers placed by Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 astronauts all shut off in 1977?

The Wikipedia subsection Moonquake says: Information about moonquakes comes from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from 1969 through 1972. The instruments placed by the Apollo 12, ...
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How much lighter could a modern, working replica of an Apollo payload and crew be at launch?

When I was young a zillion years ago I visited the Smithsonian's Air and Space museum, and admired what I think must have been a mercury capsule. Upon peering through the window, what struck me first ...
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What is this on the craft from the Apollo 17 mission?

For me it looks like water droplets but, I doubt thats the case in space. Also I don't understand why this should be a crafts surface feature. wouldn't one aim to design a spacecraft as smooth as ...
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Lunar Ascent Module Off-Center Thrust

I was recently told that for parts of the Lunar Module's ascent from the surface of the Moon to its rendezvous in orbit, its thrust vector was not in line with its center of gravity, and actually ...
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What was the approximate cabin temperature and humidity of the Apollo mission capsules?

I learned that Apollo missions used a simple system providing 100% oxygen atmosphere in the cabin at lower air pressure from the question, "Decision factors for using 100% O2 cabin atmosphere in early ...
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Will the foot print of Neil Armstrong erode?

The Moon has a very thin (practically non-existent) atmosphere so the foot print left by Neil Armstrong won't be eroded for centuries. But there are solar winds. Is it possible that solar wind would ...
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First call to the moon 1969

During the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, there was a phone call where the POTUS at that time, Richard Nixon, was able to speak to astronauts Neil Armstrong and "Buzz" Aldrin. How was this possible?
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Apollo era remote control of vehicle

I am wondering what kind of ability NASA had during the Gemini or Apollo program era to control the vehicle from the ground. From reading some capcom transcripts and looking through some random ...
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Was Houston able to control to the Apollo spacecraft if needed? [duplicate]

Was every aspect of a flight, aside from liftoff, solely the responsibility of the crew? Or was Houston able to command parts of the spacecraft and its computers remotely in an emergency or if ...
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What was the backup plan if apollo 11 failed?

Presumably NASA blocked off time with major TV stations to show the landings. What were they preparing to show if the landing failed? Was there any alternative programming supplied in case Neil did ...
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What will J002E3 be like on its return?

J002E3 is believed to be the S-IVB third stage of the Apollo 12 rocket. It is expected to return to temporary Earth orbit in the 2040's. If some enterprising soul decided to build a rocket capable ...
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How was the Apollo lunar liftoff video transmitted to Earth?

There is video of the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 lunar modules lifting off from the Moon. I recall watching it live for Apollo 17 at least. I know the images were captured by a camera mounted on the lunar ...
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How did astronauts traverse from module to module in the Apollo craft?

I was looking at some diagrams for the Apollo spacecraft, which I found to be interesting. It's clear that there's two separate enclosures that astronauts could reside in (the lunar module and command ...
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Were all the switches on the Command Module and LM control panels used during a mission?

Given there are so many switches on the control panels, and they each served a specific purpose, was every single switch used during a mission to the moon (with the exception of the abort switch ...
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As they were all qualified, how/why were the Apollo Astronauts chosen for their individual missions? [duplicate]

Why did some fly multiple Apollo missions, while others flew only once?
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Was the Apollo sextant used (or tested) to determine position while in Earth orbit?

The video Apollo Program Guidance and Navigation System 79974 explains that the spacecraft's sextant could be used together with the navigation computer to determine a position fix while in Earth ...
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Did a fuel tank ruptured by a ballpoint pen really sever an engineers finger?

In Ars' series on the Apollo program Eric tells a story about the Lunar Module from NASA lore... ...recounted in Apollo: The Race to the Moon, a technician working with a test version of the ...
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Looking for information about a space-related footage and film resource [closed]

There once was a website called Space Films, I think that was it. The web site featured restored official video footage from NASA and others of various space launches over the years (i.e. Gemini, ...
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Reasons why the Lunar Rover DID NOT become “a jumble of loosely assembled broken parts on Launch”?

A number of comments and some answers at the question Can I drive Elon Musk's Tesla in 100 Years? suggets the Tesla Roadster "would not survive launch... it would be a jumble of loosely assembled ...
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How did they solve Saturn V pogo oscillation problems?

From what I understand, pogo oscillation was already a known problem for Saturn V rocket's first stage (and likely other stages, not sure) long before, say, Apollo 11, especially on its central out of ...
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Apollo 17; what is a barber pole, and what did “it is gray” mean?

Following the links in this comment by @Uwe I've found some interesting sources of information on Ham (amateur) radio operators trying to listen in on Apollo transmissions. At the bottom of Sven ...
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Why such a large observed doppler shift from Apollo 17 orbiting the moon?

Following the links in this comment by @Uwe I've found some interesting sources of information on Ham (amateur) radio operators trying to listen in on Apollo transmissions. One of them is Sven Grahn's ...
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Is anything being done to honor Gene Cernan today? (14 Dec. 2017)

14 December 1972 05:40:56 UTC US astronaut Gene Cernan returned to the Apollo 17 Lunar Excursion Module, becoming "the last man on the Moon" for forty-five years, so far. (as reported in my Space ...
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How complex was the math and physics necessary to place Apollo 11 on the moon?

Specifically, I'm interested in how closely the models used to calculate the various burns and course corrections represented reality. Was standard Newtonian mechanics sufficient or were relativistic ...
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How much power do missions to other planets use for radio transmissions?

How much power did the voice and data radios have on the Apollo missions? Additionally how much broadcast power is used on data transmissions from the surface of Mars?
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Why only 12 men have made lunar-walks and not all 18 men?

I am wondering why only 2 men out of 3 crew members, in every successful Apollo mission, made a lunar walk leaving only one man to remain inside the lunar module? In Apollo 11, 12 ,14, 15, 16 and 17 ...
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Was there a Moon landing mission that the astronauts had to land by hand? [closed]

I remembered that I once read an article about the design of the controller, but now I can't google it out. In short, it talked about the control panel of one Moon landing mission was full of ...
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Why didn't the Apollo 11 lander blow the dust away? (or why does it look like it didn't)

In this picture, we can see the footprints near the Apollo 11 lander. Shouldn't the dust have been blown away when Apollo 11 landed?
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Apollo 17, Lunar Roving Vehicle walkback limit “relaxed”?

I found the following to be interesting. It appears that for the most part (Apollo 15, 16 and maybe parts of 17?) there were restrictions placed on the distance allowed for the LRV to travel. The ...
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How much did the Apollo boilerplate rockets cost?

The point of a boilerplate is to test out the features of a system at a reduced cost. I would like to know what it cost to build the Apollo boilerplates. There was a series of such rockets so I would ...
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Roughly what is the rate of energy loss of survivable capsule re-entries?

In this answer I've estimated the peak rate of energy loss of a particularly unwise re-entry as 3 to 4 gigawatts. Never mind that it's 15-20 gees of acceleration, that's a lot of power injected into ...
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What documentation remains from Apollo?

This question has not been answered. This is different from the blueprints because it is a more general question. Off the top of my head there exists: The testing data available on the NASA website ...
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How were these NASA engineers able to take men to the moon and bring them back with this limited computing capability?

The Apollo Guidance Computer had only 2k RAM and 32kb storage. Also what O.S. did they use, and who made it?
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Have all the lunar landers been photographed?

I know that LRO photographed some landing sites. Did they get all of them? Are there still missing landers?
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How did the Apollo astronauts train for the 1/6G lunar landing?

It goes without saying that training/conditioning one's reflexes for a situation is highly relevant to some professions. Pilots train in a computer simulator. During the Apollo missions computers ...
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How did the Apollo engineers decide what to include in their cargo? [closed]

The Apollo missions, like all missions really, were limited in what they could bring into space. How did they decide what would make the trip? Were there any tests or failures that they learned from?
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Apollo Suit sublimation coolers

Should there be a visible steam plume from the Apollo astronauts sublimation cooler in the lunar EVA videos?
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Why was the Service Module Retained? [duplicate]

After the Apollo 13 explosion, the service module was retained almost until re-entry. Why was this if it was just dead weight?

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