Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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The maximum depth Apollo astronauts dug into lunar regolith?

Almost on every mission the astronauts did some digging, but how deep did they reach? According to this article: The regolith is generally from 4 to 5 metres thick in mare areas and from 10 to 15 ...
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Is long range radio communication possible on the lunar surface?

There are such things as moon-bounce communication whereby radio signals are 'bounced' off the lunar surface to a distant location on Earth. This mechanism may be likened to the way a mirror reflects ...
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What are the small crosses on space pictures, and what's their purpose?

Often I see small crosses on space pictures like this. They are regularly spaced, thin and black. What are them? What's their purpose?
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Why did Armstrong pilot the LM, when Aldrin was tasked as Lunar Module Pilot?

Buzz Aldrin is credited (or was tasked) with being the Apollo 11 Lunar Module pilot. However in fact it was Neil Armstrong who piloted the craft down when the LM guidance computer overflowed, with ...
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Fortran and the Apollo 11 mission

I was just wondering, as a Fortran user. As far as I know, the simulations taken in order to carry the Apollo 11 mission was written in Fortran 2. I would like to confirm this from a reliable source. ...
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Reasons behind the “Transposition, docking and extraction” maneuver

The Transposition, Docking and Extraction (TD&E) maneuver was done during the Apollo Moon missions right after the translunar injection. The Command/Service Module (CSM) separated from the S-IVB, ...
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NASA Launch Control: was all of its capacity ever used?

The NASA Launch Control Center at Cape Canaveral has 4 Firing Rooms. Each can support the launch of a spacecraft. Similarly, the VAB was divided into four bays, each large enough to support assembly ...
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Where is the first Lunar soil sample currently located?

During Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing, a "contingency sample" was taken by Neil Armstrong. From Wikipedia: About seven minutes after stepping onto the Moon's surface, Armstrong collected ...
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How many minutes of Lunar Sim did Neil Armstrong get?

A quick follow-up to What were the differences between the LLRV and LLTV? These craft were provided with a zero-zero ejection seat. The above reverenced article on wikipedia mentions Neil Armstrong ...
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What were the differences between the LLRV and LLTV?

The LLRV (Lunar Landing Research Vehicle) was used to develop the LLTV (Lunar Landing Training Vehicle), but were there design differences between the two? Were any major lessons learned from the LLRV ...
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Were the Apollo CO₂ scrubber canister designs unified after Apollo 13?

After the problem realized when trying to put up three astronauts for an extended stay in the Apollo 13 LEM, namely that the square CM CO₂ scrubbers didn't fit in the LEM's slots, were they redesigned?...
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What caused the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle to be unreliable?

The Lunar Landing Training Vehicle was used during the Apollo missions to simulate flying the lunar lander at 1/6th the force of Earth's gravity: Many sources have indicated a conflict between ...
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At what angle did Apollo 13 need to reenter?

The Apollo missions, like most all missions since, used a heat shield to keep from disintegrating in the atmosphere. This approach had its flaws, however. For one, if your approach was too shallow, ...
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Who installed the camera on the Moon to film the “First step”?

On Wikipedia page on Moon landing, Neil Armstrong is shown stepping down on the surface of the Moon using the spaceship's ladder:        Still frame from a video transmission, taken moments before ...
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How did NASA achieve their live TV broadcast in 1969?

In 1969, NASA not only went to the moon, but broadcast the whole thing live on TV. How did they achieve the TV broadcast? What technology did they need to use to send a video and audio signal from ...
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What was the mascon “fix” used by Apollo 12?

According to the mascon entry on wikipedia: At that time, one of NASA's highest priority "tiger team" projects was to explain why the Lunar Orbiter spacecraft being used to test the accuracy of ...
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Text of John Houbolt's letter proposing Lunar Orbit Rendezvous for Apollo?

On 11/15/1961, John Houbolt, an engineer at the Langley Research Center, wrote a nine-page letter to Robert Seamans, associate administrator of NASA. (Referenced in this NASA retrospective.) This ...
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Which astronaut travelled farthest from Earth?

To-date who has flown farthest from the center of the Earth? Is he alive now?
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Could parts be salvaged off the Apollo thrusters found on the ocean floor?

In March of this year, Jeff Bezos' team found Saturn V engines on the ocean floor: While they will probably be placed in a museum, I'm wondering if there could possibly be a more practical use for ...
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What was Apollo 11's reentry speed at parachute deployment?

What was the velocity of the Command Module after it had penetrated through the Earth's atmosphere at the point where the parachutes were deployed?
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Have two individual ships been docked directly since Apollo-Soyuz?

During the Apollo-Soyuz test program, the Russians and Americans worked together on missions - and one big objective was to dock Apollo and Soyuz craft together. Afterward, however, there seem to be ...
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Was the Apollo 13 CM guidance computer fully shut down?

I was watching the movie Apollo 13, and one thing struck me as quite odd. According to Wikipedia, [Movie director Ron] Howard went to great lengths to create a technically accurate movie, employing ...
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Did any Apollo missions have backup parachutes?

NASA's Apollo modules, the ones that went to the moon, had a fairly standard-for-the-time reentry method: Hit the atmosphere at the right angle, deploy a parachute after things are done burning up, ...
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How did the Apollo astronauts train for the 1/6G lunar landing?

It goes without saying that training/conditioning one's reflexes for a situation is highly relevant to some professions. Pilots train in a computer simulator. During the Apollo missions computers ...
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What memorial items were left on the Moon by the Apollo missions?

Wikipedia's article on Apollo 11 indicates that this first mission left behind a flag, an Apollo 1 mission patch, a plaque (on the lander), and a bag with a gold olive branch and a message disk. Over ...
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Why did Apollo mission numbering skip 2,3,4,5 and 6?

Apollo 1 was a ground test that ended in a fire. The next Apollo mission I have any reference to is Apollo 7. What happened to Apollo 2,3,4,5 and 6?
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Where were the various Apollo Lunar Modules (LMs) discarded?

The LEM was comprised of an ascent, and a descent stage. Whilst the descent stage was in most cases left behind on Luna, the ascent stage ferried the astronauts upstairs to the CSM. Where are these ...
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How was reserve fuel calculated for the Apollo missions?

A quick follow-up to How much fuel was used for a Space Shuttle launch? My memory is a little foggy; I seem to recall reading the Apollo 11 mission commander depleted his reserve fuel landing Eagle. ...
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What technology could the Soviets have contributed to the Apollo program?

Spacedaily writes to say about President. Kennedy's Sept 20th 1963 address to the UN General Assembly "I include among these possibilities," he added, "a joint expedition to the Moon." Why, the ...
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What medicines were onboard the Apollo flights?

I'm currently reading through a book covering the early US space program - up through Apollo. In the book, it mentions that one of the crew on one of the flights was sick. He didn't tell mission ...
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Time to prepare for EVA out of ISS

How much time is needed to an astronaut on ISS to prepare herself for an EVA? Is this time so much different from time needed during Apollo missions?
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Size of Apollo era astronauts

I had read that the early astronauts were all 'short guys'. This made a lot of sense. A short man can have as much stamina and endurance as a large man, yet eat less, consume less oxygen & (...
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Will the foot print of Neil Armstrong erode?

The Moon has a very thin (practically non-existent) atmosphere so the foot print left by Neil Armstrong won't be eroded for centuries. But there are solar winds. Is it possible that solar wind would ...
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Why was the Apollo CM main engine thought to be unreliable on Apollo 13?

When Apollo 13 had most of its internal systems destroyed by an explosion, NASA decided that the best course of action would be to fire the main engine on the dark side of the moon to send the capsule ...
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Can I borrow a lunar rover?

According to Wikipedia there are 3 LRVs sitting on the moon, in very well defined locations. Would China, or whomever gets to the moon with a person next, be able to get in and drive around in an LRV ...
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Do only Eagles walk on the moon?

Neil Armstrong was an Eagle Scout and the first person to walk on the moon. I have heard that everyone who has walked on the moon (through 2012), was an Eagle Scout. Is it true? If so other then ...
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What was the preferred method of holding things down in Apollo?

The Apollo space capsules had a ton of velocity changes - from liftoff, to separations, to reentry to splashdown, there were a lot of sporadic movements. The capsules also needed to carry things that ...
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How was dust-mitigation addressed during the Apollo program?

Dust mitigation in the context of manned landings is now a rather vital topic of research and testing, but back in the days of Apollo it was a fairly new problem. 'Dusty' Gene Cernan inside the LM ...
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Why did Apollo 11 need someone to stay behind in lunar orbit?

When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the moon in the Lunar Module, Michael Collins stayed up in lunar orbit in the Command Module. Why did they need someone to stay behind? At this point,...
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Did the Apollo command module have an abort mode?

Many manned space exploration vehicles have some way to abort, to end the mission as quickly as possible and get back to relative safety. I'm wondering if the Apollo command module had an abort, a ...
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Do Russian and American spacecraft use the same docking mechanism?

Back in the days of the Apollo era, the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project had the two craft meeting each other in orbit and docking. The stated reason for this was so that if a spacecraft from one country was ...
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Is true that Armstrong was not designated as first to walk on the moon?

A documentary on Apollo program (I can't remember the name at the moment) states that Aldrin and not Armstrong was the first astronaut designated to walk on the moon. But after LEM landed, mission ...
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Why didn't the Apollo 11 lander blow the dust away? (or why does it look like it didn't)

In this picture, we can see the footprints near the Apollo 11 lander. Shouldn't the dust have been blown away when Apollo 11 landed?
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What would have happened if the skin of an Apollo lunar module was ruptured?

The Apollo lunar module had thin skins of foil for protection / air containment. What would have happened if a hole was made in this skin by a flailing astronaut, screwdriver, asteroid, etc.? Would ...
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What are the “everyday” technologies that are a byproduct of the Apollo program?

There is an ongoing debate about the pros and cons of space exploration. One of the oft-cited pros is integrating the spin-off technologies developed for space into everyday life. Did the research ...
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Was quarantine continued after Apollo 11?

After returning from the Apollo 11 mission, astronauts were placed in quarantine for 18 days (July 24 - August 10, 1969).              &...
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Are Mercury/Apollo/Gemini capsules visible in any museum?

Is it possible to visit some of the famous American capsules in any museum?
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“Failure is not an option” is really a quote of flight director Gene Kranz?

"Failure is not an option" is attributed to Gene Kranz, flight director of Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle missions. In the movie Apollo 13, Ed Harris says it but IMDB trivia states that it was not ...

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