Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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What antenna is this in an Apollo 15 LM photo?

The video Apollo 15 landing from PDI to Touchdown (found in Why did the Apollo 15 LM violently shake & raise dust after the contact probes touched the lunar surface?) seems to pan across a still ...
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What was pressure and temperature of LM oxygen tanks?

After analysing comments in related question How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization? It appears that LM had oxygen stored as either gas or supercritical fluid but not at ...
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How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization?

In related question How was temperature and humidity maintained inside the Apollo mission capsules? the basic concept of conditioning Apollo mission capsules environment is described. After ...
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Mode during apollo landing in cross pointer

In this Question the excellent answer explains from the handbook that the cross pointer input can be either from landing radar or PGNS or AGS. My question is which mode was choosen during the final ...
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Apollo Cross Pointer Working

The apollo LM panel had a cross pointer that displays the horizontal velocity to the pilot. This ideally have to be made zero during landing for soft touch down by pilot My question is, how this ...
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Why did the Apollo 15 LM violently shake & raise dust after the contact probes touched the lunar surface?

I was watching the Apollo 15 landing and I noticed that after the LM surface sensing probes (contact probe) touched the surface, the view was clear which meant no dust was being raised, but all of a ...
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What was the actual Q-alpha limit for Saturn/Apollo launches, and what was the typical max Q-alpha?

Organic Marble's answer to a previous question about Apollo abort limits clarified that the figure of concern was the product of dynamic pressure (Q) and angle of attack (alpha), with the 100% level ...
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When will a moon landing site be visible via telescope?

Telescope technology is advancing. Logically there should be a point where clear images of the landing sites are visible. I am guessing a 1km telescope would be plenty. If we currently have 100m ...
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What went wrong with Apollo 15 astronaut Al Worden's seat when he was all alone, circularizing?

The X article NASA shock: Apollo 15 astronaut's Moon landing confession - 'Can't do anything to me now' says "NASA astronaut Alfred "Al" Worden dropped an astonishing Apollo 15 ...
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How (and when) was the RTG in the lunar modules installed?

In this answer, it is explained that the space probes RTG's are not installed until a couple days before launch because of the heat those things generate. Now I'm curious about the Apollo RTGs. From ...
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Apollo image lighting

How does the lighting in this photo work? It is strange.
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Why was Apollo 11 launched in summer?

The question could seems stupid, but I think that best moment to launch a rocket is when temperature is lowest in order to achieve the best performance in a reaction engine. I do not know if there is ...
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Loading tanks for supercritical oxygen and hydrogen on the launch pad, how to achieve low temperature and high pressure?

The Apollo and Shuttle spacecrafts used fuel cells for the production of electric energy and water. The hydrogen and oxygen for the fuel cells were stored as a supercritical fluid at a temperature ...
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Objects that have been on the Moon multiple times

I'm reading Gene Cernan's The Last Man on the Moon and he mentioned that the flag they erected at Apollo 17's landing site had been to the Moon before: it was taken to the Moon by Apollo 11, then hung ...
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How are physical attitude indicators actuated?

The Apollo FDAIs and shuttle ADIs (pre-MEDS) indicated spacecraft attitude with an actual ball that was spun around in a cage. I've seen photos of some of these removed from their cases, but ...
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Could Apollo astronauts see city lights from the moon?

You can see city lights from orbit on the night side of Earth. A lot of science fiction (yes, sorry...it's one of those questions) has dialogue such as "on a clear night you can see XYZ city on the ...
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Did Apollo carry and use WD40?

It appears from this question that Apollo missions carried Duct Tape and used it for in-flight fixups. Did they carry the other half of the "Universal Repair Kit" - WD40 (or similar)? If so, was it ...
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What was an “insurance cover”?

The drawing below reads "This insurance cover is from my personal space collection. Charles M. Duke Jr." What was an insurance cover?
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Were the Apollo mission ascent stages left in graveyard orbits? [duplicate]

After reading this question, I was left with the question of what happened to the ascent stage of the LEM after rendez vous with the CSM. Obviously it didn't reenter with the command module, and I ...
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How often is duct tape used during crewed space missions?

It seems Apollo missions carried some variety of gray tape, likely Duct Tape or similar. There's the scene in the movie Apollo 13 and the reality behind it discussed in the video below. Question: How ...
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How were the “dust recepticles” installed on the Apollo 17 LM floor?

This answer quotes Apollo Program Summary Report and includes the sentence: During the Apollo 17 mission, dust on the lunar module floor was swept into floor receptacles which were sealed before ...
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Was there any approval to interrupt the Apollo program for 2 years for Skylab?

In researching an answer for another question, I came across this claim on a NASA history page: On September 2 [1970] Paine called a press conference to announce NASA's interim operating plan for ...
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Was the lunar landing site always in the same plane as the CM's orbit?

Did the Apollo command module always pass directly over the lunar landing site? Or were they sometimes in different planes? My inclination (pun intended) is that staying in the same plane would ...
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Are there photos of the Apollo LM showing disturbed lunar soil resulting from descent engine exhaust?

Are there any photos of the Apollo LM descent engine bell and the lunar soil beneath it disturbed by the engine exhaust?
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Were there any mission goals for the Apollo 18, 19, 20 flights?

I recently learned that Apollo 18, 19, and 20 missions were planned before they were canned due to budgetary reasons. I've only been able to find out the projected landing locations for these (...
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How did the Apollo survival kit desalter work?

According to the Apollo Experience Report: Crew Provisions and Equipment Subsystem, NASA Tech Note D-6737, p. 29, the survival kit in the Apollo command module had a means to remove the salt from ...
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What is the furthest distance Apollo astronauts can be from each other during a Lunar EVA?

I'm assuming there has to be a limit set by NASA of how far astronauts can be from each other for their safety. If something happens to an astronaut's EVA suit, the second astronaut can use the "buddy ...
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Did a flight controller ever answer Flight with a no-go?

OK, all flight controllers, I'm going around the horn Retro? Go FIDO? Go Guidance? Go Control? Go TELCOM? Go GNC? Go EECOM? Go Surgeon? Go Are there any recorded instances of a No-Go?
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What did the Apollo 12 multispectral Four-Camera system look like?

From Apollo 12 Mission The camera equipment carried by Apollo 12 consisted of one 70-millimeter Hasselblad EL camera, two Hasselblad data cameras, two 16-millimeter Maurer data acquisition cameras, ...
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How did Apollo 15's depressurization work?

Artwork depicting the EVA in question, NASA, via wikimedia.org On the way back an EVA was performed, and since there wasn't an airlock, the Command Module was depressurized. Was this feature only ...
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Why did no astronaut land on the moon more than once? [duplicate]

Wouldn't it be better to send people to the moon that already have experience? Or was the time between the starts so short that it was not possible to reuse the crew of Apollo 11 for (say) Apollo 17?
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Why did Mercury use multiple CAPCOMs while Apollo did not?

A spacecraft needs multiple receiving stations to prevent its radio signals from being blocked by Earth. Wikipedia has a map of the ground stations used for the Mercury missions. The Right Stuff ...
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How did astronauts get from the command module into the LEM, and vice versa?

After seeing many simulations of the command/service module doing a 180 and docking with the LEM, it occured to me that something didn't look right. At the nose of the command module there appears to ...
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Puzzler: which Apollo 8 astronaut would have been positioned furthest sunwards 20 minutes after lunar insertion?

This Classic @DavidHammen answer to the question Who has been the closest to/furthest from the Sun? says: This bodes well for an Apollo astronaut being the person closest to the Sun, but bodes ill ...
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Double redundancy for the Saturn V LVDC computer memory, how were disagreements resolved?

In the Smarter Every Day video How did NASA Steer the Saturn V?- Smarter Every Day 223 Destin is talking with Luke Talley about the memory modules used in the Saturn V LVDC computer. This computer ...
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Did some Apollo astronauts actually carry a sandwich and bacon in their launch suit?

Normally I consider the Apollo Experience Reports as a reliable source, but the following claim is so bizarre that I'm asking if this claim can be verified by an independent source? THE APOLLO 14 ...
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Did the LEM ever rise above the orbit of the CSM at any time

We all know that the LEM descended from the CSM to the moon's surface and then rose back again to dock with it. But there are some videos that show the CSM floating in the foreground with the moon's ...
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What sounds did the Apollo astronauts hear during launch

I've looked through the Apollo Technical Debriefings 11, 12, 14-17, for descriptions of the sounds the astronauts heard during take off. Here is one example, from Apollo 15: *3.0 POWERED FLIGHT SCOTT ...
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Did Apollo leave poop on the moon?

If you google the question, you will find an abundance of sources discussing the alleged fact that the Apollo missions left bags of fecal matter on the moon. A conversation on reddit got me looking ...
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Why did the Vertical/Vehicle Assembly Building have four doors?

On this satellite image (credit: Google Maps) it is clear that only 3 out of four bays were ever used, since the 4th is not even connected to the crawlerway: (Yes, I made the screenshot deliberately ...
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How many different kinds of insulation film are wrapped around the Apollo Lunar Module?

In the image shown in the question Why is the Apollo LM landing gear covered with so much thermal isolation? (also shown below) it appears that the color of the film around the bottoms of the lander's ...
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Why is the Apollo LM landing gear covered with so much thermal insulation?

The Apollo LM landing gear – struts, footpads, shock absorbers and contact probes was completely covered with foils. There should be no temperature sensistive electronics within the landing gear, ...
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What was the procedure for Lunar Orbit Rendezvous? [duplicate]

I've read the following questions: Why was orbital rendezvous considered so controversial? Could an Apollo LM land uncrewed? How "hard" did Apollo 12 turn left just before it landed? And ...
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Was the kill-the-moon-bugs disinfectant the same as the kill-the-Earth-bugs disinfectant?

During the Apollo program, measures were taken to prevent Earth microbes from contaminating the moon, and to prevent hypothetical moon life from infecting the Earth. What were the disinfectants used ...
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Why was the LRV's speed gauge displaying metric units?

In the question Why did NASA use U.S customary units? it was basically stated in the answers that even when metric units were used "internally" (e.g. the AGC), the units presented to the astronauts ...
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Why did NASA sent people to the Moon more than once? [duplicate]

Often, especially now with the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission, the question is asked: Why did we stop sending people to the moon. The answer is usually: because the USA had proved they ...
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How fast were the Lunar Command Module and Landing Module traveling around the Moon when they reconnected?

I can't find this information online and am wondering how fast each were going around the Moon when they reattached to one another after the moon landing.
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What is the current location of Link-built Apollo Mission Simulators?

There seems to be confusion about the final disposition of, and even the number of, Apollo Mission Simulators built by Link Flight Simulation Division. This question is not about any simulator built ...
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Why did some Apollo missions carry a grenade launcher?

According to ALSEP Flight System Familiarization Manual, p. 2-166, some Apollo missions carried a grenade launcher and 4 grenades. What were these used for?
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Was there a measurable effect on gas concentration on the Moon during the Apollo missions?

Gas was released by the Apollo Lunar Modules during depressurization of the cabin in preparation to an EVA. Did this release of oxygen had a measurable effect despite the small amount of gas and the ...

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