Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Puzzler: which Apollo 8 astronaut would have been positioned furthest sunwards 20 minutes after lunar insertion?

This Classic @DavidHammen answer to the question Who has been the closest to/furthest from the Sun? says: This bodes well for an Apollo astronaut being the person closest to the Sun, but bodes ill ...
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Was Arthur J. Schwaniger one of very few US born NASA scientists using metric units?

Free-return trajectories were studied by Arthur Schwaniger of NASA in 1963 with reference to the Earth–Moon system. Those trajectories were used for the first Apollo missions. Mr. Schwaniger, who ...
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What do these three historical IBM staff at NASA insignias designate?

The question Where are these historical IBM + Apollo related locations within NASA? What do these computers do? shows four images. Three of them show different IBM insignias on shirts of IBM staff. ...
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What athletic shoes have astronauts been given over the years for ground training (Apollo program etc..)?

I've seen mention of P.F. Flyers for the Mercury program, but I'm unsure if that's accurate.
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Why do the two Apollo 11 PSEP solar panels appear to have different backing materials?

The PSEP (Passive Seismic Experiment Package) was powered by a pair of solar panels mounted on extended arms. The one on the left (when looking towards the LEM) appears to have a matt grey backing: ...
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What did Apollo 11's SSTV signal sound like?

The TV signal from Apollo 11 had limited bandwidth, and an oddball format was used to send and convert the signal. All of the modern SSTV demos I've seen on YouTube seem to take around a minute to ...
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Looking for veterans of the Space Race [closed]

Hi everyone. I am writing an oral history of the men and women who worked at Cape Canaveral and KSC during Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. If you know someone that fits the bill, or know how to find them, ...
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Lunar ascent module: Guidance Law [duplicate]

I was wondering if there was an optimal law for the thrust (magnitude and direction) during the lunar ascent. I have read many things about this topic in this forum but I still have some doubts. It ...
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What was the nature of the visible part of the viscous wake trailing the Apollo CM during reentry?

This diagram suggests a helix in the wake, was it a single-helix, a multiple helix, or a superhelix? Is there any other part of the wake that would be visible?
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Apollo recovery zone(s)

For the Apollo missions that left Earth orbit, were there multiple recovery zones for each splashdown? How big was each zone?
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Had Apollo astronauts practiced getting up from a fall?

The question "Could an Apollo astronaut stand up if they fell on the moon?" describes several incidents of Apollo astronauts falling over while on the moon, and their attempts to get back up. Did the ...
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At what size of engine does pogo oscillation become significant

I am jist trying to understand the thresholds involved in pogo oscillation. I'm not sure where to start. But I will give a guess. As rocket size increases the tension exterted on rocket walls ...
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Have all the lunar landers been photographed?

I know that LRO photographed some landing sites. Did they get all of them? Are there still missing landers?
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How did the Apollo engineers decide what to include in their cargo? [closed]

The Apollo missions, like all missions really, were limited in what they could bring into space. How did they decide what would make the trip? Were there any tests or failures that they learned from?
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What was the best late Nova rocket design among the request for proposals NASA received?

According to Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nova_%28rocket%29) the late Nova rocket was a "larger version" of the Saturn 5, meant to send manned missions to Mars. Some requests for proposals ...
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Arcustangent function of the Apollo Computer, atan() or atan2()?

What type of the arcustangent function was used, the one with single argument only or the famous atan2(y, x) or arctan2(y, x) with two arguments x and y? What kind of aproximation was used?
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Was the Saturn V only going at 1.1km/s after the first stage?

Using data from Wikipedia and NASA, I compute the Saturn V velocity after jettisoning the first stage (S-IC) \begin{align}V &= \ln(M_{initial}/M_{final}) \times V_e - g \times T_{burn}\\ \\&=\...
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Which map is right? Where exactly were the two Australian dish antennas used in the Apollo missions?

There are two answers to How did NASA achieve their live TV broadcast in 1969? and each has a map that denotes the location of the following two sites Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station Parkes Radio ...
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What is the meaning of “Bravo”?

There is movie called, " First Man (2018), which is about Apollo 11 mission. CAPCOM-APOLLO 11 speaks to Apollo 11 crew: CAPCOM-APOLLO 11: Apollo 11, now entering lunar orbit. Your roll should ...
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Should there be black crosses from the Réseau plate in this Apollo mission photograph? If so, where are they?

This answer to the question How did the Apollo astronauts change film in their cameras? mentions the Réseau plate, source of the beloved black crosses in Apollo photographs. I saw the question ...
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Why is there no image of the Earth taken from the lunar surface during Apollo 12,15 and 16?

I know there are photographs of the Earth from the lunar surface taken during Apollo 11, 14 and 17. Here are some for reference (there are many for Apollo 17). Apollo 11 (AS11-40-5923): Apollo 14 (...
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Will the real Snoopy please stand up?${}^†$ Has the candidate object for Apollo 10 lunar module been publicly identified?

This tweet seems to suggest that the details will be released only after a mission is planned and funder, or at least $50 million is put in escrow, or a bitcoin wallet is offered, but I am not sure I ...
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What joints of Apollo 17 space suits did moon dust get into, making the astronauts arms difficult to move?

At about 02:45 the Curious Droid video Apollo, the Lunar Dust and NASA's Dirty Problem says: During Apollo 17, crew members Harrison “Jack” Schmitt and Gene ...
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Lunar dust trajectory only slightly different from earth?

http://www.popsci.com/sites/popsci.com/files/styles/medium_1x_/public/import/2014/Hsu%20and%20Horanyi%20Graph%20AJP.png?itok=OSqMRad6 This graph shows the observed trajectory of lunar rover dust ...
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Lunar landing module and orbiting space craft personnel transfer [duplicate]

How did the crew of Apollo get from the orbiting capsule into the Lunar lander, as the orbiter rocket engine was between the orbiter and Lunar lander?
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Mode during apollo landing in cross pointer

In this Question the excellent answer explains from the handbook that the cross pointer input can be either from landing radar or PGNS or AGS. My question is which mode was choosen during the final ...
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Looking for information about a space-related footage and film resource [closed]

There once was a website called Space Films, I think that was it. The web site featured restored official video footage from NASA and others of various space launches over the years (i.e. Gemini, ...
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Software development for Apollo [closed]

How was software developed during apollo? From various sources, it can be gleaned that the computer was a ibm system 360, and the language was basically a fortran dialect or fortran. What I'd like ...
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At what time in the Apollo 14 mission did the maneuver shown in this image happen, and what exactly was happening?

In a search for information for this answer I received this google books link of Comment: The Relevance of Space, by Arthur Kantrowitz, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 197, 4 April 1971, pp 32-33. ...
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Why did the CSM have to perform a 180 degree turn in the Apollo missions after stage separation? [duplicate]

I know it was to dock with the Lunar Module, but why could the parts not be connected from the start to avoid this additional maneuver?
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Have any Apollo (or earlier) astronauts reported seeing Earth's aurora or related luminescent atmospheric effects?

Earth's aurora and related luminescent atmospheric effects are generally quite dim, and mostly but not always located in the general area of Earth's magnetic poles. That means to be seen easily by eye ...
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What is the cheapest possible way to land a crew of 2 on the moon?

During the Apollo moon missions, a single very large rocket sent both the Apollo CSM and the LM to the moon in a single shot and it took only around 3 days to get there. However, after the Apollo ...
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Was there any effort made to have Apollo 11 land on July 4? [duplicate]

President Kennedy set a goal of landing a manned mission on the moon by the end of the 1960s, as stated in his well-known speech to Congress on 25 May 1961 ("I believe that this nation should commit ...
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Apollo 11 Moon orbital elements [duplicate]

I'm simulating several pieces of the Apollo 11 mission. I'm now at the point of performing lunar landing sequence, and I'm looking for data. I found this report, but it only has partial data, while ...
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What was the procedure for Lunar Orbit Rendezvous? [duplicate]

I've read the following questions: Why was orbital rendezvous considered so controversial? Could an Apollo LM land uncrewed? How "hard" did Apollo 12 turn left just before it landed? And ...
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How far from Earth were the Apollo astronauts when they left the Earth's magnetosphere?

I am assuming the Apollo missions recorded radiation levels as they travelled to the Moon. Have those records ever been released, as a way of determining when the Apollo astronauts left the ...
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Did the Apollo astronauts do any EVAs in mid-flight? [duplicate]

For example on their way to the Moon, did the astronauts also leave the Apollo CSM during their flight? Or did they go outside only on the Moon? Were or could there have been any EVAs in mid-flight of ...
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Was Houston able to control to the Apollo spacecraft if needed? [duplicate]

Was every aspect of a flight, aside from liftoff, solely the responsibility of the crew? Or was Houston able to command parts of the spacecraft and its computers remotely in an emergency or if ...
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Why was the Service Module Retained? [duplicate]

After the Apollo 13 explosion, the service module was retained almost until re-entry. Why was this if it was just dead weight?
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Moment of inertia of apollo 11 lunar module

I'm currently modeling the lunar landing in 2D. When I set up the momentum balance: $\ddot{\theta} = \frac{dF_l}{J}$ where $d$ is the distance between the sidethruster and the center of mass. $F_l$ ...
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What's considered the boundary for “earth orbit?” [closed]

According to this CNET article, The last time a human broke free from Earth's orbit was the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. I thought that the moon orbited the Earth, and that visits to it were still ...
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Was there a Moon landing mission that the astronauts had to land by hand? [closed]

I remembered that I once read an article about the design of the controller, but now I can't google it out. In short, it talked about the control panel of one Moon landing mission was full of ...
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NASA at sIxty years, will there be a new moonshot mandate?

NASA is sixty years old still going strong. There are few organizations that have made such an impact to man's quest for knowledge in such a short time span. The contributions are many, and its ...
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CSM velocity / apollo program

Reposting as a question. Uhoh's answer allows us to compute the velocity at a given r. Let's see what velocity is at $r=100000 \text{ km}$: \begin{align}\mathscr{E}_{tot} &= {1\over 2}v^2 - {...
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What were the chances of failing the Apollo 11 mission? [duplicate]

What were the chances of the Apollo 11 mission failing? Consider the following scenarios: least one of the crewmembers dying, failing to land on the Moon, unable to return to Earth, the Soviets ...
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What purpose serve the audible “bip” on apollo radio communications? [duplicate]

When looking at moonwalk videos, we can hear bips. What are those bips? Why are there bips? Do this bips still exist in nowaday space missions?
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Apollo 11 space mission Lunar Orbit Insertion

I'm doing a basic analysis of the trip to the Moon. I've estimated the speed as follows: ...
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What do you call the Apollo LEM plus CM (Command Module) when they are connected?

In the question How far away can spacecraft be seen with an optical telescope? I used ...Apollo 14 CM & LEM and the Saturn IV B..." for lack of better words. Unlike some people I (don't) ...
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Saturn Ivb accelerated [closed]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V Derivation of a variant of the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation which includes gravity Take the rocket equation : v = ln(m0/mf) ve - g tburn Where tburn is time ...
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Two totally different pictures of Apollo 15 landing site released by NASA 40 years apart. What causes these differences? [closed]

A report of NASA, dated December 1971, shows at page 18 a picture on which the traces left behind by the Apollo 15 mission are superimposed. In 2012 NASA released a computer enhanced photo of the ...

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