Questions tagged [apollo-program]

NASA's Apollo program was a 17-mission program that focused on landing a human on the lunar surface. The program was the third human spaceflight by NASA, after Mercury and Gemini.

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Importance of moon phases for Apollo missions

I learned that Apollo 11 landed at half moon and that Apollo 8 circled the moon at new moon. How important were the moon phases for the Apollo flights?
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Success-fail probabilities for Apollo XI?

Is it known whether probabilities of success vs failure (and specifically fatal failures) were estimated at the time for the Apollo XI mission? Or perhaps some current estimates?
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Why was the Apollo CM main engine thought to be unreliable on Apollo 13?

When Apollo 13 had most of its internal systems destroyed by an explosion, NASA decided that the best course of action would be to fire the main engine on the dark side of the moon to send the capsule ...
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Did the Apollo 7 “mutiny” have consequences for ground crew?

The Apollo 7 mission was a troubled one due to the crew's illness and resulted in several heated discussions between the flight crew and ground crew. It seems to me that the ground crew was partly to ...
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What medicines were onboard the Apollo flights?

I'm currently reading through a book covering the early US space program - up through Apollo. In the book, it mentions that one of the crew on one of the flights was sick. He didn't tell mission ...
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Do Russian and American spacecraft use the same docking mechanism?

Back in the days of the Apollo era, the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project had the two craft meeting each other in orbit and docking. The stated reason for this was so that if a spacecraft from one country was ...
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Were the consoles in mission control computers or terminals for displaying information?

Were the consoles simple display terminals or were they computers? If terminals were they tied into a computer for control purposes? If a change in trajectory was necessary was it performed from the ...
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What was this Ziploc bag used for on an Apollo 14 moonwalk?

And how the heck would an astronaut have opened it with his gloves on? Is that bag likely to still be there in good condition, or would it have been broken down by radiation by now? Was it normal to ...
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How did Apollo 15's depressurization work?

Artwork depicting the EVA in question, NASA, via wikimedia.org On the way back an EVA was performed, and since there wasn't an airlock, the Command Module was depressurized. Was this feature only ...
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Was all the fuel expended in each stage of a Saturn V launch?

Particularly the first and second stages into earth orbit - were the stages run dry before separation? On first thoughts, It would seem to be safer to do so, but I realised the engines required liquid ...
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Why was Apollo mission launched on one big rocket? Wouldn't rendezvous in earth orbit using a smaller rocket have been an easier challenge?

Apollo already had some hardware for rendezvous on lunar orbit, so why not do the same on earth orbit and use smaller rocket? I suppose designing smaller rocket is simpler and also building double ...
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What happened to boiled-off gases from the storage tanks at Launch Complex 39?

Both Apollo and the Shuttle launched from KSC complex 39, and used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen as propellants. These cryogenic liquids were held in storage tanks near the perimeter of each ...
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The maximum depth Apollo astronauts dug into lunar regolith?

Almost on every mission the astronauts did some digging, but how deep did they reach? According to this article: The regolith is generally from 4 to 5 metres thick in mare areas and from 10 to 15 ...
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Apollo 10: Where's Snoopy?

During the Apollo program, we launched a total of 9 Lunar Modules (LM's). The Ascent module from Apollo 10, or "Snoopy," is unique in that it was neither deliberately crashed into the Moon (Apollo 11, ...
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What would have been the absolute maximum LEO payload of a two-stage Saturn V?

I read about the Skylab 1 mission in which SA-513 was used to lob the Skylab OWS into orbit. One source (http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=12519.20) gave some payload masses: Total ...
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Could the Apollo 13 crew have survived the CO2 issue using their spacesuits

In the book on the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission there is a chapter that contains an overview of the consumables on board the spacecraft, and whether or not they might pose a problem to the survival of ...
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Apollo 17; what is a barber pole, and what did “it is gray” mean?

Following the links in this comment by @Uwe I've found some interesting sources of information on Ham (amateur) radio operators trying to listen in on Apollo transmissions. At the bottom of Sven ...
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Double redundancy for the Saturn V LVDC computer memory, how were disagreements resolved?

In the Smarter Every Day video How did NASA Steer the Saturn V?- Smarter Every Day 223 Destin is talking with Luke Talley about the memory modules used in the Saturn V LVDC computer. This computer ...
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How long were the Apollo astronauts allowed to breathe 100% oxygen at 1 atmosphere continuously?

This answer explains that from the time they suited up "in the Suit Lab before launch" until the time the capsule started depressurizing during ascent, the Apollo astronauts were breathing 100% oxygen ...
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Did some Apollo astronauts actually carry a sandwich and bacon in their launch suit?

Normally I consider the Apollo Experience Reports as a reliable source, but the following claim is so bizarre that I'm asking if this claim can be verified by an independent source? THE APOLLO 14 ...
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Were these Apollo 14 and 15 recovery images taken (by a Navy frogman) using an underwater camera?

These images were taken after the flotation collar was mounted and inflated by the frogmen. Also the raft was inflated. The divers jumped off a helicopter before, no rescue ship was present. Camera ...
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Why was the Saturn V considered to be human-rated after Apollo 6?

Apollo 6 (AS-502) was the second flight of the Saturn V (the first having been Apollo 4/AS-501, five months earlier), the last flight of a Block I CSM,1 and the last unmanned Apollo mission (if one ...
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“Failure is not an option” is really a quote of flight director Gene Kranz?

"Failure is not an option" is attributed to Gene Kranz, flight director of Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle missions. In the movie Apollo 13, Ed Harris says it but IMDB trivia states that it was not ...
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Crashed LMs visible on LRO images?

I'm rewatching the old HBO "From the Earth to the Moon" series and then reading up about specific missions in detail afterwards. One thing I hadn't realised was that the LM for each mission typically ...
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Why was Apollo 12 allowed to go up in such bad weather?

I'd always heard the story about how Apollo 12 was struck by lightning and wondered why they let it head up in a storm. They always check the weather before a launch, and if there is any chance of ...
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What were the hammerhead cranes used for?

During Apollo, the three Launch Umbilical Towers had a hammerhead crane at the top: Until 1994, the Space Shuttle's Fixed Service Structures were topped by literally the same cranes. The linked ...
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What colors were used in the Apollo Lunar Module interior, and why?

There are lots of publications and blog posts on the exterior colors of the Apollo Lunar Module (a function of material choices), but I've struggled to find any information on the interior colors and ...
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Reentry without pressure suits in Apollo: was there a formal risk assesment?

In Apollo 11 Flight Journal the following is stated: The crew will make re-entry without suits or helmets on. Although this was a controversial decision on the first Apollo flight, Apollo 7, when the ...
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Did the Apollo lunar module descent stage have a role as a sort of service module?

To minimize the re-entry mass of the Apollo command module, essentially all of the mission supply of command module consumables was stored in the service module. Was there a similar arrangement ...
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How were the LM astronauts supported during the moon landing and ascent? What were the max G's on them during these phases?

I understand that the LM astronauts descent trajectory had them flying feet first in a standing position during the descent to the lunar surface and again on ascent. But it seems there must have been ...
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Apollo training simulator cgi requirements

https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/graphicshistory/chapter/13-4-nasa/ says that cgi was used for Apollo trainers. I just want to know the quality of this cgi. A modern computer runs at 2560 lines on ...
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What caused the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle to be unreliable?

The Lunar Landing Training Vehicle was used during the Apollo missions to simulate flying the lunar lander at 1/6th the force of Earth's gravity: Many sources have indicated a conflict between ...
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Picture of equipment left on the Moon?

When people visited the Moon, they left sizeable items behind. I know that taking picture of this from Earth is incredibly hard, but: Did someone try? And what pictures do we have?
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Do only Eagles walk on the moon?

Neil Armstrong was an Eagle Scout and the first person to walk on the moon. I have heard that everyone who has walked on the moon (through 2012), was an Eagle Scout. Is it true? If so other then ...
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Could the Apollo Lunar Module be flown to a landing without the LEM Guidance Computer?

Inspired by answers to Could the lunar module have moved to a different spot? question but not talking about that specific relaunch scenario: Could the LEM stack (descent configuration) be flown ...
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Why did Apollo have a crew of 3?

Why did Apollo have a crew of three when only two actually reached the surface of the moon? I can see it makes sense for the Lunar Module only to seat two astronauts. Less mass to land softly on the ...
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From which Apollo mission is this audio sample?

I found this page where Evgeny Molotov, former head of the Research institute of Space instruments, plays supposed intercepted communication of unknown Apollo mission. Can anyone identify from which ...
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Did the Apollo command module have an abort mode?

Many manned space exploration vehicles have some way to abort, to end the mission as quickly as possible and get back to relative safety. I'm wondering if the Apollo command module had an abort, a ...
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Was quarantine continued after Apollo 11?

After returning from the Apollo 11 mission, astronauts were placed in quarantine for 18 days (July 24 - August 10, 1969).              &...
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What is the cause of the data discrepancy between these two Apollo 11 Reports

Table 7-11 on page 7-9 of MSC-00171 Apollo 11 Mission Report lists the CSM/S-IVB separation occurring 3 hours, 17 minutes and 4.6 seconds into the mission, at an altitude of 4110.9 nautical miles, at ...
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Did the Apollo F-1 engines gain weight during flight?

I was browsing through Wikipedia when I came across this infographic on the Rocketdyne F-1. It gives the engine dry weight as 18,500 pounds, and the engine burnout weight as 20,180 pounds, meaning the ...
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Apollo era remote control of vehicle

I am wondering what kind of ability NASA had during the Gemini or Apollo program era to control the vehicle from the ground. From reading some capcom transcripts and looking through some random ...
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What were the differences on the LM ascent stage engines on Apollo 9, 10, and 11?

According to Apollo By The Numbers, the LM ascent stage of Apollo 11 ("Eagle", LM-5) had maximum rated thrust of 3218 lbf (14.31 kN), and subsequent missions had very similar figures. The engine ...
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Human-rating the Saturn V using modern standards

Would a complete Apollo-Saturn stack (like e.g. AS-506) be human-rated according to the latest human-rating process (NPR 8705.2C) of NASA? If not, what are the biggest show-stoppers? This question ...
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Where are the Apollo forward heat shields currently located?

The Apollo Experience Report: Thermal Protection Subsystem explains that there are three sections to the Apollo heat shield: The aft heat shield, at the "base" of the cone and adjacent to the SM. ...
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Apollo command module space walk?

Could the Apollo astronauts have done an eva, from the Command Module, during the flight to or from the Moon?
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How long did it take for the Apollo Command Module to orbit the moon?

As I know on Low Earth Orbit it takes around 90 minutes to orbit the Earth, but this changes with altitude. My question is at what altitude did the Apollo Command Module orbit the moon and how much ...
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Was there fuel consumption budgeting for Apollo 11 Lunar module?

Did the astronauts aboard Apollo 11's Lunar Module have any stated or imposed limitation or restriction on the amount of fuel they could use while in lunar orbit and performing landing maneuvers? I am ...
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What did Apollo need the crewed Command Module for?

Doubling the life support, almost doubling the crew space, carrying lots of extra mass - the recent question about direct ascent made me ponder this: the fundamental role of the Command Module was to ...
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Were the Apollo broadcasts recorded locally on the LM?

I've previously asked about how the recordings from the Apollo missions were originally recorded, and then transcribed; but I forgot about the video as well! It's well known that for some of the ...

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