Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding an envelope of gasses surrounding a celestial body held in place by the body's gravity.

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Starlink Dishy parameters and satellite recognition

I have two questions: What are the antenna parameters of Starlink dish antennas (like antenna gain, directivity, etc)? Is there any way for me to know which satellite my Starlink dish is ...
babibooooooo's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
183 views

What is ascent venting?

I am writing a report on CubeSat construction, and while reading Cal Poly's CDS I encountered the concept of ascent venting (or more specifically, the constraint that 'ascent venting per ventable ...
moooligan's user avatar
18 votes
1 answer
6k views

Person falling from space

A person at rest 500 km above the Earth falls straight downwards. She has a snug magical force field around her that is totally rigid and completely protects her from outside heat. The force field ...
CapIsland's user avatar
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17 votes
1 answer
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How high could Ingenuity fly?

On its 59th flight, Ingenuity achieved a height of 20 meters - twice as high as its maximum height during the original 5 flights that it was designed and expected to last for. In the scheduled 61st ...
BaileyA's user avatar
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2 answers
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Chemical Problems When Encountering Thin Atmospheric Worlds

Bodies such as Enceladus, Mercury, and Triton, etc... have thin (and often temporary) atmospheres. When probes or landers encounter the chemicals in such atmospheres in low orbits/landings, they may ...
AnarchoEngineer's user avatar
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What is the minimum pressure of a purely CO₂ atmosphere on Europa that can retain enough heat for surface liquid water?

*Ignoring external factors such as Jupiter's magnetosphere blowing this new atmosphere off. I'm not sure where to begin the maths for that
cdemr's user avatar
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1 answer
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The Boeing Big Onion - Why not use the atmospheric engines on landing?

https://www.aerospaceprojectsreview.com/blog/?p=1325 In relation the the Boeing "Big Onion" SSTO LV, I was doing some brief digging on it's flight profile. (See the awesome Hazegrayart ...
AnarchoEngineer's user avatar
18 votes
4 answers
4k views

What stages of distress occur to a person when there is a small hull breach in space?

I'm working on a short sci-fi game and I'm curious about how the effects of a hull breach in a confined area play out. For perspective, let's say a very confined space of 100 cubic feet of normal, ...
HAL 9000's user avatar
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What would Venus look like without acid clouds?

Despite its unpleasant surface conditions, Venus is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful worlds in the solar system when viewed from space. It’s huge clouds of sulphuric acid make the planet ...
user50946's user avatar
23 votes
3 answers
3k views

How does Titan have hydrogen in its atmosphere?

Titan's atmosphere contains few tenths of a percent of hydrogen. This seems odd to me, as Earth with a 4x greater escape velocity cannot retain hydrogen or even helium in its atmosphere. Titan is 3x ...
blademan9999's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
533 views

What are the calculations for the time it would take to create a minus 50⁰ C liquid CO2 ocean on Venus by shielding it totally from the Sun?

Cooling down Venus will probably be by far the most efficient method to start terraforming the planet because then you wouldn't have to deal with the high temperatures and pressures at its surface. I'...
Cornelis's user avatar
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the higher the altitude, the lower the molecular density of the compounds. why doesn't this apply to O, N and O3?

for them, behavior interference occurs from certain altitudes. What are these interferences? and why does this happen?
Joao Victor's user avatar
16 votes
2 answers
5k views

Are there any short-term survivable locations in the solar system, outside of Earth?

Are there any known natural locations (i.e. not counting ISS) in our solar system (outside of Earth) where a human being in street clothes (i.e. without a spacesuit or other specialized equipment) ...
Jeremy Friesner's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
107 views

How far could we see (horizontally), floating inside the acid clouds of Venus at 56 km and at 51 km height above the surface?

Screenshot of Fig. 4 in the article The microphysics of the clouds of Venus: Results of the Pioneer Venus Particle Size Spectrometer Experiment From the Wikipedia section about the troposphere of ...
Cornelis's user avatar
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Regarding planets capturing gases from space with their gravitational pull;

We know most (or all) planets suffer atmospheric escape. Now, can planets gain atmosphere from drawing in gases drifting in space? Is there a formula for that? Is there a cutoff point between gravity, ...
Mindwin Remember Monica's user avatar
1 vote
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How to model the kinematics of gases expelled from comets and planetary atmospheres? [closed]

Once the ices of comets sublimate, where do they move to, and with which equations do you describe their motion in the interplanetary medium? Similarly, where do the gases that are stripped from the ...
Astrolien's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
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How well would a supersonic aircraft perform in the Martian atmosphere?

I started getting curious about this question during my Flight Test Engineering class. My professor was talking about a part of the International Standard Atmosphere that is a similar pressure to that ...
Mattias's user avatar
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Fjeldbo, Kliore, & Eshleman 1971 Fig. 22 planetary atmosphere index of refraction increasing with altitude; physics insight or convenient abstraction?

this answer to Is it possible for a spacecraft to communicate with Earth when a planet is in the way? suggesting that atmospheric refraction could be used to get at least some kind of signal around a ...
uhoh's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
2k views

Would a sufficiently deep cavern on Mars provide habitable temperature and atmospheric pressure? Was Dick Tracy wrong?

Would a sufficiently deep cavern on Mars provide habitable temperature and atmospheric pressure? Dick Tracy discovered minimally dressed Moon People living comfortably outdoors on the Moon. Their Far ...
Woody's user avatar
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5 votes
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What's the lowest and the highest ever recorded atmospheric pressure by a Mars lander?

What is the lowest and what's the highest ever recorded air pressure on Mars by an (either roving or stationary) Mars landing probe? As per the answer in this question of mine, it seems the highest ...
user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
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Could and should not the search for the location(s) of the Martian methane spikes become the main scientific objective for the Curiosity rover?

In Nature Geoscience's article Independent confirmation of a methane spike on Mars and a source region east of Gale Crater is announced that the reported methane spike on sol 305 by the Tunable Laser ...
Cornelis's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
90 views

How to estimate total CO2 emission per year due to rocket manufacture?

I'm working on a study on greenhouse gas emissions related to rockets. While I have the post-launch (atmospheric) emissions, I need data for emissions related to production. For example, according to ...
dxcfvgbh cfvgbhnj's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is there a black donut in Perseverance's SkyCam? Is it always used to block the Sun? (sky cameras on Earth don't) How does it work?

At mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images I found Mars Perseverance Sol 258: SkyCam Camera which shows a sky camera (180° FOV fisheye view of the sky) image. I've included it below along with ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
6 votes
2 answers
285 views

Why wasn't the high-speed rotation regime for Ingenuity tested on Earth?

On the NASA website, it says that the propeller on Ingenuity will need to spin faster than what has been done before during all of the previous tests to accommodate for the rarefied atmosphere during ...
usernumber's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
32 views

How does SuperCam measure the air?

The NASA website mentions that the SuperCam onboard Perseverance can measure the air. How does it do this? Does it use LIBS? Is the SuperCam more apt at doing these measures than a regular camera?
usernumber's user avatar
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4 votes
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What is the planned Nuwa city atmosphere?

Nuwa is a proposal for a large-scale permanent Martian settlement. What is the planned atmospheric composition of Nuwa city's air? Will it be 15psi Oxygen/nitrogen, and trace gases or low partial ...
L5Rick's user avatar
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0 answers
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Who's buried in Grant's Tomb? Size of 122 cm conductive spheres charge collection in the Shuttle's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators?

Why were the three 122-cm diameter conductive spheres for charge collection in the Shuttle's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators black? links to How did three 1.2 meter spheres and a Xe+ ...
uhoh's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why were the three 122-cm diameter conductive spheres for charge collection in the Shuttle's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators black?

From this answer to How did three 1.2 meter spheres and a Xe+ plasma contactor keep the Shuttle “grounded”? What did they look like?: STS-45 view of payload bay with this description (emphasis my own)...
uhoh's user avatar
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163 views

Is there an atmospheric pressure model for Mars that takes different temperatures and seasons into account?

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Above are the pressure data from Curiosity's REMS sensor for the first 200 sols at Gale crater. At about sol 170 Mars was at perihelion and a month later it was southern ...
Cornelis's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
734 views

Why does Unity look transparent?

The BBC's Virgin Galactic: Sir Richard Branson rockets to the edge of space includes the image below. Much of the Unity spacecraft appears (almost) transparent in this image; you can see the blue sky ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
2 votes
1 answer
775 views

Why not use alternative/low-pressure atmospheres in fairings during launch?

For example: using a reduced pressure helium atmosphere. Most fairings are already cleanroom environments. Benefits I can see: Eliminate need for acoustic tiles as low pressure and/or light gasses (...
Alonda's user avatar
  • 431
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

Self-sustainable Hermetically Sealed System: Humans & Plants

Somewhat related to How many plants would be needed to produce oxygen enough for 20 humans? Suppose a number of humans are closed in a large hermetically sealed room on Earth with a glass (or other ...
Jan Stuller's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
189 views

From what altitude will they cut Dragonfly helicopter loose on Titan and make it land itself, and what are the main factors determining this altitude?

Titan's surface pressure is about 1.5 bar and because the surface gravity is low pressure falls off much more slowly with altitude than it does on Earth. From Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Titan; vertical ...
uhoh's user avatar
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24 votes
4 answers
4k views

In simple terms, how does the way space suits manage breathable gas differ from how scuba gear does it?

I say "breathable gas" because what's in the tank can be a variety of mixtures and I don't know a single word for gas mixture you can safely breathe. less scientific or clinical sounding ...
uhoh's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
383 views

On what calculations is Robert Zubrin's assertion that Mars could be warmed by 10 ⁰ C in 50 years with fluorocarbon gases based?

In this answer to the question "What would the full hypothetical Mars terraforming roadmap look like ?" there's a link to the article "Zubrin on Terraforming Mars" in Universe ...
Cornelis's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
494 views

Is the charge on Martian dust positive or negative?

Martian dust tends to cling to surfaces such as solar panels due to electrostatic charge. Martian dust is extremely small and fine-grained. Atmospheric dust on Mars is approximately three microns in ...
DrSheldon's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
295 views

How would Ingenuity handle Martian Storm and dust devils?

Martian storms are quite common and can sometimes encompass most of the planet. Though the density of the Martian air is low, the speeds are pretty high (some have observed 26 m/s). How would the ...
karthikeyan's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
275 views

What could Perseverance listening to Ingenuity reveal?

On 2021 May 7, the science lead for Perseverance's SuperCam Mars microphone said about that microphone's recording of a flight of the Ingenuity helicopter: We had carried out tests and simulations ...
Camille Goudeseune's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
462 views

How long would astronauts' footprints on Mars persist?

The Apollo astronauts' footsteps can remain theoretically forever on the Moon as it has no atmosphere. Mars does have an atmosphere but a very thin one. Its pressure ranges from 72 Pa (0.0104 psi) on ...
Giovanni's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
63 views

Could the phosphorus in phosphine in the Venus atmosphere probably produced by cosmic ray spallation of sulfur? [closed]

Reading the following questions and their answers: Why wasn't the phosphine in Venus' atmosphere detected by space probes? Phosphine, yes -- but where are the organic compounds on Venus? the ...
Kav's user avatar
  • 279
21 votes
2 answers
4k views

How do we know what the atmospheric pressure on Mars is?

The martian atmosphere is 6 mbar. How do we know this? Which probe(s) had a barometer on board to measure this?
usernumber's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the density of the earth's atmosphere at an altitude of four hundred kilometers?

What is the density of the earth's atmosphere at an altitude of four hundred kilometers? I want to use it to calculate the drag on something in orbit near the ISS. The Jacchia Reference Atmosphere is ...
Matthew Christopher Bartsh's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
102 views

What is the increase in drag by adding a space station module?

Imagine a cylindrical space station module, orbiting at an arbitrary height - the same as the ISS say. Another identity cylindrical module docks on the end. Real station cross section hasn't changed -...
user2702772's user avatar
  • 1,084
4 votes
1 answer
178 views

What instruments and techniques measured Mars' atmospheric D/H ratio which suggests (all of) it's water didn't evaporate after all?

The Time article Mars Has Much More Water Than Previously Known—But There's a Catch says: The greater weight of deuterium causes it to behave differently in the Martian atmosphere. While free ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
5 votes
0 answers
479 views

How many kilograms of nickel particles will be dispersed in Earth's atmosphere by dumping old ISS batteries overboard?

update: CNN's November 7, 2023 Japanese scientists want to send a wooden satellite into space links to October 16, 2023 NOAA scientists link exotic metal particles in the upper atmosphere to rockets, ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
0 votes
1 answer
130 views

How many planets have had their limbs scanned with radio signals?

This answer to When did planetary scientists realize Venus' surface pressure was almost 100x that on Earth? How did they find out? describes one example of scanning the limb of a planet using ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
2 votes
1 answer
111 views

During reentry, does the flux stay laminar? Should become turbulent the capsule could not mantain attitude

This a thing that, instinctively, I find it hard to grasp. The capsules are designed with a centre of gravity slightly to the direction of the thermal shield, this assures the right attitude, but how ...
Gianni's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
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Together with an ISRU investigation, the scientific value of a local Martian weather experiment by uncovering the near surface ice in Nier crater?

From NASA's Treasure Map for Water Ice on Mars: "You wouldn't need a backhoe to dig up this ice. You could use a shovel," said the paper's lead author, Sylvain Piqueux of NASA's Jet ...
Cornelis's user avatar
  • 7,545
2 votes
1 answer
118 views

What local pressure changes would a starship launch on Mars cause?

When Starship launches from Mars it will burn thousands of tonnes of fuel in seconds. This will cause a local increase in pressure, humidity (it might exist!) and temperature. Do we have any idea how ...
user2702772's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
197 views

Would the >100 km "knee" in Earth's atmosphere still be where MFP exceeded scale height if it were pure Ne or Ar?

There is currently one answer to How many solar system bodies have "knees" in their atmospheres? that points out that somewhere above roughly 100 km turbulent mixing drops off (thus the name ...
uhoh's user avatar
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