Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding an envelope of gasses surrounding a celestial body held in place by the body's gravity.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
9
votes
0answers
138 views

How well would a supersonic aircraft perform in the Martian atmosphere?

I started getting curious about this question during my Flight Test Engineering class. My professor was talking about a part of the International Standard Atmosphere that is a similar pressure to that ...
3
votes
0answers
35 views
+100

Fjeldbo, Kliore, & Eshleman 1971 Fig. 22 planetary atmosphere index of refraction increasing with altitude; physics insight or convenient abstraction?

this answer to Is it possible for a spacecraft to communicate with Earth when a planet is in the way? suggesting that atmospheric refraction could be used to get at least some kind of signal around a ...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Would a sufficiently deep cavern on Mars provide habitable temperature and atmospheric pressure? Was Dick Tracy wrong?

Would a sufficiently deep cavern on Mars provide habitable temperature and atmospheric pressure? Dick Tracy discovered minimally dressed Moon People living comfortably outdoors on the Moon. Their Far ...
5
votes
0answers
48 views

What's the lowest and the highest ever recorded atmospheric pressure by a Mars lander?

What is the lowest and what's the highest ever recorded air pressure on Mars by an (either roving or stationary) Mars landing probe? As per the answer in this question of mine, it seems the highest ...
5
votes
0answers
76 views

Could and should not the search for the location(s) of the Martian methane spikes become the main scientific objective for the Curiosity rover?

In Nature Geoscience's article Independent confirmation of a methane spike on Mars and a source region east of Gale Crater is announced that the reported methane spike on sol 305 by the Tunable Laser ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

How to estimate total CO2 emission per year due to rocket manufacture?

I'm working on a study on greenhouse gas emissions related to rockets. While I have the post-launch (atmospheric) emissions, I need data for emissions related to production. For example, according to ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is there a black donut in Perseverance's SkyCam? Is it always used to block the Sun? (sky cameras on Earth don't) How does it work?

At mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images I found Mars Perseverance Sol 258: SkyCam Camera which shows a sky camera (180° FOV fisheye view of the sky) image. I've included it below along with ...
5
votes
2answers
212 views

Why wasn't the high-speed rotation regime for Ingenuity tested on Earth?

On the NASA website, it says that the propeller on Ingenuity will need to spin faster than what has been done before during all of the previous tests to accommodate for the rarefied atmosphere during ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

How does SuperCam measure the air?

The NASA website mentions that the SuperCam onboard Perseverance can measure the air. How does it do this? Does it use LIBS? Is the SuperCam more apt at doing these measures than a regular camera?
4
votes
1answer
118 views

What is the planned Nuwa city atmosphere?

Nuwa is a proposal for a large-scale permanent Martian settlement. What is the planned atmospheric composition of Nuwa city's air? Will it be 15psi Oxygen/nitrogen, and trace gases or low partial ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Who's buried in Grant's Tomb? Size of 122 cm conductive spheres charge collection in the Shuttle's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators?

Why were the three 122-cm diameter conductive spheres for charge collection in the Shuttle's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators black? links to How did three 1.2 meter spheres and a Xe+ ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Why were the three 122-cm diameter conductive spheres for charge collection in the Shuttle's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators black?

From this answer to How did three 1.2 meter spheres and a Xe+ plasma contactor keep the Shuttle “grounded”? What did they look like?: STS-45 view of payload bay with this description (emphasis my own)...
6
votes
0answers
38 views

Is there an atmospheric pressure model for Mars that takes different temperatures and seasons into account?

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Above are the pressure data from Curiosity's REMS sensor for the first 200 sols at Gale crater. At about sol 170 Mars was at perihelion and a month later it was southern ...
-3
votes
2answers
191 views

Why does Unity look transparent?

The BBC's Virgin Galactic: Sir Richard Branson rockets to the edge of space includes the image below. Much of the Unity spacecraft appears (almost) transparent in this image; you can see the blue sky ...
2
votes
1answer
721 views

Why not use alternative/low-pressure atmospheres in fairings during launch?

For example: using a reduced pressure helium atmosphere. Most fairings are already cleanroom environments. Benefits I can see: Eliminate need for acoustic tiles as low pressure and/or light gasses (...
9
votes
1answer
839 views

Self-sustainable Hermetically Sealed System: Humans & Plants

Somewhat related to How many plants would be needed to produce oxygen enough for 20 humans? Suppose a number of humans are closed in a large hermetically sealed room on Earth with a glass (or other ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

From what altitude will they cut Dragonfly helicopter loose on Titan and make it land itself, and what are the main factors determining this altitude?

Titan's surface pressure is about 1.5 bar and because the surface gravity is low pressure falls off much more slowly with altitude than it does on Earth. From Wikipedia's Atmosphere of Titan; vertical ...
24
votes
4answers
3k views

In simple terms, how does the way space suits manage breathable gas differ from how scuba gear does it?

I say "breathable gas" because what's in the tank can be a variety of mixtures and I don't know a single word for gas mixture you can safely breathe. less scientific or clinical sounding ...
5
votes
1answer
209 views

On what calculations is Robert Zubrin's assertion that Mars could be warmed by 10 ⁰ C in 50 years with fluorocarbon gases based?

In this answer to the question "What would the full hypothetical Mars terraforming roadmap look like ?" there's a link to the article "Zubrin on Terraforming Mars" in Universe ...
4
votes
1answer
171 views

How would Ingenuity handle Martian Storm and dust devils?

Martian storms are quite common and can sometimes encompass most of the planet. Though the density of the Martian air is low, the speeds are pretty high (some have observed 26 m/s). How would the ...
7
votes
1answer
121 views

What could Perseverance listening to Ingenuity reveal?

On 2021 May 7, the science lead for Perseverance's SuperCam Mars microphone said about that microphone's recording of a flight of the Ingenuity helicopter: We had carried out tests and simulations ...
4
votes
3answers
344 views

How long would astronauts' footprints on Mars persist?

The Apollo astronauts' footsteps can remain theoretically forever on the Moon as it has no atmosphere. Mars does have an atmosphere but a very thin one. Its pressure ranges from 72 Pa (0.0104 psi) on ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

Could the phosphorus in phosphine in the Venus atmosphere probably produced by cosmic ray spallation of sulfur? [closed]

Reading the following questions and their answers: Why wasn't the phosphine in Venus' atmosphere detected by space probes? Phosphine, yes -- but where are the organic compounds on Venus? the ...
21
votes
2answers
3k views

How do we know what the atmospheric pressure on Mars is?

The martian atmosphere is 6 mbar. How do we know this? Which probe(s) had a barometer on board to measure this?
6
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the density of the earth's atmosphere at an altitude of four hundred kilometers?

What is the density of the earth's atmosphere at an altitude of four hundred kilometers? I want to use it to calculate the drag on something in orbit near the ISS. The Jacchia Reference Atmosphere is ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

What is the increase in drag by adding a space station module?

Imagine a cylindrical space station module, orbiting at an arbitrary height - the same as the ISS say. Another identity cylindrical module docks on the end. Real station cross section hasn't changed -...
2
votes
0answers
19 views

What instruments and techniques measured Mars' atmospheric D/H ratio which suggests (all of) it's water didn't evaporate after all?

The Time article Mars Has Much More Water Than Previously Known—But There's a Catch says: The greater weight of deuterium causes it to behave differently in the Martian atmosphere. While free ...
3
votes
0answers
264 views

How many kilograms of nickel particles will be dispersed in Earth's atmosphere by dumping old ISS batteries overboard?

Weighing 2.9 tons... this heap of old batteries is now the heaviest single piece of garbage to be jettisoned from the International Space Station. begins Gizmodo's ISS Ditches 2.9-Ton Pallet of ...
0
votes
1answer
97 views

How many planets have had their limbs scanned with radio signals?

This answer to When did planetary scientists realize Venus' surface pressure was almost 100x that on Earth? How did they find out? describes one example of scanning the limb of a planet using ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

During reentry, does the flux stay laminar? Should become turbulent the capsule could not mantain attitude

This a thing that, instinctively, I find it hard to grasp. The capsules are designed with a centre of gravity slightly to the direction of the thermal shield, this assures the right attitude, but how ...
4
votes
0answers
164 views

Scientific value and feasibility of a local Martian weather experiment by uncovering the near surface ice in Nier crater?

From NASA's Treasure Map for Water Ice on Mars: "You wouldn't need a backhoe to dig up this ice. You could use a shovel," said the paper's lead author, Sylvain Piqueux of NASA's Jet ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

What local pressure changes would a starship launch on Mars cause?

When Starship launches from Mars it will burn thousands of tonnes of fuel in seconds. This will cause a local increase in pressure, humidity (it might exist!) and temperature. Do we have any idea how ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

Would the >100 km "knee" in Earth's atmosphere still be where MFP exceeded scale height if it were pure Ne or Ar?

There is currently one answer to How many solar system bodies have "knees" in their atmospheres? that points out that somewhere above roughly 100 km turbulent mixing drops off (thus the name ...
3
votes
1answer
126 views

How many solar system bodies have "knees" in their atmospheres?

Discussion lead to citing Why does Earth's atmospheric density have a big "knee" around 100 km? Is there a good analytical approximation? who's answer is "monatomic oxygen". ...
68
votes
4answers
10k views

Why did it take so long to notice that the ozone layer had holes in it? Which satellite provided the data?

Wikipedia says: The discovery of the annual depletion of ozone above the Antarctic was first announced by Joe Farman, Brian Gardiner and Jonathan Shanklin, in a paper which appeared in Nature on May ...
22
votes
5answers
3k views

Does upper atmosphere rotate with earth?

Basic question that I should know the answer to but sadly don't. The lower atmosphere must rotate with the earth because of friction---at least the very bottom of it. But what about 30 miles up? There ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

How do you balance speed and exposure time when trying to reduce heating? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand how you choose your acceleration/deceleration and trajectory during launch and reentry to minimize aerodynamic heating.* Ignoring efficiency in terms of delta-v (best leave ...
1
vote
0answers
86 views

g-forces entering and leaving atmospheres, how would they vary from one body to another?

I was wondering how launching from and returning into atmospheres of other bodies such as Mars, Venus, Titan, etc. would differ from Earth's. Specifically, I am wondering how many g's would be ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

Orbit lifetime of a Nano-Satellite in 350 Km Orbit

I was trying to write a very simple program to calculate orbit life time of a nano-satellite. I got the atmosphere density as function of altitude from this site. ...
4
votes
2answers
164 views

How much energy from the Sun could we get if we use Jupiter or the Earth as an atmospheric lens?

How much energy (watts) from sunlight could arrive to the focal point if we use Jupiter or the Earth as an atmospheric lens by using refraction? How far the focal point would have to be placed for ...
4
votes
1answer
262 views

Did the Space Shuttle crew have to worry about monatomic oxygen?

Comments below this answer tell us that the Space Shuttle always remained in Earth's atmosphere. When it visited the Hubble Space Telescope or the ISS or Mir it was still in the thermosphere and ...
4
votes
1answer
188 views

Did the Space Shuttle crew have to worry about the ionosphere? What relevant training or specific briefings did they receive?

Comments below this answer tell us that the Space Shuttle always remained in Earth's atmosphere. When it visited the Hubble Space Telescope or the ISS or Mir it was still in the thermosphere and ...
4
votes
1answer
145 views

What is the Opaque Component of Venus' Atmosphere

My understanding is that carbon dioxide makes up the majority of the Venusian atmosphere, and carbon dioxide is transparent. Even liquid CO2 is transparent! Yet despite this Venus is enveloped in a ...
3
votes
1answer
609 views

Have any Soviet-era astronauts reported seeing Earth's aurora or related luminescent atmospheric effects?

Earth's aurora and related luminescent atmospheric effects are generally quite dim, and mostly but not always located in the general area of Earth's magnetic poles. That means to be seen easily by eye ...
1
vote
0answers
205 views

Have any Apollo (or earlier) astronauts reported seeing Earth's aurora or related luminescent atmospheric effects?

Earth's aurora and related luminescent atmospheric effects are generally quite dim, and mostly but not always located in the general area of Earth's magnetic poles. That means to be seen easily by eye ...
4
votes
2answers
327 views

How did three 1.2 meter spheres and a Xe+ plasma contactor keep the Shuttle "grounded"? What did they look like?

Statement of relevance This answer to Highest DC voltage ever intentionally produced in space? mentions particle beam experiments done from the Space Shuttle while it flew through Earth's atmosphere ...
2
votes
0answers
143 views

What exactly is electron precipitation in Earth's ionosphere and how does it relate to the STEVE phenomenon? [closed]

Source Trying to decide if the unanswered question What was Steve? Is it called something else now? is in need of attention I checked Wikipedia's Steve (atmospheric phenomenon); Occurrence and cause ...
12
votes
3answers
657 views

Phosphine, yes -- but where are the organic compounds on Venus?

There has been much speculation in recent news about the finding of phosphine on Venus, and what may be producing it. At the same time, when we look for clues of life elsewhere in the Solar System, we ...
15
votes
1answer
2k views

Why wasn't the phosphine in Venus' atmosphere detected by space probes?

Today, it was announced that phosphine has been found in Venus' atmosphere, rekindling the discussion about the possibility of extraterrestrial life. Venus has been visited by space probes for about ...
14
votes
1answer
586 views

How does it feel to breathe 100% oxygen at low pressure?

Some space suits are designed to provide an atmosphere of 100% oxygen but at a reduced air pressure about 20% that of sea level. Is breathing in such a suit uncomfortable? It seems like having such a ...

1
2 3 4 5
7