Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding an envelope of gasses surrounding a celestial body held in place by the body's gravity.

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11
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1answer
283 views

Are there microclimates with better weather conditions on Mars?

On Earth, a microclimate mostly refers to an area which differs from the surrounding areas in temperature or humidity. And what about Mars ? Are there places with atmospheric conditions that are ...
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2answers
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How to collect gases on Moon and in space?

On Earth if you need to collect gases you can use passive hood exhaust under a fusion (convection), or just under hot liquid, or use vacuum pumps for catch gases together with air. In the space or on ...
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4answers
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When did planetary scientists realize Venus' surface pressure was almost 100x that on Earth? How did they find out?

The question Surface of Venus - what would it look like to see a spacecraft crushed by the atmospheric pressure? is a good one! That plus comments below this answer got me thinking first about just ...
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1answer
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What are reentry speeds of space vehicles?

I found here that the entry speed of meteors reach 48 km/s. I mean just before hitting atmosphere. What are reentry speeds for space vehicles like the lunar command module? What about soyuz ...
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3answers
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Maximum survivable atmospheric pressure

Given a similar mix of gases to those in our Earth's atmosphere, what is the upper limit of survivable atmospheric pressure for a human? Could a human survive higher pressures with a gas mix unlike ...
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2answers
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Why didn’t the Spacecraft used for the Apollo 11 mission melt in the Earth’s Atmosphere?

My brother has recently been converted to a Flat Earther and is convinced that something that proves his theory is the moon landings being faked by NASA. I have managed to counter argue the majority ...
4
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1answer
161 views

What effects does atmosphere have on solar panels?

For the purpose of this question I do not want to focus simply on the fact that there will be less "night time" for the panels while in orbit/outside the atmosphere of a planet. What I'd like to ...
5
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1answer
154 views

GMAT atmosphere

I am using GMAT to propagate satellite motion with Jacchia-Roberts atmosphere model. Here is a formula used from this model which is then used to estimate the variation in drag on a spacecraft due to ...
20
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1answer
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Has the Earth's red atmosphere rim ever been photographed?

In the Wikipedia article on Lunar eclipse there's given an image of how the Earth would look from the eclipsed Moon: This is obviously a schematic drawing. So I wonder, has the Earth ever been ...
6
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1answer
139 views

How much does pressure on Mars change with weather?

A great answer about the Mars atmosphere and water triple point shows there is a region on Mars where clean liquid water slightly above 0°C can exist on the surface. I still wonder, though, how ...
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3answers
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How can an *increase* in atmospheric temperature cause an *increase* in the atmospheric mass density?

We often hear that heating Earth's atmosphere from solar activity or CMEs increases the mass density of the atmosphere at a given altitude, causing orbiting spacecraft to lose altitude faster from ...
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3answers
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How would one go about proving humans have really been to outer space?

Background: I am 40 years old, and in my entire life the only face to face eyewitness event that I can remember where humans actually observed an attempt to fly into outer space, the craft exploded ...
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4answers
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Are there any known atmospheres that would support traditional combustion engines?

If we landed a traditional automobile on the moon, the combustion engine would lack oxygen, and, for obvious reasons, would not function. I'm wondering if a planet terrestrial body exists where we ...
2
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1answer
169 views

Where are we in the current effort to make mars habitable? [closed]

I feel like this should be a massive effort put forth by all countries. As a civilization, our population is growing at a break-neck rate. Not only would it be a fail-safe should something happen to ...
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1answer
104 views

What is the science behind the variation of Mars' effective sky temperature with latitude and longitude? Why the “hot spot”?

After reading this interesting answer to the question How cold is the Martian sky at night? Or the day for that matter? I found that Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2001 Version (Mars-GRAM ...
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2answers
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Is Mars' gravity strong enough to hold a human-breathable atmosphere?

If we ever try to make Mars outdoors habitable, won't the air just keep flying off into the outer space because of low gravity?
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How much sulphuric acid is on Venus?

According to Wikipedia there are just 150 ppm of sulphur dioxide and 20 ppm of water in Venus' atmosphere. At the same time it is known that there is a considerable amount of sulphuric acid in the ...
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4answers
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Could we see the surface of Venus after the explosion of a H-bomb in its atmosphere?

The dense atmosphere of Venus is mainly composed of carbon dioxide and nitrogen, with clouds made of sulfuric acid droplets, which make optical observation of the surface impossible. As can be seen ...
3
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3answers
239 views

Are the mountains of Venus of any help for us to explore the surface?

The circular orbit and small axial tilt results in no seasons, coupled with the well-known strong greenhouse that makes nights just as hot as days. As pressure gets lower by height, so does ...
2
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1answer
154 views

What are the ranges a human can survive AND breathe in?

I am writing a space sci-fi short story series, and I am trying to figure out what the range in pressure a human can survive AND breathe. I am trying to find the lowest, safest air pressure a human ...
2
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1answer
43 views

Concentration of gases in an atmosphere

this question made me think what type of technique is used to get concentration of gases on planets? One can get the composition using spectrometry but is there anyway to tell concentration of each ...
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33 views

Looking for atmospheric density models of various planets and moons

Looking for atmospheric density models of various planets and moons, any sort of data/resources/database of this information would be extremely useful as I am working on recreating these models for ...
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5answers
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Is atmospheric skimming for propellant feasible?

A recent comment in a discussion of satellite refueling mentioned the possiblity of a spacecraft dipping into the atmosphere from LEO to obtain oxygen. Similarly, the science fiction RPG Traveller ...
9
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1answer
624 views

Titan - Is the source of so much Methane being overlooked?

Is the source of so much Methane on Titan being overlooked? Tons of very intelligent and knowledgeable people already looked at it, so the answer in undoubtedly "no", so I guess my question is more ...
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1answer
487 views

What is the procedure when a spacesuit gets a tear in it? [duplicate]

What do you do if you are in space and you get a rip in your spacesuit other than getting right with God? What if you cannot get back to base in time?
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3answers
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Is the “airship to orbit” mission profile feasible?

By one of those weird coincidences, I had been on JP Aerospace's site mere hours before reading this question about space dirigibles here. Their mission plan seems too good to be true. They are ...
2
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1answer
182 views

Can air pressure be accumulated this way for a biodome or spacesuit?

Using plastic or rubber or something similar and transparent be inflated with each layer having a increasing pressure lessening the strain on the containing material? When one or two layers fails the ...
6
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3answers
521 views

How does an atmospheric probe measure temperature during descent?

I heard that the Galileo spacecraft sent Galileo Probe into Jupiter, and it reported temperatures reaching 153 degrees Celsius. The question is, when you send a probe crashing into a planet that has ...
9
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1answer
169 views

Measuring the pressure and temperature of Pluto's atmosphere using stellar occultations

Is this primarily done analyzing the Voigt profiles absorption bands on background of stellar spectra or on re-emission bands of atmospheric compounds? Assuming Pluto's atmosphere behaves like an ...
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0answers
58 views

Building a Drag model for rocket optimization

I need to build a drag model for my rocket optimization program and I stumbled upon by the following formula: $CD = CD_c(M)$, $K_n < K_{nc}$, $CD = CD_{fm}$, $K_n > K_{nf}$, $CD = CD_c +(CD_{...
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1answer
163 views

Space Station in atmosphere with continuous reboosting to preserve orbit

I recently watched the series Altered Carbon. In that series, they showed a floating space station called "Head in the Clouds". There is a blue sky here, even clouds. This would imply a height of &...
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2answers
5k views

Bounce off the atmosphere at reentry?

I am just watching Space Race part 3 and the cosmonauts just got their first view of Wostok. The scientist who designed the retrorockets told the soon-to-be spacemen that the rockets would have to be ...
5
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1answer
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Launching sounding rockets from the magnetic equator (ISRO's Thumba)

The Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station is operated by ISRO for launching sounding rockets because magnetic equator passes through it. Equator gives additional velocity, But what advantage ...
4
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0answers
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What is the typical size of the sulfuric acid droplets in the atmosphere of Venus?

According to Wikipedia: Venusian clouds are thick and are composed mainly (75-96%) of sulfuric acid droplets. These clouds obscure the surface of Venus from optical imaging, and reflect about 75% ...
9
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2answers
364 views

Would a mars base need to expel excess heat?

I've read that on Mars you lose 30% of your heat through convection and 70% through black body radiation. (The much lower amount from convection due to the tenous atmosphere vs. Earth.) http://www....
8
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1answer
419 views

Can there be an atmosphere in a cave on an atmosphere-less planet?

I am making an exoplanet for a game and was wondering whether a planet without an atmosphere (or at least with a very weak atmosphere) could support caves that do have an atmosphere, or whether the ...
12
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2answers
4k views

How much sunlight gets to the surface of Titan? What would astronauts see?

Saturn being at 10 A.U. means sunlight on Titan's cloud tops is about 1/100 that on Earth's. That's 4000 times the illumination of Earth's moon. Titan's atmosphere is described as opaque smog. If ...
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2answers
1k views

What are the characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere near the Karman line and why?

I am wondering - what is the nature of the atmosphere in and around the transition to space at the Karman line? It is not difficult to find references using terms like "in the atmosphere" and "out of ...
6
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1answer
402 views

Has an astronaut ever seen pixies, ELVEs, sprites or blue jets (without a camera)?

The NASA Science video ScienceCasts: A Display of Lights Above the Storm shows several examples of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) (Upper Atmospheric Lightning) being filmed by high-sensitivity ...
14
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2answers
457 views

At what altitude does transonic compressibility become a non-issue?

I know that on the forthcoming SpaceX attempt at sea landing the first stage, they have added hypersonic fins to the first stage. I was curious as to what altitude transonic compressibility is an ...
8
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2answers
2k views

Can we make a space blimp?

OK. Hear me out. I know that blimps float because of the buoyancy of air, and there is no air in space. But think of the way a boat floats on the top of water even though the material that the boat is ...
2
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0answers
91 views

Range of atmospheric pressure and composition for plant survival?

I am currently working on a college senior design team that is looking at developing a small modular habitat that could sustain plant growth. These small modules would not include humans, so we only ...
10
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2answers
459 views

Does the Venusian atmosphere's “super rotation” actually rotate?

The atmosphere of Venus contains strong winds and is said to have a "super rotation" because the atmosphere (above a certain altitude) moves faster than what the ground does. No one can disagree with ...
6
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1answer
267 views

Apparent temperature Mars

Apparent temperature is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. There are several ways of measuring it, ...
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2answers
4k views

What useful materials can be extracted from Venusian atmosphere?

Consider a cloud-top colony on Venus. What materials needed for the upkeep and expanding of the colony can be taken from Venusian atmosphere, excluding any possibility of mining the surface?
11
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2answers
366 views

Does atmospheric entry shake the craft?

Does atmospheric entry shake the craft or does the process force the craft to fly in a straight line without causing vibrations? Sci-fi movies and all have the craft shake very slightly. It would ...
3
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3answers
496 views

Could a terrestrial planet with a hydrogen atmosphere be habitable?

Many exoplanets, even small ones, have densities so low that it indicates that they have hydrogen atmospheres. Is a hydrogen gas atmosphere of a terrestrial planet somehow detrimental to biology as we ...
5
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1answer
163 views

Mars greenhouse accessibility

Let's say a Mars outpost has an inflatable greenhouse. First, it is likely to be high-CO2, as CO2 is easy to acquire and increases plant growth. Second, it may be low-pressure, as plants don't need as ...
19
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2answers
2k views

Would terraforming Venus destroy its ionosphere?

In "Can Venus be made habitable?" we see that Venus's atmosphere would have to be substantially altered in order to terraform Venus. "Why has Venus's atmosphere not been stripped away by solar wind?" ...
15
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2answers
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Flying on dense atmosphere planets & moons

Would certain types of flying be possible on planets like Venus, Titan (which is a moon, I know :P), or gas-giants? I'm thinking on the aspects of these types of aircrafts: airships (that uses only ...