Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding an envelope of gasses surrounding a celestial body held in place by the body's gravity.

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6
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3answers
540 views

How does an atmospheric probe measure temperature during descent?

I heard that the Galileo spacecraft sent Galileo Probe into Jupiter, and it reported temperatures reaching 153 degrees Celsius. The question is, when you send a probe crashing into a planet that has ...
9
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1answer
172 views

Measuring the pressure and temperature of Pluto's atmosphere using stellar occultations

Is this primarily done analyzing the Voigt profiles absorption bands on background of stellar spectra or on re-emission bands of atmospheric compounds? Assuming Pluto's atmosphere behaves like an ...
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0answers
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Building a Drag model for rocket optimization

I need to build a drag model for my rocket optimization program and I stumbled upon by the following formula: $CD = CD_c(M)$, $K_n < K_{nc}$, $CD = CD_{fm}$, $K_n > K_{nf}$, $CD = CD_c +(CD_{...
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1answer
177 views

Space Station in atmosphere with continuous reboosting to preserve orbit

I recently watched the series Altered Carbon. In that series, they showed a floating space station called "Head in the Clouds". There is a blue sky here, even clouds. This would imply a height of &...
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2answers
6k views

Bounce off the atmosphere at reentry?

I am just watching Space Race part 3 and the cosmonauts just got their first view of Wostok. The scientist who designed the retrorockets told the soon-to-be spacemen that the rockets would have to be ...
5
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1answer
3k views

Launching sounding rockets from the magnetic equator (ISRO's Thumba)

The Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station is operated by ISRO for launching sounding rockets because magnetic equator passes through it. Equator gives additional velocity, But what advantage ...
4
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0answers
152 views

What is the typical size of the sulfuric acid droplets in the atmosphere of Venus?

According to Wikipedia: Venusian clouds are thick and are composed mainly (75-96%) of sulfuric acid droplets. These clouds obscure the surface of Venus from optical imaging, and reflect about 75% ...
9
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2answers
420 views

Would a mars base need to expel excess heat?

I've read that on Mars you lose 30% of your heat through convection and 70% through black body radiation. (The much lower amount from convection due to the tenous atmosphere vs. Earth.) http://www....
8
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1answer
455 views

Can there be an atmosphere in a cave on an atmosphere-less planet?

I am making an exoplanet for a game and was wondering whether a planet without an atmosphere (or at least with a very weak atmosphere) could support caves that do have an atmosphere, or whether the ...
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2answers
1k views

What are the characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere near the Karman line and why?

I am wondering - what is the nature of the atmosphere in and around the transition to space at the Karman line? It is not difficult to find references using terms like "in the atmosphere" and "out of ...
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1answer
490 views

Has an astronaut ever seen pixies, ELVEs, sprites or blue jets (without a camera)?

The NASA Science video ScienceCasts: A Display of Lights Above the Storm shows several examples of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) (Upper Atmospheric Lightning) being filmed by high-sensitivity ...
14
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2answers
466 views

At what altitude does transonic compressibility become a non-issue?

I know that on the forthcoming SpaceX attempt at sea landing the first stage, they have added hypersonic fins to the first stage. I was curious as to what altitude transonic compressibility is an ...
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2answers
3k views

Can we make a space blimp?

OK. Hear me out. I know that blimps float because of the buoyancy of air, and there is no air in space. But think of the way a boat floats on the top of water even though the material that the boat is ...
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105 views

Range of atmospheric pressure and composition for plant survival?

I am currently working on a college senior design team that is looking at developing a small modular habitat that could sustain plant growth. These small modules would not include humans, so we only ...
10
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2answers
491 views

Does the Venusian atmosphere's “super rotation” actually rotate?

The atmosphere of Venus contains strong winds and is said to have a "super rotation" because the atmosphere (above a certain altitude) moves faster than what the ground does. No one can disagree with ...
6
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1answer
286 views

Apparent temperature Mars

Apparent temperature is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. There are several ways of measuring it, ...
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2answers
4k views

What useful materials can be extracted from Venusian atmosphere?

Consider a cloud-top colony on Venus. What materials needed for the upkeep and expanding of the colony can be taken from Venusian atmosphere, excluding any possibility of mining the surface?
11
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2answers
410 views

Does atmospheric entry shake the craft?

Does atmospheric entry shake the craft or does the process force the craft to fly in a straight line without causing vibrations? Sci-fi movies and all have the craft shake very slightly. It would ...
3
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3answers
573 views

Could a terrestrial planet with a hydrogen atmosphere be habitable?

Many exoplanets, even small ones, have densities so low that it indicates that they have hydrogen atmospheres. Is a hydrogen gas atmosphere of a terrestrial planet somehow detrimental to biology as we ...
5
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1answer
168 views

Mars greenhouse accessibility

Let's say a Mars outpost has an inflatable greenhouse. First, it is likely to be high-CO2, as CO2 is easy to acquire and increases plant growth. Second, it may be low-pressure, as plants don't need as ...
19
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2answers
2k views

Would terraforming Venus destroy its ionosphere?

In "Can Venus be made habitable?" we see that Venus's atmosphere would have to be substantially altered in order to terraform Venus. "Why has Venus's atmosphere not been stripped away by solar wind?" ...
16
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2answers
9k views

Flying on dense atmosphere planets & moons

Would certain types of flying be possible on planets like Venus, Titan (which is a moon, I know :P), or gas-giants? I'm thinking on the aspects of these types of aircrafts: airships (that uses only ...
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1answer
111 views

What is the meaning of twelve months for climate at Gale Crater, Mars?

I noticed that Wikipedia lists the climate on Gale Crater per “month”: Source: Wikipedia. None of the sources listed contain the information included in the table. I find it particularly puzzling ...
5
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1answer
437 views

Does freezing carbon dioxide present a “temperature obstacle” on Mars?

I've noticed that the average low temperature at Gale Crater is -78.5 degrees, curiously the freezing temperature of Mars' atmosphere's main component. Is that more than a coincidence? Perhaps the ...
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2answers
2k views

How does Venus' thick atmosphere survive against the solar wind?

The traditional explanation for rocky inner planets and large gaseous outer planets is that the outer planets are farther from the Sun, and therefore can hold onto large atmospheres that don't get ...
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1answer
221 views

Smallest planet where human type life could evolve and survive?

Most exoplanets making the news are larger than Earth. I wonder about the smaller worlds, how small is too small? Reword to keep the question narrow enough to be answerable. When the Earth was ...
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1answer
330 views

Why is this “grainy footage” of a Martian (sky) from Curiosity so grainy? Cloud snaps by Opportunity look great!

A paper from the 2017 meeting Lunar and Planetary Sciences XLVIII describes a systematic observation of the Martian sky, with a sequence of eight taken every day at zenith and near-horizon angles. ...
4
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1answer
418 views

What would a Venus sky look like above the cloud tops night and day?

I know it will likely be a yellow haze at the surface level, but I've seen little info about what a Venus sky looks like above the cloud tops or in the midsts of them. Will the sky be blue like on ...
4
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1answer
577 views

Can plants thrive without atmospheric nitrogen?

One of deficit resources on Mars is nitrogen. There's a plenty of carbon dioxide, and a modest amount of water. There's a deficit of nitrogen, but AFAIK plants use nitrogen in compounds found in soil, ...
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1answer
152 views

What would the effect be if we placed all of our greenhouse gases on Mars?

I don't know how much greenhouse gases are on our planet but what would happen to Mars if we could contain the gases on Earth somehow and transfer it to the surface of Mars? Ignoring the fact that ...
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2answers
577 views

Will Mars ever become breathable for humans?

There are some proposed methods like extracting oxygen from ice in polar caps getting it from the CO2 found in Mars' atmosphere or ... But let's say we finally find a feasible method to produce ...
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1answer
2k views

Is there a calculation for determining the thickness of a planet's atmosphere?

I'm wondering if there a way to determine how thick (from the surface to the edge of space(karman line)) a planet's atmosphere would be. Assume an earth body like Earth or Mars (not a gas giant). I ...
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1answer
515 views

When Chang'e-3 landed on the moon, did LADEE notice?

The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) entered lunar orbit 2013-10-06, and Chang'e 3 landed 69 days later producing dust and gas on 2013-12-14. These were both quite interesting ...
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2answers
355 views

Atmosphere on the Moon

Question: How would you make a breathable atmosphere in an artificial closure on the Moon? I originally thought that simply obtaining water from the Moon, sending an electrical current through it to ...
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0answers
63 views

Neural networks applied to micro satellites missions [closed]

I'm really interested in micro satellites, but I'm a beginner. So, for the year-end project of a course called "Neural networks" at University I want to do something related with this. I searched a ...
9
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2answers
702 views

Would an orbital Deep Space Network be more efficient?

Deep Space Network sites in California, Madrid and Canberra perform an excellent job, for example receiving from Voyager 2 (16+ billion km) at -150 dBm power. However, would it be more advantageous ...
11
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1answer
307 views

Is airglow always visible from space?

Looking at time lapses taken from the International Space Station, I discovered that the Earth's atmosphere can glow at night, even when it seems that those pictures were taken far away from auroras. ...
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0answers
43 views

Double satellite flare on iridium 6 [duplicate]

Last night here in Southern California, I was watching the flare of the Iridium 6, I use the Sputnik app to alert me. I was amazed when I saw not one but two bright lights tracking simultaneously.. ...
5
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1answer
846 views

Atmospheric scale height, how is it calculated?

Over on SE.Worldbuilding I found myself stuck on figuring what happens to the scale height of an atmosphere if the composition changes (The specific case involved something breathable in place of the ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Mars' atmosphere and the triple point of water

As I understand it, the average atmospheric pressure at the surface of Mars is close to the triple point of water. Is this a coincidence or does water have some sort of controlling effect on Mars' ...
3
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1answer
352 views

Could the Moon be terraformed by outgassing its oxygen?

The majority of the Moon's mass is oxygen. With energy it could chemically be liberated from its silicon et cetera compounds and be turned into oxygen gas. Given its low gravity, lack of magnetosphere ...
16
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2answers
24k views

Could you feel the wind on Mars?

The air pressure on Mars is about 1% that of Earth's at sea level. But wind speeds on Mars can be higher, up to maybe 60 mph sustained (actually I have come across several different figures, some ...
7
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1answer
458 views

Non-vacuum ion propulsion

Are there any ion thrusters which could conceivably provide thrust inside the atmosphere? Not that they'd have enough thrust to take off under their own power, of course; I'm just wondering whether ...
5
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1answer
188 views

First sounding rocket to reach the mesosphere?

The mesosphere (the part of the atmosphere above the stratosphere where temperatures increase with altitude) is generally above the altitude reachable by balloon. It begins somewhere around 50 km. ...
14
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1answer
681 views

Could helmet-fogging occur on Mars, or on any other celestial body with an atmosphere?

When I drive in cold/wet weather the state of the roads is cause for concern. But more worrying is the risk of the wind-screen fogging over when least it should. Space/Earth orbit is a different ...
3
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1answer
181 views

Is there a way to achieve any kind of atmospheric flight on the moon Europa?

I've been searching all over the site and the internet, but I can't find something about it. Is there really no way for a plane, helicopter or quad-copter to fly on the moon Europa? If it is possible,...
0
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1answer
111 views

What exoplanet atmospheres might support life beside our nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere? [closed]

What exoplanet atmospheres might support life beside our nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere? Related question: Could an exoplanet atmosphere be very similar to our own, but contain some component toxic ...
8
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1answer
2k views

How could a hot lander enter Titan's atmosphere without setting its hydrocarbons ablaze?

Whenever a lander enters an atmosphere, it generates a lot of friction and that heats up the heat shield. On Earth we have seen videos of spacecraft with red-hot shields. On Saturn's moon Titan, ...
5
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3answers
389 views

Is there any application for very low thrust engines within atmosphere?

Is there any (current, or planned, or hypothesized) practical application for engines of low thrust - like, below 40N - in the atmosphere? I'm asking this in relation to the Non-vacuum ion propulsion ...
8
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1answer
793 views

A cloud-top colony on Venus, will it drift to the poles?

Suppose a cloud-top colony on Venus. Provided that it has no thrusting engines, where it will tend to go naturally with winds, to the equator, to the poles or elsewhere?