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Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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Is there a term for the activity of weightless astronauts hanging out on walls or ceilings?

Weightless astronauts often sit, stand, walk, or sleep on (or near) surfaces that (with gravity) we would normally call walls or ceilings. I reference such a phenomenon in my comment here: I would ...
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Human-rating the Saturn V using modern standards

Would a complete Apollo-Saturn stack (like e.g. AS-506) be human-rated according to the latest human-rating process (NPR 8705.2C) of NASA? If not, what are the biggest show-stoppers? This question ...
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Project Mercury capsule switch orientation

I noticed that the majority of the toggle switches in the Mercury capsules move in a left-to-right manner. This seems unusual to me, since Gemini, Apollo and the Shuttle all predominantly use up-down ...
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Why are the very reliable rockets Atlas V and Ariane V not rated for human flight?

During the last ten years all 100 or so launches by Atlas V and Ariane V together have been successful. (One Atlas V payload entered too low orbit, but that would hardly have risked the life of a crew)...
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Have any humans orbited the Earth in anything other than a prograde orbit?

As per the title, have any humans been launched into an orbit around the Earth which is anything other than prograde? E.g. retrograde or polar.
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Why did the number of recovery ships decrease with time?

This NASA page names the various ocean ships that have helped recover NASA spacecraft. There is a general trend that later missions used fewer ships. Read the link for details, but here are some ...
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What were the “pills” that were added to solid waste in Apollo 7?

In the BBC News Worldservice podcast 10, 9, 8, 7: The dramatic missions that made the Moon landing possible told by retired astronaut Nicole Stott (Expeditions 20, 21, STS-128 and STS-133) after ...
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H2 + O2 vs Li-ion batteries for long term colonies on Mars [closed]

You're starting a long-term surface base on Mars. How do you power it? The obvious answer for electrical power is a nuclear reactor. Now, how do you store it? Your two main options are lithium-ion ...
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Is the vestibular system ever useful in spaceflight?

The Vintage Space video Eleven Deaf Men Helped NASA Leave Earth describes a number of different NASA experiments done on human subjects who had damaged vestibular systems due to childhood illness. ...
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Why was the ISS so much more expensive than Mir?

The Wikipedia article on Mir places its total cost at a little over four billion dollars. The ISS on the other hand, is at 150 billion and that figure will surely increase more over the coming years. ...
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What do astronauts do with their trash on the ISS?

Astronauts often stay more than a year on the ISS, they produce trash like any other human. Is there like a limit that they may produce ever day or maybe some measures were put in place to reduce the ...
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What is the connection (if any) between the new Artemis mission and the two Artemis spacecraft (Themis-B, -C)?

It has been announced that the culmination of Space Policy Directive 1, the goal to land Americans and specifically the first woman on the Moon, at it's south pole in 2024 will be called "Artemis". ...
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Why doesn't NASA plan a manned Venus flyby first? [closed]

After America will have returned to the Moon, why won't NASA make a Venus flyby mission with the Orion/SLS before going on to manned flights to Mars? They are planning crewed missions to Venus (...
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Outer space and dark-adapted vision

Does being in outer space, without the glare of the Sun, have any impact on human vision? Is dark-adapted vision improved when astronauts are orbiting the Earth and in its shadow?
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Why was Gemini VIII terminated after recovering from the OAMS thruster failure?

This NASA source states that the mission was terminated after Neil Armstrong used 75% of the RCS propellent to cancel the rotation from the OAMS thruster failure. If the mission had enough RCS left to ...
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Have there been (more) reflights of a manned space mission?

In recent question about color blindness there was an interesting fact about two back-to-back space shuttle missions, STS-83 and STS-94, that were flown with same shuttle and same crew with only few ...
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Can there be color blind astronauts?

This answer begins with: It appears to have actually been a pole, not a cord. Handrails and handholds, colored blue for quick identification, were located throughout Skylab. ...
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Did the manned NASA capsules rotate during descent?

Watching the NS-11 launch, I noticed that during descent when the main chutes were deployed, the capsule rotated quite a bit, and would rotate back. Was this an issue as well during the Mercury/...
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Two stage reentry from Moon/Mars

There are a number of questions addressing the desirability and/or feasibility of a slower reentry from Earth orbit in order to reduce thermal load. At least most of them run into the problem that ...
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Have “QR” or other 2D barcodes been used in spaceflight?

Wikipedia: QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan. ...
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At what surface gravity can't astronauts do full steps anymore?

We know that on the Moon in ~1/6 g the Apollo astronauts couldn't make full steps because they jumped with each step. At what surface gravity could you walk more like on Earth and at what gravity ...
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How many times were there thirteen people inside the ISS? Is it hard on the station?

I just saw this photo in @SF.'s answer It is ISS023-E-023513 STS-131 and Expedition 23. The full caption is below. Are there really 13 people on the ISS at one time? Is STS-131 the only shuttle ...
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What set of units does the Orion capsule cockpit instrumention use?

Shuttle was English, ISS is metric. What's Orion? For example: What units are inertial velocity displayed in?
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How was Skylab's orbit inclination chosen?

As referenced in this question, there were a number of early spaceflight missions at higher inclination than may be expected (given limited payload capability, higher inclination further limits ...
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Why Orion can't be used to service JWST?

Hubble Space Telescope is a marvel of astronomical tools - particularly judging by how much it moved the science. It took a lot of fixes along the way, which certainly prolonged its useful life. Its ...
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How to build a space catapult large enough to shoot a one hundered thousand ton spaceship in to low orbit?

I assume calculations start with the payload weight. A massive foundation would be needed lots of concrete and rebar meters thick. Also a harmonically sealed tunnel a thousand miles long filled with ...
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Did Soviets/Russians perform any crewed (intentionally) suborbital flights?

Gagarin went directly to the orbit - the first manned flight was orbital. I don't know about any other Soviet or Russian spaceflights that wouldn't be orbital - except for some odd aborted launch or ...
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How do the movable-neck space suit helmet works?

Looking at Gemini´s spacesuit G-4C I always wonder how did they make the neck joint able to swivel, allowing the user to look at both directions? Wouldnt be easier to make a slightly bigger helmet (i....
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How is Dragon-v2 prepared for being docked for months at ISS?

The Dragon spacecraft is being certified for manned spaceflight. If it's to replace Soyuz, though, it will have to serve as an escape pod for the crew. The current delivery missions are proving its ...
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Why are we trying to build a base on Mars before the Moon?

My question is very close to the question answered in the link below and is raised by the answers that question received: Is a Moon-base inherently more dangerous than a Space Station? Why are we ...
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Gravity assist for manned travel

Since we already use gravity assist to launch satellites through the solar system, is there any way we can use gravity assist to speed up a manned trip to a planet such as Titan or Europa, while also ...
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Which astronaut has experienced the largest relativistic shift in time (relative to the surface)?

Following this answer and then this question (where I've linked to Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev; the World's Most Prolific Time Traveller) I've noticed that currently Krikalev does not hold the precisely ...
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Would high altitude native populations make better astronauts for a Mars mission?

High altitude populations in Tibet, the Andes, and Ethiopia have genetic adaptations that allow them to better handle low oxygen levels. They are also used to colder and drier climates. And lastly ...
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How effective is the Orion radiation protection plan?

This article gives a basic overview of the procedure for astronauts on deep space missions who need to take shelter from energetic events such as solar flares. The shelter area strongly resembles a ...
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Fuel vs food on the trip to Mars?

How much food for each person is need and fuel per various engine to go to Mars on the current 9-month trip there then 3 months on Mars and the 9 months back? Can time be saved on the trip to and from ...
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Instead of approaching Mars from behind can we approach Mars from the front of its orbital path? [closed]

Nine months is what google maps said to get to Mars. I would like to know if fuel was no expense how long could we get to Mars other than the method below? Is the 9 months and the method just what our ...
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Could you fly on the Moon, in Earth's atmospheric pressure, by flapping wearable wings?

According to this site, NASA produced a public domain painting representing what the Olympics could look like on a lunar colony. In the upper right of the picture, there are people flying by flapping ...
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What is the orbital boost acceleration of the ISS?

How much acceleration does the International Space Station experience during its orbital adjustment boosts? How much thrust and for how long? Bonus question: what is the highest acceleration that the ...
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What materials provide the best protection from cosmic radiation?

For long-distance manned missions, such as a mission to Mars, we are inevitably going to have to shield astronauts from cosmic radiation, especially in the event of a solar flare or SEP. What ...
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Could the Saturn V actually have launched astronauts around Venus?

One of the more interesting proposed uses of a Saturn V was to launch a manned flyby of Venus. Some of the cargo would have been stored inside the tank of the upper stage, which would be retained ...
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why do astronauts in the ISS still use wired microphones?

While I watched the DM-1 hatch opening, I noticed that astronauts use the wired microphone to talk to Huston. It was particularly strange seeing that even because during hatch opening, they were ...
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Pre-launch TLEs for NASA launches

I was curious if the United States is on the verge of launching maned flights to the ISS, will anyone release Pre-Launch TLE data like was done back when the shuttle was flying.
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Titan vs Mars for colonization

This question is along the same vein as Venus vs Mars for colonization but without the person at the table. Is Mars better than Titan which to me seems a more realistic option for colonization? With ...
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What are these Space Shuttle cockpit elements and what are they for?

In a book I'm reading, there is a figure showing the inside of a cockpit of a Space Shuttle.The labels point out various pets including an aluminum plate, an avionics bay, and an open grid panel, as ...
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How did NASA achieve their live TV broadcast in 1969?

In 1969, NASA not only went to the moon, but broadcast the whole thing live on TV. How did they achieve the TV broadcast? What technology did they need to use to send a video and audio signal from ...
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Did Apollo's velocity slow down after TLI due to Earth's gravity?

I assume Apollo's velocity slowed down after it left Earth orbit, for how long was it decelerating. Did it start accelerating as it approached the Moon. What was the rate of deceleration due to ...
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Could electric fans lift a rocket strait up like a multi propeller drone? [closed]

Could electric fans like the ones below lift a rocket? What is the amount of electricity needed to lift a interplanetary rocket? Could a nuclear power plant provide enough electricity? https://en....
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How might the experience of a trip to Mars differ in comfort and heath impact from a stint on the ISS?

A comment below the question How will they mitigate the effect microgravity in the BFR on manned trip to mars? suggests that the trip might be as short as 3 months, which is significantly shorter than ...
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Creating your own artificial gravity by running. (Part 1 - the basic idea)

The main motivation for artificial gravity is the astronauts' health Usually artificial gravity is supposed to work by rotating the spacecraft. See diagram A. Wouldn't it be much simpler to simply ...
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Are there any photographs of the frozen waste water after a urine dump in space?

Astronaut Mike Massimino talks about watching the urine freeze outside of the spacecraft. He said they would all watch, it was something beautiful to see. Are there any photographs of this, or has ...