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Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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How is Dragon-v2 prepared for being docked for months at ISS?

The Dragon spacecraft is being certified for manned spaceflight. If it's to replace Soyuz, though, it will have to serve as an escape pod for the crew. The current delivery missions are proving its ...
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How were the Flight Journals of the Apollo missions originally transcribed/recorded?

I've been reading throught the Apollo 11 Flight Journals and was wondering how they were originally recorded and transcribed. It seems that they were painstakingly accurate down to the last second ...
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What attitude have past and modern manned spacecraft maintain(ed) relative to Earth?

I hope this question is not too broad. It is inspired by another question. We know that ISS keeps its nadir pointing to Earth's surface. What about other manned spacecraft? Do/did they have ...
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Manned exploration or Colonization of Ceres — Any studies

There has been much discussion, here and elsewhere about the manned exploration or colonization of Mars. Among the problematic aspects are shortages of hydrogen and nitrogen in most areas, dust, and ...
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Could “peak Apollo levels” of support have gotten NASA astronauts to Mars in the 1980's?

In an "alternate universe" where NASA continued to receive a mandate, funding and public support at say peak Apollo levels, could another ten or twenty years have gotten boots on Mars, with astronauts ...
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Has the ISS ever not had a lifeboat?

The International Space Station typically has one or more (manned) spacecraft docked. This is obviously to ferry crew to and from the station for each of the Expeditions. The Soyuz currently fulfils ...
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Once a spacecraft is in space what factors determines its top speed?

Is there a limitation of speed of a spacecraft in space because of suns gravity? Is the speed purely dependent on the engineering? Or other factors comes into play?
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Why does the current Soyuz flight (2018-06-06) take two days?

At NASA's blog you can read about the Soyuz flight for expedition 56-57. It says: ...blast off Wednesday at 7:12 a.m. EDT on a two-day trip to the station. Why does it take two days this time? ...
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What data was used to estimate accumulated radiation dose for the Apollo astronauts?

Half-year, and occasional one-year stints aboard the ISS, and especially lifetime totals nearing 2.5 years are possible ethically because these missions take place within the Earth's magnetosphere ...
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What is the mass and power consumption of the COLBERT treadmill?

What do you think is the mass and power consumption of the COLBERT treadmill? Sources are greatly appreciated.
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How will insurance work for manned commercial missions?

I know that commercial satellite missions have insurance, but will they cover the same thing for manned missions? Has there been any sort of publication talking about this sort of thing?
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Repurposing a nuclear submarine for space travel

Although a nuclear submarine might not make a great spacecraft, would it be possible to repurpose it for space travel? Benchmark: USS Illinois (SSN-786), Virginia-class submarine (born in Virginia, ...
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What is BECO? (Gemini) Same as MECO?

This answer links to this answer which shows the acceleration g-force envelopes experienced by early astronauts, reaching as high as almost 7.5g! Both show BECO, which is what I might call MECO or ...
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Will Nasa take the opportunity for another one year ISS mission now?

Since the Soyuz MS-10 in October will only have two persons aboard, it would be a great opportunity for space science on the ISS to let Richard Arnold continue his mission for another 6 months until ...
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How are spacecraft crews protected from sound damage during launch?

As stated elsewhere, the soundwaves formed by a rocket launch are powerful enough to do structural damage to the spacecraft during launch. How are astronauts protected against the soundwaves, or why ...
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Silly concept: repurposing BFS into a spin-gravity habitat

The idea is the following: Launch four passanger carrying (but empty) BFS and a fifth, (satellite deploying version) which carries the central hub, outfitted with spin-up engines. Then manouver the ...
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What is the Austrian Space Forum doing in Oman?

I was looking through CNN's clickbait photo compilation Instant vacation: The world's best travel photos of 2018 and came upon the following image and caption. What is the Austrian Space Forum, and ...
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What kind of lighting does the ISS use? [closed]

Is any feng shui used in lighting? Is the best light bulbs used with filters?
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Mars transfer window frequency

According to this website I drew up a timeline of Mars transfer windows and the time you'd need to stay on Mars before the next return window: Blue to red arrows are Earth to mars transitions, red ...
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Is it possible to dock with a ship that is on a Galileo-like trajectory?

Reading about missions that have made or will make heavy use of gravity assist (Galileo, Cassini, MESSENGER, BepiColombo...) made me wonder about what if a heavy unmanned ship (BFS?), with all the ...
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SuperDraco Engines in Crew Dragon spacecraft

How can a single spacecraft namely Crew Dragon aka Dragon V2, accommodate 8 SuperDraco thrusters along with sufficient propellant required for a precision propulsive landing and/or other such ...
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1answer
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Why did Virgin Galactic choose N2O / HTPB as its fuel?

It seems very exotic compared to something like RP1 or Methane, especially for a vehicle which should be flying a lot and around civilians. Why was this choice made?
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Where does space travel rank in per-passenger-mile safety?

Air travel is the safest method of transportation, with 0.07 deaths every billion passenger-miles. While space travel certainly has a higher fatality rate per-space-traveller (~3%)1, 2, where does it ...
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Getting to Mars requires 12 ISSs of mass w/o tech advances?

Does anyone have the original source(s) of the following images? I originally found them here in this Spanish blog (translated to English here via Google Translate). Note the captions that state NASA ...
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What is the case for human presence on the Moon?

The Moon landings in the 1960s happened largely, if not entirely, because of Kennedy's mandate. Although Apollo started before his famous speech, it was an expensive endeavour which could have been ...
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Does any group have plans for manned missions longer than the 5 year Callisto mission?

I understand the five-year duration of the HOPE Callisto mission to be at the edge of future manned missions for NASA. Are there any missions planned to be longer than that, by NASA or anyone else? ...
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Microscopes in space?

There are a lot of telescopes in space (optical, radio, X-ray and Gamma-ray), but how about microscopes? Does the ISS have a general-purpose microscope? It could come in handy for failure analysis or ...
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How might the experience of a trip to Mars differ in comfort and heath impact from a stint on the ISS?

A comment below the question How will they mitigate the effect microgravity in the BFR on manned trip to mars? suggests that the trip might be as short as 3 months, which is significantly shorter than ...
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How will they mitigate the effect microgravity has in the BFR on manned trip to mars?

Very curious to know this, since it doesn't look like the BFR will utilize centrifugal force to emulate gravity as far as I know.
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How was temperature and humidity maintained inside the Apollo mission capsules?

What mechanism was used to control the temperature and humidity inside the Apollo mission capsules? For example, did they employ an electric heater? Did they utilize solar radiation? Was humidity ...
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What was the approximate cabin temperature and humidity of the Apollo mission capsules?

I learned that Apollo missions used a simple system providing 100% oxygen atmosphere in the cabin at lower air pressure from the question, "Decision factors for using 100% O2 cabin atmosphere in early ...
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What is the most heated exoatmospheric conflict to-date?

This tweet by ISS Archaeology (quote-tweeting Norishige Kanai) got me wondering: with all the accumulated time humans have spent in space, surely there have been disagreements, frustration, and ...
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Which space vehicle had the most interior, pressurized cabin space?

According to NASA's Space Shuttle Basics page, the Space Shuttle had 74.3 cubic meters (2,625 cubic feet) of pressurized cabin space. That provided its largest crew of 8 with only 328 cubic feet per ...
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How much acceleration g-force can prevent pilot from moving their arms?

Assuming that the craft’s engine is capable of any amount of acceleration, how much g-force would prevent the pilot from being able to move their limbs in order to control the space craft? There is ...
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What is a current/good Mass Estimating Equation/Heuristic for space radiators/heating systems?

Has anyone does any analysis for thermal control systems for manned space habitats? I know Gilmore has data for unmanned systems, but I was looking for data for unmanned systems, preferably to develop ...
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Which crewed spacecraft provides the gentlest decent and/or landing?

Landing with a Soyuz capsule is often compared to being in a car accident1, it's pretty violent on touch-down. On the other hand, I imagine the Space Shuttle's touch-down to be a little like a rough ...
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Why aren't there many audio soundscapes recorded within the spacecraft?

First of all, let me explain that I am totally blind, and audio is my primary source of information. Through soundscapes, I can hear how big or small a room is, and make pictorial and spatial images ...
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Were all the switches on the Command Module and LM control panels used during a mission?

Given there are so many switches on the control panels, and they each served a specific purpose, was every single switch used during a mission to the moon (with the exception of the abort switch ...
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How long would it take to travel to Proxima b?

Proxima b is an Earth-like (i.e. rocky) planet, in orbit around the star Proxima Centauri, approximately 4.243 light years from Sol, our home star. If I had a space vehicle capable of accelerating ...
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What does Soyuz's button-pushing “fancy stick” look like? Are there others?

In the Smarter Every Day video How to FLY A SPACESHIP to the SPACE STATION - Smarter Every Day 131 the host Destin Sandlin (seated in the center seat of a Soyuz capsule) asks astronaut Scott Kelly (...
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Where did Soyuz and Progress dock with Mir?

I'm piecing together a chronological timeline of Mir station including manned and unmanned visits to the ship, time of docking and undocking, and location of docking. My question is around the ...
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Could the SpaceX Falcon 9 Block 5 work without sub-cooling the propellants?

I've been reading about some concerns about the densified (sub-cooled) propellants for Falcon 9 crewed missions in Spaceflight Now's article Lawmakers question safety, schedule for Boeing/SpaceX ...
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Why has ESA never flown a crewed spacecraft?

According to Wikipedia, ESA has never had a crewed spacecraft. While this is reasonable, it's striking that no ESA crewed spacecraft is in development right now. What's the rationale behind this ...
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Mass of food per astronaut per year for an extended deep space excursion?

Until food can be grown or synthesized reliably and effectively in space, a manned deep space mission needs to bring all of the food with it, or cache some of it ahead of time. Roughly what would be ...
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Did Soviets/Russians perform any crewed (intentionally) suborbital flights?

Gagarin went directly to the orbit - the first manned flight was orbital. I don't know about any other Soviet or Russian spaceflights that wouldn't be orbital - except for some odd aborted launch or ...
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Why did the Soviets skip the suborbital phase?

The old adage goes "It's easy to get to space, much harder to stay there." Yet the first manned soviet flight was orbital - Americans took a good several suborbital flights before reaching the orbit. ...
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Sources for make-up breathable oxygen on Mars; of H20, CO2 and ClO4-, which is likely to be used first?

While oxygen recovery and reuse is well developed, the ISS does receive regular shipments of make-up oxygen. See for example this and this and this answer. For an early, manned presence on Mars, a ...
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What are the most difficult challenges SpaceX will face getting astronauts to Mars by about 2025?

SpaceX has been announcing very ambitious goals such as starting to send manned missions to Mars in order to (eventually) create a colony, and recently there has been a substantial release of more ...
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Can the sun/Venus be used to slingshot back out into the outer solar system fast? [duplicate]

I'm not a physicist or rocket man, but I laid awake thinking about this all night and I just wanted expert corrections to help with my basic understanding. So... 483,000 miles per hour is how fast our ...
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How can astronauts on ISS deal with dental emergency?

Tooth ache is one of the more stupid and annoying disruptions to one's week. Dental hygiene can reduce the risk a lot, but only goes so far - for example, inflammation of roots of the tooth, with pus ...