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Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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Which computer monitors will work on Mars?

In The Martian by Andy Weir, the main character Mark Watney takes a laptop out of the habitation module to take notes. But when he comes out, he discovers that the LCD monitor is broken, because the ...
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What plans exist for another future international space station after the ISS is retired, and what stage of development are the plans at? [closed]

I've been scouring the internet to try to find information on this. Unfortunately most of what I've found has indicated that there are currently no plans for another international alliance project in ...
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Why have space stations become less volume-efficient despite technological progression?

If you compare the pressurized volume of all the space stations launched to their mass, their volume-efficiency (in this context volume divided by mass) seem to decrease over time. In chronological ...
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Why do they have a Snellen eye chart on the ISS?

During a recent NASA broadcast, I noticed something in the background: It looks like a Snellen chart to me, but why would they have that on board? If that's not it, what is it then?
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What would be required to fly four astronauts at constant 1G to Mars? [closed]

Is it technically possible to build a ship that could keep a constant 1G acceleration / deceleration on a flight from Earth to Mars? What could provide energy? What could provide accelerant? (I am not ...
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Decision Factors for using 100% $ O_2 $ cabin atmosphere in early US space program

What are the reasons for deciding to use a 100% $ O_2 $ cabin atmosphere in the early US space programme? Was danger of nitrogen narcossis a factor? Did all missions prior to Apollo 1 use a 100% $ ...
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ISS dock duration limit for SNC Dream Chaser

In a short video I just watched, it's stated that the SNC Dream Chaser can remain docked with the ISS for "up to 210 days". What determines this limit?
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How were the Space Shuttle missions named?

For example, why was the 19th Shuttle mission named STS-51F instead of something more obvious like STS-19? Side note: One reason I'm asking is because in the DVD commentary of Apollo 13, Tom Hanks or ...
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Atmospherics for 'next generation' manned space flight / Exploratory Class Missions

Decompression sickness is a significant risk to both current and future astronauts and currently significant time is lost in preparation for extra-vehicular activity on the ISS [including airlock ...
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When Mir's attitude control computer failed, why did the station immediately start rotating?

Re-reading Linenger's Off the Planet and encountered a question from long ago that I never had found an answer to. During Mir's troubled old age, the attitude control computer would fail frequently. ...
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Cosmonauts and Astronauts

American, Japanese and ESA space travellers are astronauts, Russian or Soviet space travellers are cosmonauts. But are there exceptions from this? Americans visiting the ISS the last years have used ...
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Footage of Space Shuttle astronauts during launch and reentry

Is there readily available video of Space Shuttle missions showing the crew: During the entire time period from ignition to shortly after the shuttle has passed through planet Earth's atmosphere? ...
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When is the PTK NP spacecraft likely to be launched?

The PTK NP spacecraft seems to be the future successor of the Soyuz spacecraft. Does anyone know when the first launch will likely be? The estimates I have seen vary a lot, so what will be realistic?
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Interplanetary space debris

How would a spaceship traveling through interplanetary space, let's say to Mars, avoid all the space debris or there isn't any interplanetary space debris at all, is it only orbital debris around the ...
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Can a single Soyuz return a crew of six back to Earth?

Let's say that the ISS has to be immediately evacuated and that one of the two Soyuz is broken. Could the crew quickly remove "unnecessary weight" (seats maybe?) and fit six person to return back to ...
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Would it be possible to get back to Earth from the ISS without any ground support?

In the TV show Last Man On Earth we follow a small group of immune survivors after an apocalyptic plague has essentially wiped out humanity. It is revealed that a single astronaut on the ISS has also ...
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Is it practical to propel oneself in space with canned air?

Is it possible to move yourself at a practical, helpful speed (leaving that definition up to mathematician's discretion) using a can of air on the ISS? Let's say the astronaut is in a large room, ...
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Is it possible to design a completely fail-safe rocket? [closed]

Is it possible to design a rocket, such that if anything goes wrong, the crew and people on the ground will always be in no harm, or are there certain limitations that we will never be able to ...
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What are the requirements differences between Escape Suit and EVA Suit?

I read up articles on both types - EVA suits meant for spacewalks, and Escape Suits used in launch and reentry - but other than bright orange color for ACES making it easy to find and the fact that ...
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What would have happened if only one Space Shuttle SRB ignited?

The ignite command for the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) would not be issued unless all three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) were at least 90% of thrust. The launch would have been aborted if one or ...
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1answer
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Will a bag of potato chips explode in space? [closed]

Potato chips are a favorite snack food Earth side. It seems that currently they are not allowed in the ISS (anything with significant crumbs -- such as potato chips ... can't go.) and that chips bags ...
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What is the status of ESA's proposed human mission to the Moon?

As part of the Aurora Exploration Programme, there is a proposed human mission to the Moon in 2024. The astronaut capsule would be launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket. What is the status of this mission?...
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Mars and the radiation problems [duplicate]

I was listening to a Science Friday podcast in which the Martian movie was being discussed. The science contributors stated the radiation problems are the biggest issue for Mars exploration. Reading ...
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1answer
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What is the most valuable (potentially useful) man made object on the Moon?

It is relatively expensive to get things from the Earth to the Moon. We know there are three Lunar Roving Vehicles (LRV) on the Moon and that there is some chance they could be made operational. ...
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3answers
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Why did the Space Shuttle fly upside-down normally

After reading this answer I found out that the space shuttle normally spent its time upside-down. Why is that? I'd guess it has to do with shielding from the sun, but I can't back that up with ...
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1answer
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What is the escape velocity of Saturn at Enceladus distance?

To what velocity would a spacecraft have to accelerate to launch from the surface of Enceladus into orbit around it? And from the orbital distance of Enceladus, what would be the escape velocity from ...
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What are the “unpleasant effects” of having a cold in microgravity?

I went to Technik Museum Speyer's space exhibition, which presented an excellent overview of the Apollo missions in a series of posters. The poster describing the Apollo 7 mission (an Earth orbit test ...
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Are there serious business benefits to going to Mars? [closed]

Elon Musk has many times announced plans to go (manned) to Mars and it seems strange that investors and stakeholders would be interested in spending money on this just because Elon is interested. ...
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Are there ICD-10 codes for space?

Today (October 1, 2015) the diagnosis codes known as ICD-10 went live in the US. I was wondering if there are any that are specific to spacecraft, space stations, or hypo- or hyper-gravity?
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Why did NASA send two astronauts to the moon instead of one?

I can think of a lot of good reasons for both arguments, and the Soviets made the opposite call for their lander, but what I'm interested in here is this: Given the mass penalty of another man (body ...
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1answer
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What is the composition of breathable air on the International Space Station? [duplicate]

On the ISS, the breathable air has to include oxygen, but it can't be pure oxygen for safety reasons. So what is the composition of breathable air on the station?
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Soyuz TMA-18M ISS rendezvous: expedited 4-orbit vs regular 34-orbit - How does fuel usage compare?

Follow up to this question: Why will Soyuz TMA-18M take two days to reach the ISS?. Clearly the expedited rendezvous is cheaper in terms of time. However I was wondering how fuel usage compares. Is ...
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Why did Soyuz TMA-18M take two days to reach the ISS?

Typically, a Soyuz crew vehicle takes 4 orbits to reach the ISS, but the Soyuz TMA-18M took 34 orbits or 2 days to reach it. Why is there so much variation from typical missions?
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Early high-inclination crewed flights

I noticed to my surprise today that the very early Soviet flights were to a very high inclination - all the Vostok flights were between 64.9° and 65°, and the Voskhod flights were at 64.7° and 64.8°. ...
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Shapes of rockets on the Earth with no atmosphere

What would rockets look like if the Earth had no atmosphere? How much easier would it be to launch satellites, and how much harder will it be to launch returnable manned missions?
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How would civilians send snacks to the ISS crew?

Today I saw a video in which ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti teaches us how to make pitas in space, and invites us to try to make them at home. I understand that much of the food on the ISS is ...
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What (if any) science can be done only by sending people to Mars?

I'm all in favour of space travel. But purely from a scientific standpoint, what can be done by sending people to Mars that can't be done by sending probes? EDIT: To clarify (as in the comments), I ...
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Why don't we launch spacecraft from the Moon?

The Moon has less gravity than the Earth and its own orbital speed around the Earth removes some of the velocity required to leave the Earth-Moon space, right? We could send probes or spacecraft much ...
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2answers
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Couldn't precursor missions increase the risk of losing a crew?

Let's say that the big goal for HSF is decided to be to land humans on the surface of Mars. Is it certain that the total mission/campaign risk decreases if one does crewed precursor missions? For ...
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Was Valentina Tereshkova pregnant while in space?

Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman in space. I have been reading the book called "The Astronaut Wives club". In it, they discuss women flying in space, and mention that Valentina was the first ...
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Why are we trying to build a base on Mars before the Moon?

My question is very close to the question answered in the link below and is raised by the answers that question received: Is a Moon-base inherently more dangerous than a Space Station? Why are we ...
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Why do Soyuz landings seem to be overshot?

Soyuz descent module re-entry flight is piloted (one of two modes AUS/computer or RUS/manual), using 8 thrusters, toward the Kazakhstan landing site. The ballistic re-entry occurs only when the other ...
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1answer
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Why choose to crash the Apollo lunar lander ascent stage after it ascended?

What influenced the end-of-life planning for the Apollo lunar lander ascent stage after it ascended and the crew returned to the command module? I was looking at Wikipedia for Apollo Lunar Module. It ...
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1answer
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Could the Soviets have rounded the Moon before Apollo? Why didn't they?

Neither the USSR nor Russia has ever sent a cosmonaut beyond low Earth orbit. In the 1960's it would've been very challenging for them to land a cosmonaut on the Moon, and their attempts were aborted. ...
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5answers
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Space travel in convoy, what are the pro's and con's?

In the novel "The Mars Project" by Wernher von Braun humans fly in convoy to Mars. Is it being considered seriously at all today, to send several spacecrafts together? Most proposed missions to Mars ...
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1answer
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How is the minimum number of TDRS satellites needed for a space station program?

What is the minimum number of retransmission satellites that you would need to assist your LEO space station program - to provide a full time coverage to ensure a total communication with the space ...
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1answer
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What is the limit for asymmetrical design for a launch vehicle?

Looking at Soyuz 11A511 type rocket (the one used for launch Soyuz T-M-and A-M models) you can notice that the payload fairing brake flaps are displaced from the ideal axis (they are not aligned with ...
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1answer
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How do the movable-neck space suit helmet works?

Looking at Gemini´s spacesuit G-4C I always wonder how did they make the neck joint able to swivel, allowing the user to look at both directions? Wouldnt be easier to make a slightly bigger helmet (i....
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Can a crew access room (white room) be contaminated by rocket propellant residues during launch?

Observing a Space Shuttle launch, I noticed that the crew access gantry and its white room are too close to the SRB's flames during launch; the launch umbilical tower and its crew access device on ...
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Why does the Soyuz spacecraft's parachute have so many lines?

Image shows a myriad of lines holding down the parachute. I can't even count them all. Is this really necessary? All those strings must surely add a lot of weight to the Soyuz TMA. I would think that ...