Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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How are astronauts in the ISS protected from electric shock?

On Earth, most of the electrical appliances having exposed metal parts, such as electric iron, are grounded, to protect the user from electric shock when an uninsulated-wire accidentally comes into ...
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What is the cheapest possible way to land a crew of 2 on the moon?

During the Apollo moon missions, a single very large rocket sent both the Apollo CSM and the LM to the moon in a single shot and it took only around 3 days to get there. However, after the Apollo ...
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Soyuz TMA Neptune IDS Button Lights Behavior On Click

I made a simple virtual Soyuz TMA Neptune IDS using simple coding (a work in process). The purpose of it is solely for the buttons location familiarization of the control panels. The buttons react on ...
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What are the Grid fins on the Soyuz escape system used for?

Why does the crewed version of the Soyuz rocket use grid fins on its launch escape system? It seems like extra weight to carry along during a portion of the flight. Here's a rendering of the upper ...
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What is “mission design”? What do mission designers do (if such a designation exists)?

The question in meta Is the mission-design tag description wrong? Should the trajectory-design tag be somehow nixed? needs some attention, so I thought I'd turn to our "panel of experts" ...
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Are there any sites that have collection of Bellcomm Inc. memos?

Bellcomm Inc was contracted by NASA to provide alternate and hypothetical launch vehicles, spacecraft, and missions. The memos combine the right blend of technical detail without heavy mathematics ...
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1answer
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Have people in orbit ever been bothered by the difference between their orbit and the station's?

When floating inside a large space station, while away from its center of mass and without touching the structure of the station, the person floating and the station will have slightly different ...
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2answers
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Flying around on a fire extinguisher

It's in many movies... the astronaut grabs a fire extinguisher and uses it to propel themselves around. It's even in the Shuttle operations manual (2.2-9) "Consideration should be given to the ...
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Can I borrow a lunar rover?

According to Wikipedia there are 3 LRVs sitting on the moon, in very well defined locations. Would China, or whomever gets to the moon with a person next, be able to get in and drive around in an LRV ...
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Why does Falcon 9 launch with Crew Dragon solar panels facing down?

I noticed in video of the first crewed mission in August that Falcon 9 pitches down with the Dragon solar panels facing down. I'd been expecting the solar panels to be facing up, because sun. Does ...
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Are there active proposals for the next large space station (post-ISS) to use artificial gravity?

The ISS has supported a crewed presence in space for twenty years now and while parts have been added over time, key original components are 20+ years old. Crewed presence is usually limited to a half-...
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Why is it so hard to build crewed rockets/spacecraft able to reach escape velocity?

Why are we still not going farther than to Low Earth Orbit? Orbital velocity is about 4.8 mi/s (7.7 km/s) and escape velocity is about 7 mi/s (11.2 km/s), about 45% faster. Why is it so hard to reach ...
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Why did Armstrong pilot the LM, when Aldrin was tasked as Lunar Module Pilot?

Buzz Aldrin is credited (or was tasked) with being the Apollo 11 Lunar Module pilot. However in fact it was Neil Armstrong who piloted the craft down when the LM guidance computer overflowed, with ...
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What would have happened if only one Space Shuttle SRB ignited?

The ignite command for the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) would not be issued unless all three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) were at least 90% of thrust. The launch would have been aborted if one or ...
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Avoiding Martian contamination with Earth microbes

Unmanned probes can be sterilized, but when humans begin occupying Mars in large quantities, how can contamination of possible Martian microbes with Earth microbes be avoided?
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How was Skylab's orbit inclination chosen?

As referenced in this question, there were a number of early spaceflight missions at higher inclination than may be expected (given limited payload capability, higher inclination further limits ...
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Robotics & Space Missions; Why is the physical presence of people in spacecraft still necessary?

Robotics is now well developed. Many programming languages allow you to work in real-time. Also, a new era of space missions and research is in full swing. So here's the question: Why is the physical ...
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1answer
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Is it really possible to catch the Super heavy booster by using the launch tower ? How Challenging will it be?

Reports say that SpaceX now aims to recover the Super heavy booster by catching it with the help of the launch tower. What are the engineering challenges for this and how will it benefit ? News ...
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NASA design handbooks and specifications

Does anybody know the designations, publication names, etc. for the design standards which NASA uses for space flight hardware? I’d like to add these resources into my engineering library.
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Why do spacecraft have seats?

Crewed spacecraft for travel to/from Earth, and much speculation for the SpaceX Starship, have seats with the astronauts upper body level in an eyeballs in orientation. This is because this is the ...
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How close a crewed spacecraft could orbit Jupiter?

How close could a crewed spacecraft orbit Jupiter? I read that Juno was as close as 5,000 km from Jupiter's top clouds, but I'm wondering about a spacecraft with humans inside (provided it's protected ...
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Maximum survivable long term g-forces

I assume this hasn't got a precise answer, but I was wondering if anyone had an indication of the maximum survivable long term g-forces, if the persons positioning was optimal? For example, could you ...
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If the ISS had an emergency, how long would it take to get a rocket to it?

If there was an urgent need to launch a rocket to the ISS, how long would it take to have a rocket ready to launch? I am trying to understand what factors take up the time to prepare for a rocket ...
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Is there a publicly available inventory of things sent to the ISS?

I spent some time looking through NASA datasets and news articles, and couldn't find anything, so I'm hoping that someone in the community will know better than I do: I'm trying to understand what the ...
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What led NASA et al. to decide the ISS should be a zero-g station when the massive negative health and quality of life impacts of zero-g were known?

As the month of November 2020 has marked 2 decades of the ISS being operational as well as the first operational flight of a next-generation spacecraft to it, I felt it fit to ask this question today. ...
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Repurposing a nuclear submarine for space travel

Although a nuclear submarine might not make a great spacecraft, would it be possible to repurpose it for space travel? Benchmark: USS Illinois (SSN-786), Virginia-class submarine (born in Virginia, ...
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What timezone would be used for interstellar travel?

The ISS crew celebrated Thanksgiving today. Apparently the ISS uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time. What timezone would people use for interstellar travel?...
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What would happen if the crew launched to dock with the ISS were incapacitated?

Suppose a spacecraft lifted off from the space center and within few minutes after reaching the 200 kilometers altitude on its way to the ISS, and for some reason the crew were incapacitated. Will ...
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1answer
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Kerbal Gone Wild - Could a DIY team create a Mercury-scale orbital capsule?

Given how much engineering has advanced since the days of the Mercury program, could a similarly scaled single-person orbital vehicle capable of repeatedly sustaining 48 hours in orbit realistically ...
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What was the furthest distance from Earth that Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins reached in Apollo 11?

An estimate is fine. But if possible, I am looking for a reference that I can cite.
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Does the SpaceX Crew-1 commander have any command duties while docked at the station?

The SpaceX Crew-1 mission itself has a commander who is in charge, I suppose, during transit and landing. The ISS also has a commander. Does the commander of crew 1 have any command duties while ...
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Why is the SpaceX crew-1 mission more important than the previous one (demo-1)?

The previous one was also crewed (two crew) but it was called "demo" for some reason - despite taking astronauts to the ISS. How is the recent one different?
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Why do they make the astronauts sit in Crew Demo-2 for so long before launch?

I just tuned in to the live "broadcast" for the Crew Demo-2 and it looks like the astronauts sat down over an hour and a half ago, and there's still more than an hour to go. Why do (did) they have to ...
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Are crewed spacecraft missions that appear stationary from the ground possible?

I've looked at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacecraft and the following question arose. For crewed spacecraft missions, can a spacecraft remain stationary in the sky i.e. not moving once launched ...
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What are these shiny wrist plates worn by astronauts in the SpaceX crew capsule

What are these shiny wrist plates worn by astronauts in the SpaceX crew capsule? screen shot from the NASA YouTube video Watch NASA's SpaceX Crew-1 Mission Arrive at the International Space Station
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Why were the SpaceX Crew-1 astronauts backed up by guards with automatic weapons?

The photo in NPR's 4 Astronauts Aboard SpaceX Crew Dragon Successfully Dock With Space Station shows the four astronauts standing in front of a serious-looking military vehicle flanked by at least two ...
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Just how much rope have different crewed missions been given?

Answer(s) to What was Apollo "Moon rope" made out of? Was it ever used? are not completely definitive at the moment, but a comment on an answer caught my eye: Rope is such a multipurpose ...
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Intercommmunication between crewed space missions in all planets of solar system [closed]

As we know Human Communication taking place between Man in space, Man on Moon, Man on Mars (Future exploration) with Human beings on Earth planet where we are living with the help of control stations ...
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How often has the ISS been physically vacant (un-manned)?

Currently six great folks are working in the International Space Station (ISS). I am wondering if it is ever vacant and if there's a rule of thumb (magnitude of order of days, an average or anything) ...
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Flight characteristics of a three-passenger rocket with a range of up to 500 miles (800 km)?

If I could bring two of my best friends to a spaceport and take a rapid trip to a city hundreds of kilometers away (think half an hour to cross a continent), what would would be the vehicle's flight ...
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The Russian space module named Spektr

Watching Away I learn about a Russian “ghost story”, which is about an air leak within a space station's module named Spektr leading to a distinct hissing noise (air leaking into space). How can this ...
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How are astronaut nametags printed when their family name is first?

It is traditional in English and Russian to print a person's given name before their family name. However, there are some languages where that order is reversed. When flying on an American or Russian ...
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g-forces entering and leaving atmospheres, how would they vary from one body to another?

I was wondering how launching from and returning into atmospheres of other bodies such as Mars, Venus, Titan, etc. would differ from Earth's. Specifically, I am wondering how many g's would be ...
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Would it be easier to put humans on Venus rather than Mars?

With all the speculation of manned missions to Mars, there is very little talk of a manned mission to Venus (whose orbit is closer to the orbit of Earth than mars is). That being said, would it be ...
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Which astronaut has experienced the largest relativistic shift in time (relative to Earth's surface)?

Following this answer and then this question (where I've linked to Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev; the World's Most Prolific Time Traveller) I've noticed that currently Krikalev does not hold the precisely ...
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Have capsule-free taxi spacecraft ever been seriously considered for non-emergency use?

Capsules are heavy, but necessary. Or at least, they are necessary for launch, landing, and stays in space lasting more than an hour or two. But it is possible to imagine situations where cosmonauts ...
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Can they still make espresso on the ISS? If so, with what?

This comment suggests that the origional ISSpresso machine may no longer be running on the ISS. Is that so? If so, can they still make espresso on the ISS? If both are so, with what do they make it?
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Dried beans, rice and oats, jerky, olive oil, salt, vitamins, electrolytes, water; anything else?

If I don't worry about morale, would daily, average sized meals from the following be sufficient to stay alive for three years in space? I'm assuming only water is recovered from waste. Assume enough ...
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Tea bags to find the leak on the International Space Station?

Katya Pavlushchenko (@katlinegrey)'s tweet says: Here’s some of today’s news from the ISS. First of all, the leak was finally found (thanks to the tea bag). Anatoly Ivanishin sent photos to the ...
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What mission is this Chris Hadfield photo associated with and what is the location? And what is that thing?

Many, many astronauts have gone on to be wonderful orators, educators, advocates for science, education and positive thinking, Major Tom Colonel (ret) and (fmr) ISS Commander Chris Hadfield is just ...

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