Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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What are the synergies between today's suborbital private businesses and space flight?

How, if at all, does suborbital flight benefit real space flight outside of the atmosphere? I mean suborbital flights as a business on its own, e.g. for tourism, not just suborbital testing of space ...
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When a coronal mass ejection (CME) hits a spacecraft, from which direction will the particles come?

I have long assumed that when a CME (aka solar mass ejection, SME) hits a spacecraft, its particles will be coming in a straight line from the Sun. I've learned recently that it isn't so direct, and ...
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NASA at sIxty years, will there be a new moonshot mandate?

NASA is sixty years old still going strong. There are few organizations that have made such an impact to man's quest for knowledge in such a short time span. The contributions are many, and its ...
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Launch Accelerations: Values, history

This topic: What G-forces do different launchers cause? indicates that current satellite launchers are limiting peak acceleration to about 4g. I'm pretty sure the STS (Shuttle) did the same. My ...
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Could a Human reach escape velocity by jumping from the surface of Ceres (a dwarf planet)?

According to this answer the surface gravity of Ceres is estimated to be only $0.27 m/s^2$. With a rotation period of 9 hours. The gravity seems light enough to overcome by leg muscle alone, and if ...
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Has USSR/Russia launched humans on any rocket not derived from R-7?

The Soviet Union's first crewed launch, Vostok 1, was on a Vostok booster, derived from the R-7 ICBM and Sputnik satellite launcher with an additional stage added. The Soyuz boosters used today by ...
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Could NASA go back to the Moon? [closed]

Even after launching so many space missions, including the one which led Man to the Moon (Apollo 11, July 1969), NASA made several mistakes even in the space programs that followed. For e.g. Space ...
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Why did Armstrong pilot the LM, when Aldrin was tasked as Lunar Module Pilot?

Buzz Aldrin is credited (or was tasked) with being the Apollo 11 Lunar Module pilot. However in fact it was Neil Armstrong who piloted the craft down when the LM guidance computer overflowed, with ...
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Why have so many space missions had a crew of 3?

Just reading about manned space-craft. Space travel on record is listed briefly on Wikipedia. The section on successful manned missions is of particular interest. Successful manned programs have, ...
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Soyuz reentry acceleration profile with timing

I am looking for reentry Soyuz acceleration profile with timing. I was able to find graphs for ascent, but failed to find anything related with descent. The only thing I've got is Andreas Mogensen ...
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How many people have returned to Earth in a different type of vehicle than the one that launched them into space?

Recently we had the 15 year anniversary of Expedition 1 of the ISS. That particular crew launched in a Soyuz (TM-31) and returned on a Space Shuttle (Discovery, STS-102), which I found a remarkable ...
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What missions could be done with Orion on Falcon Heavy?

Orion is being developed in tandem with the SLS. But Falcon Heavy is scheduled to fly earlier, early 2015, and be cheaper. So I wonder what kind of missions Orion could do with FH. Could it for ...
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Why didn't Gemini, Apollo or STS use solar panels?

Short-duration flights (Vostok, Voskhod, Mercury) use several-kWh batteries. Space stations use photovoltaic cells for their high power-to-weight ratio. The longest mission duration accomplished with ...
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Could the Space Shuttle orbiter have used the Energia HLLV (used by Buran)?

I would like to know if the Space Shuttle orbiters would have been capable of utilizing the Energia Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) used by the Buran instead of the External tank/SRB configuration. ...
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Where can I find Captain REFSMMAT?

One of the longer NASA acronyms is REFSMMAT (REFerence to a Stable Member MATrix) Ed Pavelka was one of the flight controllers who occupied the FIDO console at mission control. As a way to cement ...
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Why choose to crash the Apollo lunar lander ascent stage after it ascended?

What influenced the end-of-life planning for the Apollo lunar lander ascent stage after it ascended and the crew returned to the command module? I was looking at Wikipedia for Apollo Lunar Module. It ...
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What was the volume of the Space Shuttle orbiter, not just the crew cabin or cargo bay but the total volume of the entire craft?

For context, after an in-depth Google search, I asked the question "What was the volume of the Space Shuttle orbiter, not just the crew cabin or cargo bay but the total volume of the entire craft?" on ...
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Could the Saturn V actually have launched astronauts around Venus?

One of the more interesting proposed uses of a Saturn V was to launch a manned flyby of Venus. Some of the cargo would have been stored inside the tank of the upper stage, which would be retained ...
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Is there an explanation for repeating Soyuz accidents involving misfiring of explosive bolts?

In the Soyuz program, quite a few accidents have been caused by malfunctions of the explosive bolts: Soyuz 11: Explosive bolts designed to fire sequentially fired simultaneously instead, causing a ...
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What are the biological effects of a toe-to-head force gradient upon a human over the long term?

This question pertains to the notion of constructing rotating spacecraft and habs for human use in space in order to mitigate the effects of microgravity. Such craft have been a staple of many sci-fi ...
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What makes Space Adaptation Syndrome worse?

Are there any particular movements or activities that exacerbate SAS, space sickness?
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Is the vestibular system ever useful in spaceflight?

The Vintage Space video Eleven Deaf Men Helped NASA Leave Earth describes a number of different NASA experiments done on human subjects who had damaged vestibular systems due to childhood illness. ...
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Which astronaut has experienced the largest relativistic shift in time (relative to the surface)?

Following this answer and then this question (where I've linked to Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev; the World's Most Prolific Time Traveller) I've noticed that currently Krikalev does not hold the precisely ...
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What is the longest manned re-entry from Low Earth Orbit ever recorded?

What is the record for the longest amount of time that a manned spacecraft has taken to re-enter from low Earth orbit (LEO)? I would prefer the duration between the beginning of the re-entry burn ...
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What are the benefits of cryosleep?

NASA is working on a so-called 'Cryosleep Chamber', but why do they need it so badly? There must be a lot of benefits attached to this technology..
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Is there a term for the activity of weightless astronauts hanging out on walls or ceilings?

Weightless astronauts often sit, stand, walk, or sleep on (or near) surfaces that (with gravity) we would normally call walls or ceilings. I reference such a phenomenon in my comment here: I would ...
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Human-rating the Saturn V using modern standards

Would a complete Apollo-Saturn stack (like e.g. AS-506) be human-rated according to the latest human-rating process (NPR 8705.2C) of NASA? If not, what are the biggest show-stoppers? This question ...
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Project Mercury capsule switch orientation

I noticed that the majority of the toggle switches in the Mercury capsules move in a left-to-right manner. This seems unusual to me, since Gemini, Apollo and the Shuttle all predominantly use up-down ...
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Why are the very reliable rockets Atlas V and Ariane V not rated for human flight?

During the last ten years all 100 or so launches by Atlas V and Ariane V together have been successful. (One Atlas V payload entered too low orbit, but that would hardly have risked the life of a crew)...
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Have any humans orbited the Earth in anything other than a prograde orbit?

As per the title, have any humans been launched into an orbit around the Earth which is anything other than prograde? E.g. retrograde or polar.
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Why did the number of recovery ships decrease with time?

This NASA page names the various ocean ships that have helped recover NASA spacecraft. There is a general trend that later missions used fewer ships. Read the link for details, but here are some ...
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What were the “pills” that were added to solid waste in Apollo 7?

In the BBC News Worldservice podcast 10, 9, 8, 7: The dramatic missions that made the Moon landing possible told by retired astronaut Nicole Stott (Expeditions 20, 21, STS-128 and STS-133) after ...
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Why was the ISS so much more expensive than Mir?

The Wikipedia article on Mir places its total cost at a little over four billion dollars. The ISS on the other hand, is at 150 billion and that figure will surely increase more over the coming years. ...
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What do astronauts do with their trash on the ISS?

Astronauts often stay more than a year on the ISS, they produce trash like any other human. Is there like a limit that they may produce ever day or maybe some measures were put in place to reduce the ...
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What is the connection (if any) between the new Artemis mission and the two Artemis spacecraft (Themis-B, -C)?

It has been announced that the culmination of Space Policy Directive 1, the goal to land Americans and specifically the first woman on the Moon, at it's south pole in 2024 will be called "Artemis". ...
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Why doesn't NASA plan a manned Venus flyby first? [closed]

After America will have returned to the Moon, why won't NASA make a Venus flyby mission with the Orion/SLS before going on to manned flights to Mars? They are planning crewed missions to Venus (...
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1answer
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Outer space and dark-adapted vision

Does being in outer space, without the glare of the Sun, have any impact on human vision? Is dark-adapted vision improved when astronauts are orbiting the Earth and in its shadow?
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Why was Gemini VIII terminated after recovering from the OAMS thruster failure?

This NASA source states that the mission was terminated after Neil Armstrong used 75% of the RCS propellent to cancel the rotation from the OAMS thruster failure. If the mission had enough RCS left to ...
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Have there been (more) reflights of a manned space mission?

In recent question about color blindness there was an interesting fact about two back-to-back space shuttle missions, STS-83 and STS-94, that were flown with same shuttle and same crew with only few ...
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Can there be color blind astronauts?

This answer begins with: It appears to have actually been a pole, not a cord. Handrails and handholds, colored blue for quick identification, were located throughout Skylab. ...
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Did the manned NASA capsules rotate during descent?

Watching the NS-11 launch, I noticed that during descent when the main chutes were deployed, the capsule rotated quite a bit, and would rotate back. Was this an issue as well during the Mercury/...
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Two stage reentry from Moon/Mars

There are a number of questions addressing the desirability and/or feasibility of a slower reentry from Earth orbit in order to reduce thermal load. At least most of them run into the problem that ...
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Have “QR” or other 2D barcodes been used in spaceflight?

Wikipedia: QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan. ...
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At what surface gravity can't astronauts do full steps anymore?

We know that on the Moon in ~1/6 g the Apollo astronauts couldn't make full steps because they jumped with each step. At what surface gravity could you walk more like on Earth and at what gravity ...
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How many times were there thirteen people inside the ISS? Is it hard on the station?

I just saw this photo in @SF.'s answer It is ISS023-E-023513 STS-131 and Expedition 23. The full caption is below. Are there really 13 people on the ISS at one time? Is STS-131 the only shuttle ...
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What set of units does the Orion capsule cockpit instrumention use?

Shuttle was English, ISS is metric. What's Orion? For example: What units are inertial velocity displayed in?
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How was Skylab's orbit inclination chosen?

As referenced in this question, there were a number of early spaceflight missions at higher inclination than may be expected (given limited payload capability, higher inclination further limits ...
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Why Orion can't be used to service JWST?

Hubble Space Telescope is a marvel of astronomical tools - particularly judging by how much it moved the science. It took a lot of fixes along the way, which certainly prolonged its useful life. Its ...
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How to build a space catapult large enough to shoot a one hundered thousand ton spaceship in to low orbit?

I assume calculations start with the payload weight. A massive foundation would be needed lots of concrete and rebar meters thick. Also a harmonically sealed tunnel a thousand miles long filled with ...
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Did Soviets/Russians perform any crewed (intentionally) suborbital flights?

Gagarin went directly to the orbit - the first manned flight was orbital. I don't know about any other Soviet or Russian spaceflights that wouldn't be orbital - except for some odd aborted launch or ...