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Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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Could the Apollo LM abort mode be engaged after touchdown? What would have happened if it was?

The Lunar Module had an abort mode where the crew basically just had to push the ABORT button on the control panel, and the ascent stage would detach from the descent stage, followed by the ascent ...
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Cosmonauts and Astronauts

American, Japanese and ESA space travellers are astronauts, Russian or Soviet space travellers are cosmonauts. But are there exceptions from this? Americans visiting the ISS the last years have used ...
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Why were ejection seats used in Project Gemini instead of a tower escape system?

In Project Gemini, the Titan II GLV space rocket used as fuel hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, so safety concerns over its toxic propellants were present. But along with the special care that was ...
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Would a smaller re-entry vehicle better handle very high re-entry speeds?

"Inspiration Mars" has the idea to use a free return trajectory for a crew of two rounding Mars. While attractive in some ways, this free return trajectory has the disadvantage of ending up with a ...
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357 views

Could increased atmospheric pressure act as a countermeasure for effects of microgravity?

Are there any possibilities to counter the negative effects of low or micro gravity by increasing the atmospheric pressure?
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What are the synergies between today's suborbital private businesses and space flight?

How, if at all, does suborbital flight benefit real space flight outside of the atmosphere? I mean suborbital flights as a business on its own, e.g. for tourism, not just suborbital testing of space ...
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What does Soyuz's button-pushing “fancy stick” look like? Are there others?

In the Smarter Every Day video How to FLY A SPACESHIP to the SPACE STATION - Smarter Every Day 131 the host Destin Sandlin (seated in the center seat of a Soyuz capsule) asks astronaut Scott Kelly (...
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Titan vs Mars for colonization

This question is along the same vein as Venus vs Mars for colonization but without the person at the table. Is Mars better than Titan which to me seems a more realistic option for colonization? With ...
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Why was this Saturn rocket elevated for launch?

This is an image of a Saturn on the launch pad on July 20th 1973 It appears to be resting on an elevated platform that raises it significantly off the ground. Why was this done? It seems like a lot ...
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What are the reasons Soyuz's lifespan in orbit is limited?

Following the recent Soyuz failure news, I found out that the currently docked Soyuz expires in the foreseeable future, leaving the crew with no means to return back to Earth. What are the reasons ...
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What was the approximate cabin temperature and humidity of the Apollo mission capsules?

I learned that Apollo missions used a simple system providing 100% oxygen atmosphere in the cabin at lower air pressure from the question, "Decision factors for using 100% O2 cabin atmosphere in early ...
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What is the highest number of humans in space at the same time and what vessels were they on when it happened?

What is the highest number of human beings in space at the same time, and what vessels were they on when it happened?
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How do we make a round-trip journey to Mars?

I've been to Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where I saw the huge Saturn V rocket... This was used to get to people to the moon. It had a Lunar Module to propel itself on and off the moon's surface ...
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What would have happened if only one Space Shuttle SRB ignited?

The ignite command for the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) would not be issued unless all three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) were at least 90% of thrust. The launch would have been aborted if one or ...
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563 views

How many people have returned to Earth in a different type of vehicle than the one that launched them into space?

Recently we had the 15 year anniversary of Expedition 1 of the ISS. That particular crew launched in a Soyuz (TM-31) and returned on a Space Shuttle (Discovery, STS-102), which I found a remarkable ...
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How does the freon compressor work at 0 gravity?

As far as I researched the Freon compressor to cool air has to stay up right not to leak oil into the system? So how does one work in space? What do they use to cool of the air?
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How often has the ISS been physically vacant (un-manned)?

Currently six great folks are working in the International Space Station (ISS). I am wondering if it is ever vacant and if there's a rule of thumb (magnitude of order of days, an average or anything) ...
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Why have so many space missions had a crew of 3?

Just reading about manned space-craft. Space travel on record is listed briefly on Wikipedia. The section on successful manned missions is of particular interest. Successful manned programs have, ...
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What psychological therapy is available to space travelers

Is there an 'on-call' person dedicated for psychological therapy of people traveling in space? Flights are getting longer and longer, and while isolation has been studied for space and certainly ...
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What are the requirements differences between Escape Suit and EVA Suit?

I read up articles on both types - EVA suits meant for spacewalks, and Escape Suits used in launch and reentry - but other than bright orange color for ACES making it easy to find and the fact that ...
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What were the differences between the LLRV and LLTV?

The LLRV (Lunar Landing Research Vehicle) was used to develop the LLTV (Lunar Landing Training Vehicle), but were there design differences between the two? Were any major lessons learned from the LLRV ...
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How can astronauts on ISS deal with dental emergency?

Tooth ache is one of the more stupid and annoying disruptions to one's week. Dental hygiene can reduce the risk a lot, but only goes so far - for example, inflammation of roots of the tooth, with pus ...
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How thick must a shield be to be better than no shield at all?

Below an answer to a recent question about shielding against radiation on a trip to Mars, there was this comment from dubu (emphasis mine): [..] For high-energy particles entering dense matter, ...
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What is the ideal location for a human habitat on Mars?

Would anyone have any insights or articles on the best location to land on Mars for a manned mission where the crew would establish their base and live on Mars for a couple months? (But I know we are ...
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What influenced the shape of the Soyuz descent module?

The original Vostok and Voshkod space vehicles were mostly spherical shapes. The Americans went with vaguely conical/capsule shapes. But Soyuz from the beginning has had a sort of gumdrop shape for ...
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Russian manned Moon landing capability today

Do Russians have means of launching a manned mission to the Moon? Do they have an engine with sufficient thrust and stability needed (RD-170 has bigger thrust than the F-1 engine, if I read the data ...
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With six spacecraft currently docked at the ISS, how could Santa (or anyone else) deliver presents?

This ISS tweet says: Three days after launching from Florida the @SpaceX #Dragon cargo craft was installed to the Harmony module at 10:36 a.m. EST. There are now six spaceships parked at the ...
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Is the vestibular system ever useful in spaceflight?

The Vintage Space video Eleven Deaf Men Helped NASA Leave Earth describes a number of different NASA experiments done on human subjects who had damaged vestibular systems due to childhood illness. ...
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Do we still have all the equipment to go back to the moon?

That is, does NASA still have all the training equipment, computers and so forth that would be required for a new moon program, or would all of that have to be rebuilt as well as building new rockets?
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Have any humans orbited the Earth in anything other than a prograde orbit?

As per the title, have any humans been launched into an orbit around the Earth which is anything other than prograde? E.g. retrograde or polar.
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How can an Astronaut survive for six days inside a Spacesuit?

In the video #AskNASA | What are the Next Generation Spacesuits?, spacesuit engineer Dustin Gohmert says the following about the Orion Crew Survival Suit (Orange Spacesuit): This suit is also ...
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Will Orion be subjected to the same Human Rating (Safety, demo flight) standards as the CCtCap competitors?

The CCtCAP Competitors, Dragon V2 (SpaceX) and CST-100 (Boeing) are being subjected to the NASA human rating standards. Although I asked the questions: Would the Shuttle meet Human rating standards? ...
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How will they mitigate the effect microgravity has in the BFR on manned trip to mars?

Very curious to know this, since it doesn't look like the BFR will utilize centrifugal force to emulate gravity as far as I know.
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What is the most valuable (potentially useful) man made object on the Moon?

It is relatively expensive to get things from the Earth to the Moon. We know there are three Lunar Roving Vehicles (LRV) on the Moon and that there is some chance they could be made operational. ...
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What is the limit for asymmetrical design for a launch vehicle?

Looking at Soyuz 11A511 type rocket (the one used for launch Soyuz T-M-and A-M models) you can notice that the payload fairing brake flaps are displaced from the ideal axis (they are not aligned with ...
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International Collaboration on Large-Scale Manned Space Exploration Projects

Many people would argue that the International Space Station is one of the most extraordinary human accomplishments in space exploration. Considering the short-lived space stations of the pre-ISS era, ...
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Soyuz TMA-18M ISS rendezvous: expedited 4-orbit vs regular 34-orbit - How does fuel usage compare?

Follow up to this question: Why will Soyuz TMA-18M take two days to reach the ISS?. Clearly the expedited rendezvous is cheaper in terms of time. However I was wondering how fuel usage compares. Is ...
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Are the Boeing CST-100 Starliner and Orion MPCV interchangeable at any level?

Although the Boeing CST-100 Starliner and the Orion MPCV are designed for different missions (LEO vs beyond LEO), one might imagine a mission which could be served by either vehicle. Presumably, both ...
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339 views

Can there be color blind astronauts?

This answer begins with: It appears to have actually been a pole, not a cord. Handrails and handholds, colored blue for quick identification, were located throughout Skylab. ...
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Lowest amount of people on the ISS at one time

I understand that the ISS is somewhat capable of unmanned control unless a catastrophic error occurs with core instruments, however when the crew is onboard, there is usually a crew of around 6 at any ...
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Effects of microgravity on human body in a days time

Many websites tell me effects of microgravity on the human body over a period of months. However nothing about the immediate effects of it. Could it be because there isn't any? I once read that fluid ...
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170 views

International Space Station consumables shelf life duration

Most of ISS crew consumables are designed for a long store period. I couldn't find any info - what are shelf life durations for the consumables? What are typical shelf life in ISS storage for: ...
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Does NASA ever plan crewed missions without a free return trajectory?

Because the mission was launched on a free return trajectory, the crew of Apollo 13 survived. Has that abort option ever been foregone in any mission that flew or was seriously planned? (A free ...
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What is the Austrian Space Forum doing in Oman?

I was looking through CNN's clickbait photo compilation Instant vacation: The world's best travel photos of 2018 and came upon the following image and caption. What is the Austrian Space Forum, and ...
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Pre-launch TLEs for NASA launches

I was curious if the United States is on the verge of launching maned flights to the ISS, will anyone release Pre-Launch TLE data like was done back when the shuttle was flying.
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Is there any truth to the claims of cosmonauts lost in space?

I've heard that during the space race era, many of the Soviet cosmonauts were lost in space. Or at least, such were the claims of some. So I wonder, is there any truth in these claims, or was that ...
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Why did Virgin Galactic choose N2O / HTPB as its fuel?

It seems very exotic compared to something like RP1 or Methane, especially for a vehicle which should be flying a lot and around civilians. Why was this choice made?
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780 views

Real time communications in space

Today we use audio and video communications (using UDP protocol) over IP networks (VoIP) for communicating (Skype, Whatsapp, FB messenger). This works fine on planet Earth (although there are various ...
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2answers
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Is it possible to design a completely fail-safe rocket? [closed]

Is it possible to design a rocket, such that if anything goes wrong, the crew and people on the ground will always be in no harm, or are there certain limitations that we will never be able to ...
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Has every passenger been an astronaut? Will they be in the future?

There have been a number of paying passengers on orbital missions in the past, and it is likely there will be many, many more in the future, and not only on orbital missions. I'm thinking that ...