Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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Following KRT-10 aboard Salyut-6, have there been any other radio astronomy observations from a space station or crewed capsule?

Space stations have certainly been equipped with infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray telescopes for astronomical observation and optical and X-ray communications as well as particle telescopes ...
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Riding out an exploding rocket

It is known that at least some of Challenger's crew survived the explosion, while conscious. If the cabin had a parachute, they may have lived. This is despite the Space Shuttle stack being one of the ...
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Exactly why does Starship need to be this big for interplanetary travel?

As discussed in several answers to Isn't Starship way too big? Starship's unusual size is due to it being intended for missions to the Red Planet. But why? Even a smaller ship could satisfy the ...
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Accomodations for blood transfusion

Are there accomodations for blood transfusion (could/may be rare cases) on crewed space missions? That is, facilities for storing blood bottles for transfusion matching the blood group of astronauts. ...
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Earth to Mars (or reverse) Hohmann transfer orbits for the 21st Century

Is anybody aware of a nice graphic showing for the next 20-30 years or maybe the rest of the 21st century, the time periods for Earth to Mars launches? They occur about every two years, but I'm ...
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COTS portable X-ray machines in crewed spaceflight; would they work without significant modification?

Are commercial, off-the shelf (COTS) portable X ray machines likely to work in manned spacecraft, or are there technical reasons why they would need to be significantly modified? Do you feel is it ...
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Cats and dogs in microgravity; how much information is there on their locomotive ability or adaptability in space? Is there anything at all?

Cats and dogs are both known to be very popular pets for humans around the world and have been bred for thousands of years for this purpose. Destin Sandlin's Slow Motion Flipping Cat Physics | Smarter ...
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What's the farthest an ISS astronaut gets from the station's center of mass during routine activities? At 0.5°/s what centrifugal effects are there?

This answer to Are there really “Dead End” signs on the outside of the International Space Station? won't be helpful here since for the purposes of this question spacewalks aren't part of routine ...
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How many bubble levels have been used in space? Were any of them used some place besides the Moon?

The lunar retroreflectors left by Apollo astronauts had bubble levels and Sun compasses to that they could be oriented correctly with respect to Earth's average direction. This was necessary to ...
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What animals would be best suited as pets or comfort animals for extended periods of spaceflight in microgravity?

Various scenarios that put more or less every folks in space for extended periods of time in microgravity in the future have been proposed, mostly based on space tourism but there could be ...
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Could one survive a ride into orbit outside a rocket?

Another question asked whether a Falcon 9 class rocket could reach orbit with a person (-like mass) duct-taped to the outside of it, in spite of the resulting mass asymmetry. The consensus of one ...
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Are toggle- or rocker-type switches avoided in crewed areas of space stations to avoid getting accidentally bumped?

@OrganicMarble's answer to What's the small white gadget with two black buttons in this video of the International Space Station? includes the On/Off switch for cabin lighting aboard the ISS. There ...
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How long would it take for air to completely leak from a spacecraft?

If a spacecraft of volume V was leaking air of density rho as a mass flow rate of m-dot can you calculate the time for all the air to leak out using (rho x V)/m-dot? rho would decrease and m-dot ...
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At what moment during his flight did Yuri Gagarin eat?

Gagarin's flight in space was rather short, but he still had time to eat two tubes of meat and one of chocolate. The flight schedule on Wikipedia doesn't mention a meal. At what moment during his ...
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How well would Max Faget's April 1, 1969 design for the Space Shuttle have actually worked? What would have been the major problems?

This answer to Who are the actual lead designers of manned spacecraft? says (in its entirety): Max Faget was involved in the design of every US manned spacecraft flown to date. Mercury, Gemini, ...
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What are the G forces the Dragon 2 crew experience during splashdown? And what is the seat angle for the current configuration of 4 astronauts?

The Dragon 2 has a crew capacity of seven, but, NASA decided to change the specification for the angle of the ship’s seats due to concerns about the g-forces crew members might experience during ...
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Which crewed spacecraft provides the gentlest ascent?

The Space Shuttle is considered to be the spacecraft with the gentlest decent and landing. I was surprised to learn that its ascent was quite a rough experience. So I was wondering: Which orbital ...
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Have any living organisms been intentionally launched into polar orbits?

The Space Shuttle was originally intended to be able to support polar orbits, by launching from Vandenberg AFB, in California. Although a launch complex was built, it was never used for a Shuttle ...
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How did the Apollo guidance computers deal with radiation?

I was wondering how the Apollo guidance computer handled the radiation encountered in space
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What kind of impact tests to large touch screen displays in crew capsules have to pass?

Some of the glass layers in commercial large format displays are between 0.25 and 0.7 mm thick. (e.g. 1, 2) If something comes loose in a capsule during a high acceleration period (launch, reentry) ...
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Why did the Space Race end on the Moon?

Why did both the USA and the USSR decide to put a person on the Moon and then 'end' the space race, having 'won'? Why didn't the space race go on infinitely: who would fly the first astronauts to ...
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of certain radial symmetries in spacecraft construction?

I'm mainly considering the merits and drawbacks of threefold versus fourfold (or higher, like sixfold and eightfold) radial symmetries when it comes to the construction of a fuselage for a spacecraft ...
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Could amateur radio operators or others contact the ISS against NASA's wishes?

In real life, but more often in fiction, there are have been a number of examples of "Don't tell the crew" i.e. Mission control finding out about an issue and deciding that for whatever ...
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Using inflatable balloons to collect hydrogen from space as a simple solution for radiation shielding

I've seen this video where around the 4:59 mark it states hydrogen is the "best element" to protect humans from cosmic rays: Even if it's not completely true,...
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What is the maximum allowed occupancy of the ISS?

With the recent Crew-2 docking while Crew-1 was still docked, there were Four Crew-1 members Four Crew-2 members Three Soyuz members That totals eleven. There have been as many as 13 aboard at once (...
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Nighttime reentry of occupied spacecraft?

In looking at details of the tomorrow early morning (Sunday, May 2, 2021) reentry of the crewed SpaceX Dragon capsule, I see that it's reentry plan is for a nighttime splashdown in the Gulf of Mexico. ...
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Why do we never see astronauts doing breaststroke or the "Man from Atlantis" swimming movements, say, and thus swimming in air in free fall?

Why do we never see astronauts and others swimming in air in free fall? The swimming strokes that work well under water on earth are the breast stroke and especially that "Man from Atlantis" ...
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Why is there currently so little talk about a Venus gravity assist for a crewed Mars mission?

I just came across this video about manned Mars and Venus missions that were planned in the 1960s. They considered a Venus flyby the best way to get humans to Mars. Indeed, there are also modern ...
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What have astronauts used rolls of Kapton tape for?

An image (also below) in an answer to the question "How often is duct tape used during crewed space missions?" shows a roll of the gray stuff next to a roll of Kapton tape, aboard the ...
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Cyanobacteria as Life Support?

I'm aware that cyanobacteria are responsible for the Great Oxidation Event and are very effective at turning CO2 into oxygen so it stands to reason that with the proper nutrients for the bacteria, you ...
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Why do astronauts wear spacesuits during launch?

I have noticed that astronauts in every launch I've found wear a spacesuit during launch, like this example from the shuttle. I don't understand this. What kind of problem could cause loss of cabin ...
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What solution does SpaceX plan so to make it possible for the crew to get out from Starship on other planets, considering the cabin's elevation?

What solution does SpaceX plan so to make it possible for the crew to get out from Starship on other planets, considering the cabin's elevation? Will they use some kind of rope ladder?
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Is CO + O ==> CO2 a possibility for propelling rockets off Mars? [duplicate]

Perseverance, the Mars rover, includes an experiment called MOXIE. This is a technology demonstration to show that Mars' atmospheric carbon dioxide can be broken into carbon monoxide and oxygen. ...
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What is the procedure in case the ISS loses one of the evacuation crafts?

Suppose that a micrometeorite or a sudden failure renders one of the Soyuz inoperable, or that a routine inspection discovers a defect in one of them that makes it unsafe. What is the protocol to ...
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Soyuz for Sale?

Reading through some stuff on the interwebs I came across some information saying that some old Soyuz Capsules are keep in a junkyard. Does anyone know if it's actually possible to purchase one of ...
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When was the last time that an incandescent light bulb was launched into space?

Certainly the first crewed spacecraft had some incandescent light bulbs for indicators, though for cabin illumination the higher efficiency of fluorescent lights was often exploited. The question ...
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What paper size do they use on the International Space Station?

We know they have at least one printer on the ISS – that's NASA-supplied so it would be in the US Orbital Segment. Presumably there is a printer in the Russian Orbital Segment as well. (Mir had a ...
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How does NASA build acclimatisation into mission plans for astronauts?

I was reading an article today where NASA admits some level of culpability contributing to a crew issue on SkyLab in 1973. Nasa accepts that mission planners had not given the crew the typical period ...
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What is super heavy booster? What will it be used for?

Also called BN1, right? Please explain me what is booster and what will it be used for? Also feel free to give me additional insights other than included in my question about BN1.
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Was the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle supposed to be crewed?

NASA studied another space tug design, termed the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), along with its plans for Space Station Freedom. The OMV's role would have been a reusable space vehicle that would ...
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What does the Moon's gravity feel like? If you don't move, could you still tell you're on the Moon?

I am interested in descriptions and discussion from the Apollo astronauts. Almost all animals and many plants are sensitive to the earth's gravitational field. This is important for large mammals and ...
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What do the double- or triple-checkers do when a launch is not scheduled?

Leading up to every manned launch, there is personnel dedicated to making sure their colleagues do everything correctly in accordance to checklists they usually have on hand. See for example the ...
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Soyuz TMA Neptune IDS Button Lights Behavior On Click

I made a simple virtual Soyuz TMA Neptune IDS using simple coding (a work in process). The purpose of it is solely for the buttons location familiarization of the control panels. The buttons react on ...
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Are there any sites that have collection of Bellcomm Inc. memos?

Bellcomm Inc was contracted by NASA to provide alternate and hypothetical launch vehicles, spacecraft, and missions. The memos combine the right blend of technical detail without heavy mathematics ...
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What is "mission design"? What do mission designers do (if such a designation exists)?

The question in meta Is the mission-design tag description wrong? Should the trajectory-design tag be somehow nixed? needs some attention, so I thought I'd turn to our "panel of experts" ...
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Flying around on a fire extinguisher

It's in many movies... the astronaut grabs a fire extinguisher and uses it to propel themselves around. It's even in the Shuttle operations manual (2.2-9) "Consideration should be given to the ...
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Why is it so hard to build crewed rockets/spacecraft able to reach escape velocity?

Why are we still not going farther than to Low Earth Orbit? Orbital velocity is about 4.8 mi/s (7.7 km/s) and escape velocity is about 7 mi/s (11.2 km/s), about 45% faster. Why is it so hard to reach ...
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Why does Falcon 9 launch with Crew Dragon solar panels facing down?

I noticed in video of the first crewed mission in August that Falcon 9 pitches down with the Dragon solar panels facing down. I'd been expecting the solar panels to be facing up, because sun. Does ...
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Avoiding Martian contamination with Earth microbes

Unmanned probes can be sterilized, but when humans begin occupying Mars in large quantities, how can contamination of possible Martian microbes with Earth microbes be avoided?
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Is it really possible to catch the Super heavy booster by using the launch tower ? How Challenging will it be?

Reports say that SpaceX now aims to recover the Super heavy booster by catching it with the help of the launch tower. What are the engineering challenges for this and how will it benefit ? News ...
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