Questions tagged [crewed-spaceflight]

Crewed spaceflight (also referred to as human spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft. When a spacecraft is crewed, it can be operated directly, as opposed to being remotely operated or autonomous.

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What is the cheapest possible way to land a crew of 2 on the moon?

During the Apollo moon missions, a single very large rocket sent both the Apollo CSM and the LM to the moon in a single shot and it took only around 3 days to get there. However, after the Apollo ...
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18 votes
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What typically gets sent to the ISS?

I'm working on a project that aims to understand what is needed to live in space. I understand the basic concepts and vital items needed, but I'd love to see a direct example of what is already being ...
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Would the national flag planted by astronauts on Mars need an upper horizontal pole like the ones on the Moon?

Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, the Apollo lunar flags had an upper horizontal pole in order to make them fully hoisted, looking like floating in the wind. Now Mars does have an ...
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7 votes
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How many current or near-future pressure suits are there for use in space in total?

There are some pressure suits primarily for use inside spacecraft and some for use during EVAs. Currently how many pressure suits are used or will be used in the near future; let's say from 5 year ...
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Tradeoffs sending a tank of fuel ahead of a crewed mission to another planet?

This is something that I'd seen in the BBC fictional documentary Voyage to the Planets. There, as the crew arrives in the orbit of Mars, there's a tank that has already been sent there so that the ...
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After the Crew Dragon's success, does Boeing's Starliner still offer value?

Boeing's Starliner is more expensive than Crew Dragon and seems not to offer any significant advantages. Is there still value to NASA or other parties in the future to having a choice between the two?
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Do non-American space travellers train on Dragon capsule as well?

Soyuz is a spacecraft which still uses technologies from soviet era. The Dragon capsule is state of the art with its electronic upgrades. With Russia and US sharing the International Space Station ...
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Book Recommendation on History of Spaceflight

I'm a CS/Engineering student at CalTech and I'm searching for a book that can help me better understand the history of spaceflight and the problems associated with getting humans to space. Since this ...
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How does the Commercial Crew Program differ from the way NASA's previous crewed systems were developed and operated?

This overview of the Commercial Crew Program on NASA's site describes the difference between Commercial Crew and previous systems (I have numbered the original bullet points for easier reference): ...
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Why would spacecraft docking to the ISS have a different atmospheric pressure?

In the SpaceX Demo 2 Crew Dragon livestream, they had to equalize pressure between the ISS and the Dragon spacecraft. The voice on the stream said that they were bringing it to levels that match Earth'...
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Are there any differences in docking procedures between ISS and manned capsules vs. unmanned capsules?

The Russian Soyuz has an extensive history in docking with ISS with both manned and unmanned capsules. SpaceX just recently demonstrated manned-capsule docking with ISS with a history of unmanned ...
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Why does opening the Crew Dragon hatch take so long?

What procedures are followed during opening of the hatches of both ISS and Crew Dragon, and why does it take so long?
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Once in Earth orbit, what is the strongest propulsive acceleration an astronaut has experienced?

Early crewed launches subjected astronauts to large propulsive acceleration, usually right at the end of a stage before shut down and separation when the mass for that stage is minimum. (see ...
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What are the appropriate phrases to use to wish an astronaut safe travels? [closed]

When you want to wish an astronaut "safe travels", what particular phrases are commonly used? I'm looking for historical phrases as well as more modern. Although I'm more interested in English ...
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What specific threshold requirements or conditions is satisfied by the SpaceX Demo-2 Crew Dragon to warrant a manned flight? [closed]

I am wondering if there has been enough tests before the maiden manned flight of Demo-2 Crew Dragon. There were an autonomous flight test a year ago and a flight abort test late last year. There seem ...
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Why the long (19 hour) mission profile for SpaceX's trip to ISS?

As mentioned briefly in this question, The Russian Soyuz has been using a sub-4 hour path to ISS. Why the long ride from Canaveral? Or is the 19-hour timeframe typical of all launches prior to the "...
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Thrombosis risk before launch

I am currently following the live broadcast of today's SpaceX launch. For a few hours already, astronauts are sitting inside the vessel, barely able to move. I wonder what precautions are taken to ...
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Why do they make the astronauts sit in Crew Demo-2 for so long before launch?

I just tuned in to the live "broadcast" for the Crew Demo-2 and it looks like the astronauts sat down over an hour and a half ago, and there's still more than an hour to go. Why do (did) they have to ...
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Thermal management of manned craft at Ceres

I would like help in designing a manned craft for exploration and mining activities on Ceres. The sunlight reaching Ceres is approx 10% of that in LEO. Does this mean the spacecraft would have ...
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Why is the Fuji capsule design philosophy not seen in other proposals?

Fuji is my favorite unflown dead spacecraft proposal (narrowly beating out Dynasoar). I am well aware of why Fuji has its weird/unique design, but what I'm curious about is why it's unique. In my ...
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Why does the ISS occasionally operate with just 3 crew members?

There have many instances where the ISS only has 3 crew members, often for many weeks. This places significant strain on workload and productivity. Why isn't a new crew launched quicker?
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Why are we still giving medical support to astronauts after they land? Or any support for that matter?

Besides moving the astronauts around, what are the medical team needed for? I assume they are already wearing some type of monitors for heart/breathing/etc. A call on the radio can confirm if they are ...
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Are there any crewed missions planned or designed for high orbit/cislunar space?

We talk a lot about going to The Moon again, but what about very high Earth orbit, say geostationary and beyond? Are there any plans for crewed missions? If so, what would their goals have been? ...
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Why didn't NASA re-use more astronaut crew members?

According to a popular space exploration web site, 355 individuals few in a total of 833 crew slots in the Space Shuttle program. That's an average of about 2.5 flights per astronaut, though many only ...
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What is the maximum thrust a pressure-fed methalox engine can produce?

SpaceX revealed on 4/30/2020 a new version of Starship designed to land humans on the Moon. Auxiliary engines are mounted high on the body for the last part of the descent, apparently to eliminate the ...
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How do we control a Reentering Capsule in the denser part of the atmosphere?

My question is: How do we control a Reentering Capsule in the denser part of the atmosphere? How does the aerodynamics of the Reentry vehicle workout? In other words, how does a reentry module ...
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2 votes
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What are some details of ISRO's Gaganyaan Mission?

What are the some design features of Indian Human spaceflight Programme's Gaganyaan capsule? How much of the testing is done and what are its future plans?
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Mars Crewed Missions: Use of In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) for the Return Trip Propellant

From what I've read from NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 and other articles, the use of ISRU for the ascent vehicle propellant is usually considered (be it atmospheric based, ...
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Are there any plans for an astronaut's two-year stay on the ISS? If no, why not?

A manned Mars mission would last about two Earth years. However no astronaut was continuously in outer space for that long, the record are Valery Polyakov's 437 days on Mir. If SpaceX wants to send ...
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10 votes
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Why so many laptops on the ISS?

By all reports, there are dozens of laptops on the ISS - more than 12 of them for every crew member. I understand that they are used as control consoles for various equipment that isn't safety-...
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Will crewed vehicles ever follow multi-flyby trajectories?

A while ago, I asked a similar question here, but I think it was confusing, so nobody answered. Two questions: This one is a bit subjective: Do you think that lengthy (+5y) multi-flyby trajectories ...
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4 votes
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Are there any at least somewhat authoritative estimates of how long it will be before people will land on Mars and setting up camp?

While the naive but perfectly valid question Are they building on mars or do they have a camp there? was closed and overly downvoted, I think my answer there was reasonable; the perception by the lay ...
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Were crew assignments ever made to avoid grouping astronauts with similar first names?

Thinking primarily of the Apollo missions with this question, but could be expanded in an answer with a more general response, if appropriate... With several Apollo-era astronauts sharing similar-...
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What effects would the longer days on Mars have on humans?

Afaik, humans never tried to live according to shorter or longer days so the Martian astronauts might be the first humans from Earth that have to follow a different cycle. The Martian day (Sol) is ...
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6 votes
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What specific contributions have ballooning experiments made to manned space flight?

I am vaguely aware that the US space program wasn't just kicked off after Sputnik. There is a history of balloons and sounding rockets that never seem to get mentioned in the books I've read, and ...
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What are the cutting edge materials & strategies which could be used for radiation shielding on long-duration missions?

Astronauts on future long-duration missions will be exposed to different kinds of ionizing radiations, Earth's plasmashpere and Van Allens radiation belts, solar flares and galactic cosmic rays. What ...
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How is the water from a launchpad recovered? (If it is)

Knowing that the water on a launch is used for both noise suppression and surface cooling, do they recover the water that isn’t evaporated by the launch to use again? And if they do, how so?
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Would a manned spacecraft on a Mars mission need large windows?

I'm thinking of scenes like this from the film The Martian, where we see large picture windows in one of the modules in the Ares III. Wouldn't the windows look out onto either black space or the Sun ...
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Can the different "additional" demands on the Space Shuttle be broken down in terms of additional demands on hardware? How so?

Related: Could Space Shuttle's wings be diminished? During the sanctioning and early development of the Space Shuttle, things got somewhat budget-political, and a number of additional design ...
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Will astronauts on the way to mars do experiments like in orbital labs?

Astronauts on Mars-bound missions will be stuck in their spacecraft for months on end. I could find many articles on what psychological issues will have to be faced, how they may/will be faced, how ...
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If the ISS had an emergency, how long would it take to get a rocket to it?

If there was an urgent need to launch a rocket to the ISS, how long would it take to have a rocket ready to launch? I am trying to understand what factors take up the time to prepare for a rocket ...
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How much nitrogen did Skylab and the Space Shuttle carry for atmosphere makeup?

This comment below Where there any spacecraft with nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, but without a system for nitrogen replenishment? mentions: Both Skylab and shuttle had N2 tanks for atmosphere makeup. ...
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Were there any spacecraft with nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, but without a system for nitrogen replenishment?

When watching the Vintage Space video Apollo’s Flammable Oxygen Atmosphere Explained, I started to think: was there ever any spacecraft proposed with nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, but without a system ...
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Would astronauts on the ISS be affected by the radiation from a global nuclear war?

I was wondering what would happen to the ISS astronauts if some global disaster wiped out all ground support. This question tells us that a 2-person crew might survive up to a year on stockpiled food ...
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Long term sustainability of Space Flight

What are some of the known risks towards long term sustainability of manned space missions? Or put another way: What are the limited resources that could keep a future mankind grounded?
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Is going to Ceres "as easy as going to Mars" like this aerospace engineer says?

According to aerospace engineer James Longuski of Purdue University in Indiana, We can go to Ceres as easily as Mars The key technology that a human mission to Ceres needs to develop is a ...
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Has there ever been crewed mission plans by any Space Agency to go to a solar system object other than the Moon and Mars?

As we know there are crewed mission plans to go to Mars and people has been in the Moon already. Has there ever been crewed mission plans by any Space Agency, to go to a solar system object other than ...
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What are "applied moments of inertia" in the context of STS-61B's EASE/ACCESS?

This answer links to https://history.nasa.gov/spacesuits.pdf which shows the image below. (fyi Wikipedia's STS-61 is not to be confused with STS-61A, STS-61B or STS-61C, see answers to Why so many STS-...
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SpaceX Crew Dragon depressurization for emergency EVA

As far as I know, the Crew Dragon does not have an airlock. Therefore, if astronauts inside needed to go outside for some reason, they'd need to suit up, depressurize the cabin, and then they'd be ...
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How long can Crew Dragon stay at ISS?

It appears that the first manned Crew Dragon flight to ISS may be extended due to there being only one US astronaut there. NASA is also trying to determine how long Dragon's first crewed mission ...
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