Questions tagged [debris]

Questions about debris in space, often in Earth orbit. Usually referring to nonoperational man-made satellites or parts of satellites.

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37 views

Are artificial satellites impacted primarily by natural or artificial particles?

Are functional artificial satellites/space stations/spacecraft/probes impacted primarily by natural or artificial particles/debris? Lets go by something comparable like impact frequency per mass/...
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Why are we not seeing probability curves for space junk collision prediction?

Since many specific space junk collision risks have been assessed, why haven't we combined the data and graphed it? The trendlines could be very instructive. Like mapping climate change, the curve ...
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Testing our knowledge of Space Law. Which state would be liable if a Oneweb satellite collides with another satellite?

On June 27th, Oneweb launched another batch of 36 LEO satellites from Vostochny Cosmodrome, Russia. The satellites separated from Soyuz at the altitude of ~400 km. Using their electric propulsion ...
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Who is the State of Registry for ALL the SpaceBEE satellites?

SpaceBEEs are tiny satellites engineered and exploited by the company Swarm Technologies. In 2018, it made headlines by sending 4 experimental satellites on a ride-share of the Indian rocket PSLV, ...
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Which Launching State HASN'T breached its obligations under the 1976 Registration Convention?

(the wording of my question above is voluntarily provocative, but the actual question below may be even more) The context: The 1976 Registration Convention is part of a set of Treaties that ...
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116 views

Does Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty apply to a Launching State?

The following question was asked and answered 3 years ago: might ISRO’s launch of Swarm’s satellites in 2018 be at least a technical violation of the Outer Space Treaty? Recall that the launch in ...
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Measuring and analyzing the tumble of space debris

How well or accurately can we measure the tumble of space debris? I know that we can make ground-based measurements based on light curve data acquired by telescopes. Can tumble be measured from radar ...
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4answers
193 views

Do space industry companies want their defunct satellites back?

Space junk debate aside, many large satellite companies (and governments too) are responsible for a large number of both operational and defunct sats that are still in orbit. When other companies or ...
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Where can i find ELSETS with Co-Variances?

For Special Permutations (I'm a novice), an ELSET with covariance is more accurate than without covariance. A TLE doesn't have room for any covariance. However, I can't seem to find a catalog that ...
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318 views

Would it be possible to alter the orbit of one satellite, with the exhaust plume of a rocket sufficient to deorbit it?

SpaceX plan to launch Starships towards Mars; many of them. This will involve burning hundreds to thousands of tonnes of propellant in low(ish) orbit, since each may require several refueling steps. ...
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Source of Satellite and Debris Ephemerides for Analysis

I'm working on some code that will fuse ephemeris data, the raw telescope and radar data used for locating and tracking active satellites and space debris. Most of this data is owned by the Air Force ...
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207 views

Who owns space junk?

Who owns space junk? There are several old satellites and rocket (second stage?) that get pushed to an orbit where they won't bother anything. Are these technically still owned by anyone (company or ...
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Does China pay for damages caused by deorbiting space junk?

When China launches a big rocket, they apparently don't control the deorbit and there are large enough pieces to strike the surface and even cause damage to buildings, as happened in the Ivory Coast ...
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Was the recent uncontrolled Chinese rocket de-orbit exceptional?

The recent (April 2021) Chinese CZ-5B rocket launch gained widespread media attention because the large launcher was designed to de-orbit in an uncontrolled fashion, and ultimately landed in the ...
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Blue Origin's Plan to Repurpose Spent Upper Stages as Commercial Habitats: What Are the Challenges?

Blue Origin has proposed repurposing spent upper stages as commercial habitats. I imagine this means housing people inside those stages---and therefore inside the tanks that once housed dangerous ...
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Is it practical to 'shoot down' a rocket stage?

Space Policy Online has an article from yesterday titled 'AUSTIN: NO PLANS TO SHOOT DOWN ERRANT CHINESE ROCKET STAGE'. Which made me wonder - is that even plausible? If you shoot it in space, first ...
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134 views

How much debris will hit the ground from the Long March 5B compared to the debris from a GTO upper stage?

It was commented that there are currently 22 SpaceX upper stages in orbit that will eventually reenter in an uncontrolled fashion. PcMan pointed that out when I asked Why the Long March 5B wasn't ...
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How common is the ejection of small objects during final stage separation?

Source: Crew-2 launch; YouTube (timestamp link) That object seen moving right to left is the reason I ask. By playing the video frame-by-frame, it seems like it's a small object close to the camera ...
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How much is really known about those liquid metal droplets orbiting the Earth? (e.g. sizes, composition, orbits…) Are any actually tracked?

The question Orbit Guardians - bs, right? mentions a company proposing a smallsat that will capture then give a roughly 200 m/s retrograde "kick" to liquid metal NaK alloy droplets in LEO ...
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3answers
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Orbit Guardians - bs, right?

California-based Orbit Guardians is one of a small number of startups trying to tackle orbital debris. It's difficult to tell exactly what their plan is, but based on this animation, they seem to ...
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How problematic is debris for Starship storage/depots?

So with the recent announcement that Starship has been selected as NASA's HLS (which is pretty radical), it's raised a question in me that been around for a while. For HLS; a Starship storage(depot) ...
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ISS battery “de-orbit” burnup?

In reading these two questions: How many kilograms of nickel particles will be dispersed in Earth's atmosphere by dumping old ISS batteries overboard? and Why does it take so long for ISS garbage ...
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Why does it take so long for ISS garbage to fall out of orbit?

The ISS recently jettison some garbage and expects it to take 2-4 years to de-orbit and burn up. From Gizmodo's ISS Ditches 2.9-Ton Pallet of Batteries, Creating Its Most Massive Piece of Space Trash: ...
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What happens to the debris of a rocket that exploded or crashed? Is there a dedicated effort to cleaning the debris?

Assuming that everything is not vaporized, one would think that all waste is collected and incinerated. Does SpaceX, NASA, etc have a dedicated team/effort to cleaning up this debris?
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Dimension and mass of space debris

I am doing a project on space debris management. I wanted to know the size and shape of common space debris (like rocket upper rocket stages). Is there a website which has data on debris? I know ...
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Satellites | Debris & EMR

Over time we are launching plethora of communication satellites into space, with old ones reaching their lifespan and new ones replacing them. My Question is two folds: Are we simply creating more ...
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Does Chang'e 5 ascent module's crash has any other benefits for the space agency other than reducing the space junk?

I really appreciate what the Chinese space agency did with the ascent module, crashed it onto the lunar surface so that they won't contribute to the space debris. I was wondering if there is an ...
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382 views

What events caused this debris in highly elliptical orbits

This question has been developed from Why are objects in this highly elliptical orbit present in Vimpel but not USSpacecom which I realisd was two questions in one. Here is the same graphic from ...
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Why are objects in this highly elliptical orbit present in Vimpel but not USSpacecom

This is a screenshot from AstriaGraph. It mixes data sources for objects in orbit from Spacetrack/USSpacecom and JSC Vimpel. EDIT: I've created a separate question to split out the original two ...
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Out of 47,108 lines in the Satcat why are there exactly two lines with launch of the year of 000?

This looks like this answer because that's where I found this. Celestrak offers a copy of a Satcat from which a tabulation of space objects can be gleaned: https://celestrak.com/satcat/search.php ...
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What radar-trackable steel ball was thrown from the ISS before October 2015? [duplicate]

The question What kinds of things have been tossed out of the ISS? contains a now-rotted link to a YouTube video of a steel ball being thrown from the ISS for radar tracking tests. I'd sourced it from ...
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General rule for predicting Kessler syndrome

Let's say that we have a gradient for density of orbiting bodies by altitude. And we also have their relative size dispersion. Is there any general rule (or preferably a neat formula) for predicting ...
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246 views

What was the relative velocity of Kosmos-2004 and the ChangZheng rocket stage at their closest aproach?

Yesterday (15th October 2020), Kosmos-2004 and a ChangZheng rocket stage were predicted to pass within 25 metres of each other and the media was quick to report the possibility of a collision. They ...
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1answer
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TLE filtering techniques to remove the mean motion/eccentricity/inclination outliers

I am working on a TLE filtering code to prepare the TLE series for orbit propagation. I am using a sliding window approach with meadian+ n*mad or IQR to detect the outliers in those orbital elements ...
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What would the Venus landers look like today?

Between 1966 and 1985, several probes, mostly of Soviet design, successfully landed on Venus. Many of them continued operating long enough to send back audio, images, and various measurements, though ...
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1answer
241 views

TLE on path to be deprecated - what is 9 digit?

The TLE format will soon run out of numbers. The US Space Force is implementing an Alpha 5 scheme where the first byte of the NORAD_ID will be a letter giving nearly 400,000 numbers. After that a 9-...
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189 views

How much do on-demand, artificial meteor showers cost these days?

On-demand, artificial meteor showers are discussed in Artificial Shooting Stars - how could this possibly work (economically/technologically)? Why would a box full of 1cm balls released into LEO be ...
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1answer
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Does a published account of the economics of Russian debris shipbreaking exist?

Most Soviet and Russian rockets are/were launched from an inland site, and spent booster stages crash on the ground in sparsely populated (and frequently impoverished) rural areas. Since the fall of ...
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1answer
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How is 'space junk' monitored pre-launches and when picking satellite orbits?

There is a bunch of junk orbiting right outside the atmosphere of the Earth, an issue that gets addressed more and more as space travel develops. How do they monitor the movement of these to avoid so ...
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1answer
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Implementation of NASA Breakup model Area to Mass distribution

In the research "NASA's new breakup model of evolve 4.0" the implementation for the area to mass distribution of fragments produced by collisions and explosions is provided. The distribution ...
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1answer
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Do space organisations take the positions of space junk and satellites into account when launching?

There are so many satellites orbiting Earth now at various altitudes and there is quite a lot of space junk floating around as well. Now although there are so many satellites and so much junk up ...
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Interplanetary space mission debris orbits

I was wondering if anyone knew about a database of orbits for debris from previous interplanetary space missions. I am referring to debris or expired missions by NASA, ESA, JAXA, etc. I know there are ...
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Is it realistic to assume the Chinese Long March 5b “just missed New York”?

The Chinese successfully launched a Long March 5b... that apparently fell off the West Coast of Africa On Monday, a massive, out-of-control Chinese rocket fell out of the sky off the west coast of ...
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How do the Dynetics-led team's ALPACA lander's “drop tanks” rendezvous and jettison work in terms of trajectories?

Ars Technica's NASA awards lunar lander contracts to Blue Origin, Dynetics—and Starship says: NASA announced Thursday that it has awarded three contracts to begin initial development of lunar ...
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How does a space vehicle which carries Curiosity or Spirit rover reach a planet? [closed]

I don't know much science but was curious about it. So, what I've seen in movies is that there are lot of objects in the space and many other space items (made of rocks, moving stars etc.). So when ...
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Where can I find a satellite/space debris database with object masses

The title pretty much says it all. As far as I can tell the default method by which space debris objects are tracked/stored in a database is using two line element sets. However these have no way to ...
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1answer
246 views

Why is “Terminator Tape” electrically conductive?

A 230 foot long tape deployed from the satellite Prox-1 greatly reduced how long it took to deorbit. The tape was described as electrically conductive. Was that property intended to help the ...
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3k views

Why aren't there any active space debris removal systems implemented currently?

As of July 2013, estimates of more than 170 million debris smaller than 1 cm (0.4 in), about 670,000 debris 1–10 cm, and approximately 29,000 larger pieces of debris are in orbit. Space debris poses ...
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What is the mysterious object flying by in this SpaceX video?

In the last second of this video tweeted by spaceX, you can see an object fly by on screen. Did this come from the SpaceX ship, or is it foreign space junk? If it turns out to be the latter, is that a ...
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Determine if two orbits cross paths

I'm trying to determine which orbital object will have the most close calls with another object. I've gotten the full TLE catalog from Space-Track.org, and using poliastro python package have ...

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