Questions tagged [earth]

Questions of the science and space exploration related to Earth.

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2
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0answers
24 views

How to convert body coordinate from Sun reference frame to Earth reference frame?

I have the coordinates of a celestial body w.r.t. Sun , expressed as (x,y,z), at a given time. I need to move this coordinates into a reference frame centered on Earth center, but after reading dozens ...
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0answers
41 views

Early geographically accurate drawings of Earth [migrated]

The first drawing—roughly passable* by modern standards—which Ī̲ am able to find is this pic from 1834 attributed to Henry De la Beche Image links to: https://www.abroadintheyard.com/timeline-of-...
31
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3answers
6k views

Does it make any scientific sense that a comet coming to crush Earth would appear “sideways” from a telescope and on the sky (from Earth)? [closed]

In multiple different movies and fiction, there's the threat of a burning space comet heading for Earth, threatening to kill everyone and destroy the planet. One example is the animated Comet in ...
17
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5answers
3k views

Is Mohs scale of mineral hardness applicable for rocks and minerals of terrestrial planets other than Earth?

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. Now there is ...
3
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1answer
29 views

Should coordinate transformations from J2000 to ITRF93 in quaternions be cyclic?

I used SPICE's pxform at an interval of epochs to determine the transformation from J2000 (inertial) to ITRF93 (Earth body-fixed) frame. Then, I converted these rotation matrices to quaternions with ...
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0answers
34 views

J2000 to current ECI transformation matrix

I want to find the transformation matrix that converts an ECI frame at some time 't' (lets say t = 1st January 2020) to J2000 ECI frame (that is ECI frame at noon of 1st January 2000). From what I ...
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0answers
56 views

Earth's Axial Precession and Frame Change [duplicate]

Is Earth's Axial Precession and change in Axial tilt values significant enough to be considered while writing Rotation matrix that converts Body frame into ECEF frame and also while propagating Orbit ...
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0answers
24 views

magnitude of magnetic anomalies (Earth and Mars)

I've been looking for the magnitude of highest and lowest magnetic anomalies on Earth and Mars (mapped by spacecraft in low orbit), by searching online I couldn't really find a numerical value. From ...
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2answers
201 views

Why do many Mars missions launch now, if the Hohmann transfer orbit is the most propellant-saving one?

The Hohmann transfer orbit is the most propellant-saving transfer orbit to Mars. When using this kind of transfer, the rover/rocket/etc. starts from Earth when Earth and Mars are in conjunction. But ...
3
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1answer
87 views

Would Earth without water look like Mars? [closed]

I was watching this slideshow of 4K images of the surface of Mars, and I noticed that the surface looked mostly smooth, with the most rugged features being crater impacts (sort of resembling an Earth ...
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55 views

Calculate Satellite ground track

I'm trying to find equations to calculate satellite position based on orbit parameters and given time. What I currently have is a mess that is basically giving me bunch of garbage. What is latitude ...
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0answers
46 views

Why spacecraft 's trajectory is shown undulating curve on 2D image of earth? [duplicate]

As i am watching live-stream of Demo-2 mission,the trajectory of a capsule is shown curved(like sin wave). In other words, why their trajectory isn't along longitude so that in 2D, the path followed ...
3
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1answer
131 views

Earth Live Video Feed in HD?

Is there any space agency that provides a live video of Earth, in HD? Preferably without anything man-made in the way (e.g some ISS robotic arm)? I want to create a live HD wallpaper of Earth, so I'm ...
-8
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2answers
104 views

Is it easier to take off from the moon or earth? [closed]

how much mass does the moon have? how much mass does the earth have? how much force needed to leave earth how much force needed to leave the moon
17
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3answers
4k views

If the Earth spun clockwise, how would that affect Space Exploration?

If viewed from the North Pole, the Earth spins counter-clockwise. Because of this, many satellites also orbit in the same direction as you can take advantage of the Earth's rotation and essentially ...
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0answers
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Can any aspect of the brightness of Martian twilight be determined by Curiosity's photo of Earth?

Curiosity took this image of Earth on Jan. 31, 2014, 80 minutes after sunset. Stellarium has the Earth >15° above the horizon 80 minutes after sunset on that day. With Stellarium indicating the ...
1
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1answer
75 views

What was the effective magnification of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiRISE camera to acquire the detailed image of Earth?

On October 3, 2007 NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE camera acquired this image of the earth and the moon from Mars The oceans and clouds can be easily distinguished and "the west coast ...
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3answers
1k views

Could the Apollo astronauts distinguish Earth's continents and oceans from the moon?

This article "Earthshine Reflects Earth's Oceans And Continents From The Dark Side Of The Moon" indicates that the difference in reflection of light from the Earth’s land masses and oceans can be seen ...
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0answers
156 views

What is the acceleration necessary for a Brachistochrone transfer from Earth to Mars?

With these orbital configurations, source-Bing leaving Earth on Aug 16, 2106 and arriving on Mars October 10,2106, what is the lowest continuously-applied acceleration that can make what is ...
14
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3answers
3k views

Earth Moon Pork chop plot

Does pork-chop plots exist for Earth-Moon System? I could only find pork-chop plots for Earth-planet systems.Could someone please shed some light on this topic?
2
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1answer
287 views

How to determine the distance between where Earth and Mars are two specific dates?

How would I find the solar-system-relative distance between where Earth would be on 2106/8/16 and where Mars would be on 2106/10/16, or any combination of dates. Image source-Bing Is there software ...
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Could Breakthrough Starshot be used to deflect asteroids and comets?

Would Breakthrough Starshot be able to deflect an asteroid or comet? I have seen thoughts about using the lasers that would launch Breakthrough Starshot to deflect asteroids or comets: https://www....
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2answers
238 views

What does Earth's J₂₂ moment look like?

Wikipedia's Geopotential model give's the form of the potential component linked to $J_2$ as $$u = J_2\frac{P^0_2(\sin \theta)}{r^3} = J_2\frac{1}{r^3}\frac{1}{2} \left(3 \sin^2\theta-1 \right) = ...
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How much does the earth's axis change its tilt every year? [closed]

In recent years it seems that the winter sun rises and sets even further south as parts of my house are illuminated with sunlight that I don't recall 4 or 5 years ago.
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4answers
5k views

Is a midspace space station between Earth and Mars practical?

A recent answer included the following: For example if you were to start a colony on mars, in this order for supplies and other necessities to be delivered there would need to be a network of space ...
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1answer
94 views

Definition of a trans-Earth injection

Should every "propulsion maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory which will intersect the Earth's Sphere of influence" be called a trans-Earth injection? Regardless where the spacecraft ...
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4answers
5k views

What is the largest piece of space debris volumetrically?

What is the largest piece of space debris currently in Earth orbit by volume? Space debris is not limited to defunct satellites, but also includes things like spent upper stages. Bonus points for ...
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3answers
7k views

How are astronauts in the ISS protected from electric shock?

On Earth, most of the electrical appliances having exposed metal parts, such as electric iron, are grounded, to protect the user from electric shock when an uninsulated-wire accidentally comes into ...
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4answers
159 views

What kind of force is there in exact middle of earth? [closed]

Basically i have one question but this question leads to another. firstly can we dig in earth that from one side we reach other side of earth ? i mean just going through it. Now let's say we can dig ...
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1answer
238 views

Can we hang a really large rope or wire from space to the Earth? [duplicate]

I have a very simple question that can we hang a really large wire from space to the Earth? What if we build some turbine kind of thing that can produce electricity in space and we transfer that from ...
2
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1answer
119 views

Which camera has produced this image from Longjiang-2 microsatellite?

Here is an image of this lunar micro-satellite taken in 2018, from this tweet, found in this comment below the question What is the most recent photo taken from the Moon surface as of August 2019? In ...
36
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4answers
14k views

Why is my Earth simulation slower than the reality?

It took me a long time to create a simulation of the Earth like that. I wanted to show the real spinning speed of the Earth. Here's my video: From this NASA live ...
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0answers
117 views

Orbiting clock visible with the naked eye

Does anyone remember from the 1980s or possibly early '90s in the UK news a (serious) story about contructing a huge orbiting clock so that people would be able to look up at the sky to read the time ...
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3answers
235 views

Is the night sky on Earth different from the night sky on the moon or Mars?

If colonists or space-tourists spend time on the Moon or on Mars long enough to have a chance to take a good look at the nighttime sky, will they be able to see stars and the Milky Way? Will they ...
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1answer
1k views

What materials are naturally released into space from earth?

I am wondering what kinds of materials that are released by Earth into space due to natural processes. If possible, what are their approximate rates in kg per day or year?
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1answer
179 views

Have there been any spacecraft with an ecliptic Earth orbit?

Have any spacecraft (manned or unmanned) orbited the Earth in the same plane as the Sun? (Please read the question carefully. It is not an orbit centered around the Sun, nor an equatorial orbit.)
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1answer
83 views

What types of engines are able to go from Earth orbit to Martian orbit? [closed]

What engine is the most efficient in fuel and/or time to go from Earth orbit to Mars orbit and back again that are not capable of launching from the ground?
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0answers
93 views

Question about line-of-sight on a flat earth [closed]

If the Earth were flat - could you (on a crystal clear day) see the Himalayas from the UK? (Assuming there were no obstructions in between) And secondly - would the view into space be any different?
5
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1answer
619 views

Are we changing Earth's rotation?

Can rockets launching change Earth's rotation, and can going into orbit do the same?
5
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1answer
327 views

Is it possible to take another Pale Blue Dot image?

Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken on February 14, 1990, by the Voyager 1 space probe from a record distance of about 6 billion kilometers (3.7 billion miles, 40.5 AU), as part of ...
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3answers
3k views

Why is the earth so small when observed from the moon?

I recently discovered the pictures from DSCOVR taken at the Lunar Transit in 2016. The earth appears very massive behind the moon, which is a little unintuitive if you consider how small it is when ...
64
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9answers
13k views

Which country borders are visible from space?

You can see the borders of North Korea with China and South Korea at night from the ISS since unlike their neighbours, they have almost no light. That got me thinking, which other country borders (of ...
5
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1answer
309 views

At what altitude do the effects of atmospheric drag completely disappear?

The spate of K-questions got me thinking: At what point does atmospheric drag disappear1 with the pressure from sunlight, solar wind, or other forces becoming overwhelmingly dominant? I'm guessing it'...
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1answer
112 views

Would a debris field on Mars look like one on either the Earth or the Moon?

I am assuming there are no photographs, with enough resolution, of the any of the debris fields of Mars probes that crashed into the surface of Mars to indicate what the debris field looks like. I am ...
2
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1answer
90 views

Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator entry to Mars' atmosphere

Is it known whether or not a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator inflation and entry into Mars' atmosphere would produce more violent vibrations and lateral movements than was experienced by ...
36
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2answers
5k views

Was the “Earthrise” witnessed by Apollo 8 the first available “full” photo of the Earth?

Was the video/photos taken during the earth-rise on the Apollo 8 flight the first "blue marble"-esque photo? I've heard the image equated to the "earth's first selfie" and question the technical ...
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1answer
294 views

How long was the trip from Earth to Mars for Insight?

How long was the trip from Earth to Mars for Insight from blastoff to landing?
4
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1answer
222 views

At what point when travelling faster and faster around the earth are you not gonna be falling back again (7km/s? 8km/s?)

My dad and I thought about a problem we had when discussing Earth's gravitational field. This wasnt the original question but I still would like to know the answer. So essentially my question is: ...
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1answer
138 views

How to match orbital speeds of 2 or more satellites in different orbits?

Satellite ME is orbit around the Moon and Earth. Satellites E is around Earth. I understand the low orbit satellites orbit at higher speeds. Can Sat ME match the speed of any of Satellites E at any ...
0
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1answer
104 views

How large would a alien spaceship have to be to affect the earths gravitational orbit? [duplicate]

Would a large enough ship generate enough gravity to affect earths course?