Questions tagged [engines]

Questions regarding equipment used to propel a spacecraft or a rocket. Questions about attitude control jets should be tagged "attitude".

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14
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1answer
1k views

Why aren't expander cycle engines used on lower stages?

Looking at the simplicity of BE-7, I was wondering why dual closed expander cycle engines are not used more commonly and, as far as I know, are not used as lower stage engines at all. A commonly ...
8
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0answers
262 views

What is the heaviest part of a rocket engine?

I'm trying to understand how much different parts of a rocket engine weigh. For example, according to Wikipedia, Merlin engine weighs 470 kg, of which 70 kg is the turbopump. How is the remaining 400 ...
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2answers
123 views

How were the LR-105, -79, and -89 ignited?

These engines were derived from the Navaho program and were used on the Thor/Delta, Jupiter/Juno II, and Atlas I families of launch vehicles. All were ground-lit only, but by what mechanism were they ...
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638 views

As of January 2020, what is the single longest duration firing executed with a Raptor engine?

Can someone cut through the woo for me? As of January 2020, what is the single longest duration firing executed with a Raptor engine? Have any successfully run for full mission duration? Sourced ...
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1answer
189 views

Is the Helical Engine EM-Drive a real aproach to spacecraft propulsion?

I read that the first test was a failure but another theory says that could be done but it may violate the laws of physics. Is this engine a near future possible propulsion system or is just theory ...
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1answer
288 views

Where are the lost RS-25D Block 2 engines?

There were 21 RS-25D Block 2 engines made. Two of them never flew. Three of them were lost with the Columbia disaster. 16 of them are tagged for SLS's use, including 14 previously flown, and the two ...
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68 views

OSIRIS-REx engines used during micro-maneuvers

During the Orbital-R phase, the ORX performs 12 micro-maneuvers (values obtained from NAIF's data file and SPICE library): ...
5
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1answer
273 views

What was the first rocket with de Laval (convergent-divergent) nozzle to fly?

Rocket engine Wikipedia article states that Goddard was the first to use a De Laval nozzle on a solid-propellant (gunpowder) rocket engine, doubling the thrust and increasing the efficiency by a ...
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1answer
189 views

Confusion about reactive force of a rocket

I am confused about the equation describing the reactive force of a rocket. I read from this source this equation: where M is mass of the rocket, u is the velocity of exhaust gas in an inertial frame ...
2
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1answer
150 views

In a rocket engine, do the propellants come out as liquid or gas if they’re cryogenic?

My cousin and I were talking about this and we could not come to a conclusion. Obviously it is very hard to keep cryogenic propellants at a liquid with the temperatures involved, but if they ...
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158 views

Shuttle main engines RS-25 refurbishment/material damage

There was some thread here on Space Stack-Exchange about RS-25 refurbishment, but I am interested now, how this refurbishment look from the point of material damage of SSME hardware. In the early ...
6
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1answer
207 views

Why do many ablative nozzles use phenolic resin and not some other resin?

I am currently looking into ablatively cooled nozzles. Most of the nozzles made out of composite material that I have found use phenol as resin (Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, ARCA Excecutor). ...
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1answer
319 views

What is a typical sea-level engine nozzle/expansion ratio? What about vacuum engines?

On a sea-Level engine, what is the average nozzle ratio? What about an upper-stage vacuum engine?
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3answers
255 views

Ion Drives specific impulse somewhat of a false economy?

I've been working through a thought experiment with a friend of mine, with some of my previous questions already being (very helpfully) answered on here :) Here's the current issue I have though - ...
12
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1answer
724 views

VASIMR - Propellant usage data?

So I am using the VASIMR data of approximately 5N of force per 250kw of power draw. As far as I can see, this scales fairly linearly, so 500kw would result in 10N of force. (Might require two engines, ...
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1answer
301 views

How do Expander Cycle Engines Inject Liquid Fuel During Startup?

My understanding is that the H2 in an expander-cycle engine is vaporized by the heat from the combustion chamber and nozzle wall. This is used to power a turbine and then get injected, in gas phase, ...
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0answers
81 views

Deep throttling in sea level engines

In this excellent answer, asked for merlin engines deep throttling in first stage and produced here. To help you understand where the cross over point is, here is some math for understanding the ...
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1answer
67 views

Why would the ideal mass flow rate be less than that of real life?

Comparing the mass flow rate at the throat using the below theory, I find that the mass flow rate isn't accurate but isn't always larger than that of the engine specs (ideal assumptions ). What ...
2
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1answer
121 views

What materials can withstand corrosive oxygen-rich hot-gas environments inside rocket engines?

Russians figured out the metallurgy behind those super alloys since the N1 moon rocket era. Blue Origin is running its BE-4 engines on oxidizer-rich preburners and SpaceX’s full-flow Raptor engines ...
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2answers
281 views

Why was Apollo 11 launched in summer?

The question could seems stupid, but I think that best moment to launch a rocket is when temperature is lowest in order to achieve the best performance in a reaction engine. I do not know if there is ...
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2answers
1k views

How (the heck) will SpaceX's Starship's future pressure-fed thrusters work at “any gee’s, any attitude”?

In the SpaceX video Starship Update at about 57 minutes Tim Dodd the Everyday Astronaut asks about how the Starship rotates from reentry orientation to landing (vertical) and Musk explains that in the ...
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115 views

Is the RD0146 an open or closed cycle engine?

RD0146 has been in the latest family of engines being developed from both Russia and US(Pratt and whitney). However, there is a lack of clarity in estabishing whether the expander cycle engine is open ...
4
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1answer
102 views

How many hydrolox engines had a methane variant?

Russia, has developed many rocket engine concepts over the years and its noticeable that they already tried liquid methane as a propellant back in the 90s. How many of their cryogenic engines had a ...
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50 views

Are there any staged combustion cycle rocket engines under 1000 kN? Is it easier to produce larger engines with this type of engine cycle?

I found that most engines developed with staged combustion cycles are inherently quite powerful. Are there any engines which was developed with the staged combustion cycle with a thrust under 1 MN. ...
2
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3answers
85 views

What is the exit diameter of the LE-5B liquid hydrogen Engine used in H-II

I've found many documents that leave out the exit diameter of the LE-5B hydrolox engine. If anyone has found the detail in any public doxuments, I would appreciate it. If you can still provide the ...
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2answers
642 views

What is the difference between an engine skirt and an engine nozzle?

I have seen "engine skirt" and "engine nozzle" both used for the bell-shaped end of a rocket engine. Is there a difference?
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1answer
495 views

What is the plume effect?

I got introduced to the term "plume effect" in an answer I got here. A simple google search did not explain it, but from the link provided in the answer -- Space Shuttle Technical Conference ...
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1answer
132 views

Is it possible for one to adapt engine data for different fuels wrt liquid rocket engines

Liquid Rocket engine design is quite complicated and idealised and assumed theories rarely get sufficient validation. In an effort to verify/validate newer/untested fuels to be used in engine designs, ...
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1answer
78 views

What impacts do the rocket engine cycles have on the sizing of the components and effectively the engine?

For a given performance requirement, combustion pressure, propellant mixture, etc. How can one vary between the various engine power cycles such as gas generator, staged combustion, expander, and how ...
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1answer
110 views

What parameters drive the development effort and cost of a liquid rocket engine for orbital launchers(LEO - GEO)?

The development cost for a rocket engine drives the cost for a launcher and can be attributed to some basic parameters Apart from the few below, what others may be critical to developing and designing ...
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1answer
276 views

What are some of the important parameters to scaling a liquid rocket engine

Liquid Rocket Engines can be clustered together on a stage but their performance, weight and size largely decide and constrain the design of the launcher. Data on the newer smaller launcher engines ...
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107 views

Are there any other examples of right-angle exhaust diverters in spacecraft?

The Scott Manley video The Only Pilot to Shoot Down A Spacecraft - A Space Ace talks about the ASM-135 ASAT and its successful test launched from an F-15. He shows images from the page The F-15 ASAT ...
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1answer
229 views

Kerosene engine film cooling

So it is clear that kerosene fueled engines use two fluids for film cooling via injection in the combustion chamber, throat, or nozzle. (That is "true film cooling" and not just a fuel rich outer ring ...
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2answers
237 views

Whats the difference between cryogenic and cryo storable rocket engines

I've read about cryogenic storable liquid rocket engine but since it doesn't refer to its fuel, I want to understand the difference between a cryogenic and a cryo-storable engine. The term cryo-...
2
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1answer
106 views

Where are the 6 22-N OSIRIS-REx engines?

Does anyone could link an image/3D model/photo that shows the 6 22-N engines? Related question: OSIRIS-REx engines location.
3
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1answer
134 views

OSIRIS-REx engines location

I'm trying to locate all the OSIRIS-REx engines. Here: http://spaceflight101.com/osiris-rex/osiris-rex-spacecraft-overview/ (Propulsion System) I read that there are: 4 x 275 N, 6 x 22 N, 16 x 4.5 N ...
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1answer
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What is the status of the F-1B engine development?

In this article https://arstechnica.com/science/2013/04/new-f-1b-rocket-engine-upgrades-apollo-era-deisgn-with-1-8m-lbs-of-thrust/ and in several answers on this site a modernized F-1 engine is ...
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2answers
289 views

What factors determine the altitude at which rocket exhaust plumes start blooming hugely?

The images below are from a much larger set of photos in Spaceflight Now's August 8, 2019 article Photos: Atlas 5 paints the sky with spectacular sunrise launch. They show several effects related to ...
3
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2answers
175 views

How does a Hall effect ion thruster have a sea-level Isp of 800? Operates at 1 atmosphere?

Astronatix's SPT-100 lists the following: Stechkin electric rocket engine. Used on Meteor and Gals satellites. In Production. 1.35 kW Hall thruster. Thrust variable 2 to 20 kgf. Marketed in USA by ...
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64 views

How does a “hybrid orbital raising system” based on R-4D (N2O4/MMH) + SPT-100 (Hall effect) work exactly? (Intelsat 38 & 39)

Astronatix's Intelsat 39 lists the two engines SPT-100 Stechkin 1.35 kW Hall thruster. R-4D Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 490 N. Question: Why is this combination on Intelsat 39 called "hybrid" ...
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1answer
387 views

How was sky crane (used on Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity) tested?

This is sky crane: Mars has 1/3 of Earth's gravity, so how was sky crane tested on Earth? Did they even test it at all? Did they repeatedly do the math, and make sure everything works so that they ...
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1answer
211 views

Does central Merlin have a different specific impulse?

On a Falcon 9 booster, does the central engine experience unique variations of its ISP due to its plume bordering the eight other plumes? If there is any influence, how does the ambient relative ...
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1answer
574 views

Does static fire reduce reliability?

I do understand that static fire helps discovering malfunctions, as explained in this answer. A launch exerts an important stress on rockets' engines (high temperature and pressure, vibrations,...) ...
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1answer
587 views

What is the job of the acoustic cavities inside the main combustion chamber?

I am new to rocket engines. I was looking at an image of RS-25 engine's MCC and found these acoustic cavities, and I want to know how they work. Can somebody please explain their working principle? ...
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2answers
678 views

Compressed gas thruster for an orbital launch vehicle?

Is it possible for a compressed gas thruster to be used to launch a spacecraft into orbit? Let's say, it's already moving at 250MPH(111.7 meters/second) relative to the planets surface. Planets ...
2
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2answers
291 views

Would a nuclear turbojet with a chemical afterburner be a suitable intermediate between a pure nuclear turbojet and a nuclear thermal rocket?

NOTE: This is not the place to question the fundamental viability of nuclear propulsion in aircraft and spacecraft. For context, in a spaceplane, the higher speeds you can attain under air-breathing ...
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1answer
482 views

Are there any rocket engines in current or former use that aren’t normally restarted in flight, but have the capability for an emergency restart?

(Inspired by my earlier question about restarting a flamed-out RS-25 SSME in flight.) Most rocket engines are not designed to be lit more than once.1 Most first-stage rocket engines, for that matter,...
8
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1answer
601 views

Are rocket engine feed pipes flexible?

Let's restrict this question to rockets whose first stage : run on liquid propellant use turbopump (this may be too restrictive for this question, but it still restrict to many rockets in use today -...
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2answers
233 views

Oxidizer Line Pressure of DIY Hybrid Rocket Engine Limits Thrust?

So I’ve seen engines like these which use gaseous oxygen as an oxidizer and then a solid tube as a fuel. But do these types of hybrid engines have any possibility of creating a useful amount of thrust?...
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2answers
397 views

Why did the manned Mercury-Redstone flights carry and use retrorockets?

The Mercury-Redstone programme, a subset of the Mercury human spaceflight programme, used a modified version of the Redstone missile for suborbital flights in space. It culminated in two manned ...

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