Questions tagged [escape-velocity]

The speed needed to "break free" of the gravitational attraction of a body without spending more propellant.

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Where can I find simple-ish math(s) about Moon launches from Earth and fuel consumption etc.?

I'm intrigued by the idea of launching from the top of a space elevator perched on the top of a Ecuadorian mountain, launching Eastwards to take advantage of Earth's spin. I'd like to just understand ...
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Sulphur Hexafluoride atmosphere for Ceres?

So, I have read that the escape velocity of Ceres is 514 m/s, and orbital velocity(for a low orbit) is 360 m/s... Now, the RMS(Root Mean Square) velocity of Sulphur Hexafluoride at 72 $^o$F (23 $^o$C,...
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Are there any possible methods for keeping surface water on mars?

I've been reading this wikipedia article on terraforming mars. One of the major issues with terraforming mars is essential molecules and elements escaping the planet. There have been several ...
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What are the G forces leaving Earth orbit?

What were the G forces experienced by the Apollo astronauts during the translunar injection burn? Was there a lot of vibrations during the TLI burn? Is there estimates of the G forces an astronaut ...
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Could escape velocity be achieved in the atmosphere?

When rockets launch for orbit they travel up and the air thins respectively to the speed increasing. How fast can a rocket for travel at sea level before it would fail or the elevation would have to ...
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Astrophysics on “The Martian”

In the movie the martian what was the purpose of the hermes crew in blasting a part of the ship? Was that explosion on the front or back of the ship? After the explosion what happened to the speed ...
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How fast can an orbit exist in the solar system?

How fast is too fast to stay in orbit around any particular large body in the solar system?
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What is the most fuel efficient way out of the Solar System?

I understand with current technology we can't just fly a straight line out of the solar system but which way out would need the least fuel? Currently to navigate the solar system it is a dance ...
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Has any human had the capability of leaving the Solar System?

Inspired by Has any human ever had the choice to leave Earth permanently? and the answers and comments there, has any human had the capability of leaving the Solar System? I'm thinking of Apollo ...
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Has any human ever had the choice to leave Earth permanently?

Far beneath the ship / The world is mourning They don't realize / He's alive No one understands But Major Tom sees / "Now the light commands This is my home / I'm coming home." Peter ...
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Apollo Missions - Travel time to moon [duplicate]

I must be missing something - escape velocity is about 25,000mph. The distance to the moon about 240,000 miles. That computes to about a 9 hour flight. Why did it take 3 days for Apollo missions to ...
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Why didn't Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 crash on into Jupiter or Uranus when they approached near to these massive planets?

I was reading about gravity assist and I read that both the Voyagers used gravitational force of these planets to speed up. But I wanted to know why weren't they completely attracted by their ...
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How to achieve escape velocity from Ceres?

If I am interested in a sample return mission to Ceres using a similar propulsion technology package to Dawn, what kinds of additional propulsion would be required to land and then return? ...
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Largest radius sphere with Earth's surface gravity on which you could jump at escape velocity? Bigger than B612?

In the book Le Petit Prince by "French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry" the main character lives on an extremely tiny asteroid with the name B612. It is this "...
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Could a human jump off Mimas without return?

A similar question has already been asked on dwarf planet Ceres: Could a Human reach escape velocity by jumping from the surface of Ceres (a dwarf planet)? Ceres has 2.9% of Earth's gravity. Saturn's ...
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How could an object barely exceeding escape velocity from the Moon eventually reach the Earth?

Since NASA is once again targetting low-cost missions to the Moon, I was thinking about low-cost methods of getting stuff from the Moon back to Earth. Although it seems reasonable to assume that ...
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How much Delta-V would be required to escape the Gravitational Influence of the Earth without entering orbit?

As impractical as it sounds (and it's definitely impractical) I was wondering what the Delta-V required to leave Earth's influence would look like if we launched "just straight up" into the Earths ...
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Apollo 11 mission report shows velocity well below escape velocity thousands of km on the way to the Moon

This is from the Apollo 11 mission report. It says the vehicle was going at 7.6 km/s when the CSM separated from the third stage. It was not in orbit at this point, it was thousands of KM from earth. ...
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benefits of higher rocket speed [closed]

what benefits will a rocket get if it is made to go at a speed close to light... like 3 X 10^6? if the rocket is supplied with more efficient fuel and designed to obtain lesser drag there are ...
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At what gravity would the rocket equation mean “cannot reach orbit from the surface”? [duplicate]

I remember reading (a long time ago in a library far, far away...) that, if Earth's gravity were that much stronger, the rocket equation (?) would mean that it were impossible to actually reach orbit ...
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How did the Roadster get high enough to take a whole-Earth picture?

According to telemetry as seen in videos of the event, the car was ejected from the Stage 2 rocket at 114km above Earth. Anything less than 160km will immediately enter a rapidly decaying orbit and ...
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Could Starman get ejected from the Solar System?

This is not about a prediction of Starman's fate, although it might be interesting to find it so. This is about any object having similar aphelion and perihelion values to Starman (Elon Musk's Tesla ...
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How many times do you have to circle the Earth to break orbit?

My science teacher asked us this, and nobody in my class knew. We guessed it would be three, but with no evidence. (Edit: The asker has not returned to clarify if they meant leaving the Earth-Moon ...
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What speed did the (interstellar) comet C/2017 U1 PANSTARRS have at perihelion?

C/2017 U1 PANSTARRS is a comet with an eccentricity of close to 1.2, so it is a strong candidate for having interstellar origin. It's perihelion was at 0.25 AU. What speed did it have relative to the ...
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Is there a theoretical limit to the size of launch vehicles?

Is there a limit to the size (mass, structural issues) of boosters that can be launched either to orbital or escape velocity? I am asking about such constraints as the required thrust to weight ratio ...
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Would it be possible to go beyond Jupiter without making any slingshot?

It is said that we do not have such advanced technology in order to send a spacecraft out of the solar system. (Source: Everyone around) When a spacecraft is launched from Earth and aims to leave the ...
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How do we come up with the gravity assist (or slingshot) formula?

When you search up in google gravity assist formula, it comes up with the simplest version: Which means that: Final velocity = Initial velocity + 2 (velocity of the planet) Then if we do some more ...
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What is the characteristic time to reach a hyperbolic excess velocity within a sphere of influence?

When departing a planet using a hyperbolic trajectory, one should ideally reach the sphere of influence boundary with an excess velocity needed for interplanetary transfer. Of course, the true excess ...
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What factors determine how long a window of opportunity opens for an interplanetary hohmann transfer?

I know that one can determine the approximate wait time for a window of opportunity to open up for an interplanetary transfer based on the relative positions and velocities of the two planets in ...
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Roughly, how fast do rockets travel?

I know that different rockets are built with different a range of different sizes or purposes, but there must be some kind of range of typical speeds for those things when leaving the Earth. So how ...
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Does escape velocity apply to rockets? [duplicate]

I know so far that escape velocity on the surface of Earth is 11.2 km/s Wikipedia says that escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a ...
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Isn't the escape velocity for the solar system at the Earth 42.1 km/s? Then why does the graph show 36 km/s for the same value? Is the plot wrong? [duplicate]

The graph shows that 36 km/s is the escape velocity of the solar system at the Earth. But if we do some calculations, we will get 42.1 km/s as the right answer. I have been checking all other escape ...
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Payloads pulled into orbit/space [closed]

The way soldiers meet a wall in an obstacle run; they boost 1 or 2 of the team up to the top and then those up there help pull their colleagues up and over. Just wondered if there might be a way ...
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Why is an escape velocity needed? [duplicate]

This is probably a stupid question, so I apologise in advance, but why is it that you need to achieve a certain speed to leave the planet? I understand that an orbit needs a speed so that when you ...
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How could we make a fair comparison between space rockets regarding their payload mass in low Earth orbit and Earth escaping?

I was searching for comparisons between space rockets regarding their payload mass in low Earth orbit and Earth escaping. First one to see capability of the space booster (the first stages) and second ...
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Neutrinos travel faster than the speed of light [closed]

If neutrinos travel faster than the speed of light does the calculation for the speed of light become obsolete. IE is there now a new formula for calculating speed/velocity through space/vacuum.
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Why can't ion engines be used for launch? [duplicate]

Not to sound rhetorical but if a Ion engine was used it would start at 1 mile an hr and then the speed would continue exponentially. So theoretically wouldn't that make it possible to break free ...
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Is space travel possible from a large planet? [duplicate]

I was playing with a rocket design simulator, and I noticed that if I set Earth's gravity to be much higher than it is today, it became impossible to design a rocket that could reach escape velocity. ...
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Can I avoid a magnetar with an electromagnet?

Magnetars are generally accepted as existing. Wikipedia suggests that the magnetic forces are strong enough to kill you. I am assuming that virtually any spacecraft would have some magnetic ...
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How much bigger could Earth be, before rockets would't work?

hint: Apparently the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation does not actually say that you can launch a conventional rocket into orbit around an arbitrarily large and massive body. Question: "How much bigger ...
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Laniakea Delta-V and Escape Velocity

We live in the Laniakea supercluster. Galaxies including the Milky Way are being pulled toward the "Great Attractor" in its center. Two questions (note that the answer to one can be used to derive ...
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Why can't deep-space missions escape orbit by skipping off the atmosphere?

If skipping off the atmosphere during re-entry runs a real risk of of the spacecraft "escaping" from orbit, why don't deep-space missions use this method instead of using power to reach escape ...
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Is it possible to launch picosatellite into orbit from railgun on high-altitude plane?

Is there some combination of a plane that flies high enough, with a railgun small enough to fit into the fuselage, and a satellite small and durable enough, to make this feasible?
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How are fuel requirements different for different types of orbits?

In theory, the orbit around a single mass always has the same amount of total energy (Kinetic + Potential). Therefore, if a satellite was launched from earth, it should always require the same amount ...
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What is the escape velocity of Saturn at Enceladus distance?

To what velocity would a spacecraft have to accelerate to launch from the surface of Enceladus into orbit around it? And from the orbital distance of Enceladus, what would be the escape velocity from ...
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Limitations of gravitational assist flybys

My understanding is that it's easier to send something out of the solar system than into the sun due to the need to overcome the speed at which the earth moves around the sun. My understanding of ...
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Why did Voyager 2's velocity drop far below escape velocity before the first gravity assist?

As per @kasperd's comment on another question. Looking at the graph below, it appears that Voyager 2 started at just over escape velocity of the solar system. Just before the Jupiter flyby, it was ...
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How much thrust to launch a regulation size FIFA soccerball into orbit

How much thrust is necessary to launch a regulation size FIFA soccer ball into orbit around the Earth? Let us assume a size 5 which weighs between 420g and 450g. Remember, we will need thrust to ...
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How to calculate the sphere of influence radius of the sun and other stars?

I am creating a space exploration game and I'm gathering formulas for determining how the player's spacecraft will act in space. One thing I need to know is how to calculate how far a spacecraft can ...
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How far away will I get if I'm --just under— escape velocity?

The escape velocity of earth is about 11.2 km/s. Let's say it was, for the sake of argument, exactly 11.2 km/s. If I go 11.199999 km/s, I'm going to fall back down to earth. But how can I determine ...