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Questions tagged [fuel]

Questions about rocket oxidizer, propellant, reactive mass, or other fuels used in spacecraft or rockets.

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What rocket uses the largest percentage of Fuel/Oxidizer before liftoff?

inspired by this question: How much propellant is used up until liftoff? which asks how much propellant (fuel/oxidizer) a typical rocket uses before liftoff. What has been or is the most non-typical ...
Sdarb's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
118 views

What's The Gas Discharge After Landing Finished For SpaceShip2?

What's the gas discharge after landing finished For SpaceShip2? Why did they did it right after landing finished while crew were on board.
yekanchi's user avatar
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7 votes
0 answers
941 views

Why do Russian rocket engineers call C₂H₈N₂ "heptyl"?

Unsymmetrical dimethlyhydrazine or "UDMH" is a propellant which has been used by Russian, American, European, Chinese, and Indian rockets. Russian rocket engineers nickname it "heptyl". Why was this ...
DrSheldon's user avatar
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6 votes
0 answers
548 views

How long does it take to chill the LOX and RP1 for Falcon 9 V1.1 Full Thrust?

The new version of the Falcon 9 v1.1 Full Thrust, or as SpaceX would like everyone to start calling it "Falcon 9", uses super cooled LOX and RP1 to improve the density of the fuel for better ...
geoffc's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
130 views

What fuels would make refueling in space more dangerous/complicated?

I saw the question: Has in-space refueling been done? And was actually beginning to wonder, is refueling and transferring propellant dangerous in space? I understand that this would most likely be ...
Magic Octopus Urn's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
218 views

What is the droplet size that is desirable for pintle injectors?

The pintle injectors tend to generate droplets after impingement of the fuel and the oxidiser stream and I understand that the droplets will be premixed. In such a case, even a larger premixed ...
karthikeyan's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
153 views

How was the external tank emptied in a TAL shuttle abort?

One of the numerous reasons RTLS was the least preferred choice is For a safe separation, the ET must contain a maximum of 2% propellant remaining at Main Engine Cutoff (MECO). How would TAL do away ...
Vorac's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
62 views

Giving rocket propellants an opposite charge for perfect mixing?

One of the challenges in achieving theoretical efficiency is the mixing of both an oxidiser and fuel. This means separating both propellants from each other whilst pairing them with their counterpart. ...
R. Hall's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
261 views

Why didn't propylene fly? (Vector—yes, Vector—is back)?

Ars Technicha's Rocket Report: SLS has technical problems, Vector—yes, Vector—is back links to Vector restarting operations under new ownership which says: One thing they did wrong was the technology ...
uhoh's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
167 views

Cooling an aerospike spike via "fuel diversion"?

My question is, could an aerospike be cooled via diverting a very small quantity of your fuel (fuel used since it has a higher heat capacity than oxidizer and won't, you know, turn your engine into an ...
YuccaWorks's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
187 views

Are there examples of a spacecraft designed for transitions from supercritical to liquid+gas mixtures?

The question What happens when supercritical fuel tanks deplete below critical point? suggests some possible scenarios when the pressure of a tank is in danger of dropping below the supercritical ...
uhoh's user avatar
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4 votes
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151 views

Maximum speed of rocket propellant flow?

In reading this question (Limiting factors of liquid rocket engine thrust), it prompts me to ask if there is an upper limit in how fast the propellant/oxidizer can be pumped into a combustion chamber ...
Milwrdfan's user avatar
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4 votes
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499 views

Does the pressurization of tanks prevent "liquid sloshing" during maneuvers?

I'll be the first to admit I know little to nothing about fluid dynamics, especially in a pressure vessel. I was wondering how pressurized rocket fuel tanks don't cause weight-distribution problems ...
Magic Octopus Urn's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
110 views

How much fuel is left in InSight?

InSight probably landed with some fuel margin. Unless it was vented/burned on landing (maybe not a bad idea considering potential leaks down the road), is there some left ? Do we know the ISP of ...
Antzi's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
188 views

Does Starship run on Slushies?

Cryogenic slush (a mixture of liquid and solid) can potentially store propellants at higher density than cryogenic liquid. For instance, hydrogen slush is 16-20% denser than liquid hydrogen. https://...
Woody's user avatar
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3 votes
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73 views

Force Constant of liquid propellants, RP-1 >1200 kJ/kg

I am familiar with testing of the force constant for solid propellants using the closed bomb test. But what test method is used to obtain the force constant of liquid propellants? And is the force ...
Mrr's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Computing Flight Characteristics for Different Propellant Grain Geometries?

Consider the following image: I am interested in mathematically accounting for some of these different geometries but have had little success so far in finding how this can be done. The first thought ...
Tyreeze's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
141 views

Did the flare stacks at LC39 have pilot lights?

The liquid hydrogen fuel in the space shuttles would slowly boil off, while they waited on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center launch complex 39A or 39B. The hydrogen vapors were removed by the ...
DrSheldon's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
50 views

Where would one find information on the fuel properties (temp, max ISP) of non-conventional rocket fuels?

Yesterday's Starship landing saw at least one Raptor burning copper. Given that copper oxidizes with oxygen at the temperatures and pressures found in a Raptor combustion chamber, what properties does ...
dotancohen's user avatar
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3 votes
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129 views

Will you be having rubber or wax with your peroxide? (hybrid engine fuel tradeoffs)

Hybrid engines offer some practical advantages and some budgetary ones that can offset lower ISP, including potentially safer solid fuel to store and non cryogenic storage of some oxidizers like ...
uhoh's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
58 views

Where could I find more propellant combustion charts for more different/more broad examples/numbers?

So after asking how I could calculate this kind of propellant combustion charts for different fuels/oxidizers and other ratios and other stuff and getting some really good answers, especially from ...
StarshipGood's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
127 views

Storage density of a Deuterium-Helium 3 fusion pellet

in a series I am working on I will be using a D-He3 fusion drive system (similar to the one in the expanse according to Project RHO). I am under the assumption that the fuel will be stored in a pellet ...
Markitect's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
137 views

Are there any situations where hot rather than cold propellants might be advantageous?

Given that cryogenic fuel and oxidisers exist, I wonder if the reverse is workable. Are there fuels or oxidisers that have been considered for rockets that must be kept hot to be usable? By hot I ...
lijat's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
229 views

Hypergolic slugs with gaseous reactants

Based on points raised in this question about hypergolic slugs. My understanding of a hypergolic slug is that it is a solid or a liquid on a paper patch placed in the combustion chamber and it will ...
OrangePeel52's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
88 views

Non-Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

I know there are programs like the Rocket Lab CryoSat, but I was wondering if there have been any tests of non-cryo propellant transfer? I know the Space Station refuels with a storable hypergol, but ...
AnarchoEngineer's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
500 views

What is the most powerful solid rocket fuel (highest isp) and it's combustion temperature

I wanted to know what the most power full solid rocket fuel is. I do not mean theoretical once like metallic hydrogen. Are solid rocket fuel mixtures prepared in a non-ideal mixture? In other words, ...
Doctor Pinocchio's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
187 views

Paraffin wax in solid motors

Paraffin wax is often used in (at least hypothetical) hybrid motors, mostly with N2O or HTP. Could it not, however, be used in a conventional configuration? Running at O/F of 12.4, 60 bar chamber ...
R. Hall's user avatar
  • 822
2 votes
0 answers
70 views

What is the meaning of "aggregate state" within the context of RPA?

I'm trying to make a new entry in the thermodynamic database of RPA (Rocket Propulsion Analysis, http://w.lpre.de/) and you are required to provide an "aggregate state". For CEA (Chemical ...
Ruben's user avatar
  • 1,154
2 votes
0 answers
203 views

SpaceX Dragon: How many fuel tanks?

I've read that Dragon carries 1380 kg of MMH + NTO propellant. This mass would be split among the various tanks, and I'm wondering---how many of them are there? Pictures from the manufacturing floor ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
173 views

How stable is ozone as a compressed gas?

I have heard that liquid ozone is violently unstable, making it unusable in any meaningful concentrations. Would using it as a compressed gas partially solves the problem? What is the mechanism of its ...
Rossen Angelov's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
91 views

Why shouldn't Chang'e 5's lander's propellant freeze?

We have just measured the shape of the crater that the returner landed on, which is part of the scientific data collection. Then the returner will [put on a] 'new warm coat' to prevent the remaining ...
Camille Goudeseune's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
75 views

How much hydrazine does an Iridium satellite start with? How much does it use per year?

Iridium satellites use hydrazine and the spacecraft are expected to last at least 15 years. How much hydrazine do Iridium satellites start with, and if possible, roughly do they use per year?
Joe Jobs's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
108 views

How does a NTR with an afterburner perform at a stoichiometric mixing ratio?

The LANTR entry at Encyclopedia Astronautica describes how a sample nuclear thermal rocket performs at various mixing ratios of LH2/LOX. It does however stop before reaching the stoichiometric ratio ...
SE - stop firing the good guys's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
86 views

Is it feasible to take liquid Helium in a Pressure Fed System?

Can liquid Helium be flowed through a heat exhanger to increase its temperature and pressure which will further pressurize fuel-oxidizer tanks.
ARK's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
95 views

Which is preferred for liquid atomization - gas & liquid shear or liquid & liquid shear?

For generating a spray of droplets, liquid need to be disintegrated/atomized through shear forces. Typical injectors in IC engines and aircraft use shear between gas & liquid at the phase ...
karthikeyan's user avatar
  • 4,479
2 votes
0 answers
1k views

Could Sodium metal be used in rocket fuel?

For instance, I read that the Hercules X-265 rocket motor used in the Sprint missile was a solid double base propellant that used nitrocellulose with zirconium metal staples and nitroglycerin as a ...
Mr X's user avatar
  • 183
2 votes
0 answers
525 views

How much fuel is necessary for 2nd stage of Falcon 9 rocket to land?

What is the fuel mass nedeed for the 2nd stage of Falcon 9 rocket to land, how much compared with its total fuel mass that it has? Or how much delta-v is necessary? Would it be able for Falcon 9 to ...
Mark777's user avatar
  • 2,145
1 vote
0 answers
111 views

What kind of propulsion did/does the Raytheon EKV vehicle use?

Raytheon has developed an Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle, designed to intercept an ICBM and destroy it through a collision. Here are some related links: Wikipedia page YouTube video about the project, ...
Steve's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
121 views

How do you find the burn-time of a specific solid rocket fuel?

I read this post about finding the propellant mass needed to reach a specific altitude: How do you find the propellant mass needed to reach an inputted altitude?(altitude at end of burn plus altitude ...
Rocket Man's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
54 views

Rough values for the staytime or characteristic length of the combustion chamber of an oxygen/methanol rocket engine?

I'd like to have some idea of the staytime or characteristic length of the combustion chamber of an oxygen/methanol rocket engine. Are there sources for this, or a way to estimate it? I've tried, but ...
Kevin's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
116 views

What are better ways to deliver heat directly to propellant in a Thermal Rocket design for use in launch than UV such as in the Nuclear Lightbulb?

Most advanced, high-power engine concepts that I came across aren’t suited for atmospheric launch, so I got curious about what kinds of engines could launch a very heavy craft from the surface of a ...
PedrohSpaceWolfy's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
183 views

Fuel profile for Apollo 11

I downloaded a dozen of NASA documents about post-flight analysis of Apollo 11 mission, but I cannot find a table or a plot of fuel usage and remains; Some of the documents which I found: http://www....
jumpjack's user avatar
  • 3,043
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

What is the O/F ratio of ethanolamine/H2O2?

I've just read this question What is the products of a catalyzed reaction between Hydrogen Peroxide and Ethanolamine with Copper(II) Chloride? and although its a very good question and an excellent ...
R. Hall's user avatar
  • 822
1 vote
0 answers
435 views

Can Chemical Engineer work on something related to space?

I am an undergraduate student (scientific section) living in Qatar. I have a big interest in astronomy and astrophysics and have participated in the IOAA (International Olympiad on Astronomy and ...
sara nabil's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
60 views

Was General Doolittle involved in the invention of RP-1?

James Doolittle is most famous for leading the 1942 air raid on Tokyo. However, between the world wars, he earned a doctorate in aeronautical engineering from MIT, became the manager of Shell Oil's ...
DrSheldon's user avatar
  • 48k
1 vote
0 answers
81 views

Could rocket fuel be mass produced in Ceres?

According to NASA rocket fuel Mars Liquid methane could be used as the fuel, produced from carbon dioxide and water found on Mars. If NASA is "working on it", there has to be many technical ...
Pablo's user avatar
  • 885
1 vote
0 answers
261 views

How does the inter-propellant seal works in kerosene/LOX and UDMH/NTO rockets?

I get that the inter-propellant seal on the SSME LOX HP pump is simply a series of cascading regular seals trying to eliminate bleed-through by venting and letting boil at each stage, so that when ...
Meatball Princess's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
196 views

Are there any complications of the position of the oxidizer injector on Orbitec's vortex rocket engine?

Orbitec's vortex rocket engine injects oxidizer from near the nozzle up the wall of the engine chamber in a vortex. The oxidizer injector being in this position seems unusual. Are there any ...
called2voyage's user avatar
  • 23.7k
1 vote
0 answers
111 views

Hazardous Propellant properties

is there a standard how NASA/ESA categorize hazardous propellant properties like flammability, toxicity, corrosiveness etc? Any links, papers, discussions would be greatly appreciated! Regards ...
cl10k's user avatar
  • 351
0 votes
0 answers
8 views

What's the highest ISP that a chemical rocket has achieved without using propellants maintained at cryogenic temperatures?

This is related to my earlier question about capturing an asteroid. If you wanted to place an interceptor rocket in space and the purpose of that rocket is to wait for a long time, and then launch to ...
phil1008's user avatar
  • 6,231