# Questions tagged [geosynchronous]

Questions regarding the type of orbit in which the orbiting object stays in roughly the same location over Earth's surface.

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### NASA GMAT sample script providing deltaV above analytical result when aiming to GEO Height

I am using the GMAT example script available at \samples\Ex_GEOTransfer.script (R2022a) to compute de deltaV from LEO to GEO including change plane maneuver. The problem is that the script seems to be ...
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### What is Earth's apparent magnitude from geosynchronous orbit?

How bright is a "full Earth" from geosynchronous altitude (22,200 mi) and would it be dangerous to look at a full Earth for too long from that distance without wearing a dimmed visor?
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### Geo satellite - antenna gain contours to heat map in STK

I am using STK to show antenna gain contours on the ground from a transmitter on a sensor on a geo bird that is tracking a receiver on the ground. With good resolution I can create great images that ...
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### Maximum and minimum surface temperatures of a satellite in GEO?

Just as the title, how could one find out, or simply estimate the maximum and minimum likely surface temperatures of a satellite orbiting in GEO.
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### A black cube 1 mile per side appears in geosynchronous orbit around the earth. Who would spot it and how would they do it? How easy would it be?

This is not intended to be a math question, so much as an understanding of how the current technology and techniques would view this problem.
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### What is the distance between Mars and the lagrange point L2 Mars Sun? [duplicate]

I am writing a science fiction novel that is more soft that hard sci fi but I would like to know at least an estimat of the distances between L2 Mars Sun and Mars. I know that asking for an exact ...
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### What was the first spacecraft intentionally moved from GEO to the graveyard orbit to die? (just a bit above geosynchronous)

Why “super” for supersynchronous orbits? Why not “trans”? and discussions and answers there got me wondering: Question: What was the first spacecraft intentionally moved from GEO or geosynchronous to ...
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### What was the first spacecraft intentionally placed in a supersynchrous Earth orbit? (period longer than a sidereal day)

Why “super” for supersynchronous orbits? Why not “trans”? and discussions and answers there got me wondering: Question: What was the first spacecraft intentionally placed in a supersynchronous Earth ...
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### What are the benefits of supersynchronous transfer orbits?

Some satellites are injected into higher apogee than standard GTO apogee of 35 786 km. Next the satellite then has to increase its perigee ( usually 250 km ) to GEO altitude. Then the apogee has to be ...
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### Are there any satellites in geosynchronous orbits that are neither geostationary nor 'wobbly geostastionary' (figure of eight geostationary)?

None of the examples in this question: Are there any satellites in geosynchronous but not geostationary orbits? are nothing like geostationary. They still stay above the one side of the earth. What ...
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### Computing a new TLE following a delta-v impulse?

Is there some code or a library out there that can take orbital elements, add a known delta-v component and then compute a new TLE? I found this one https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a289281....
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### Station Keeping East-West Maneuver

A GEO satellite spends 14 days in longitude deadband (+/-0.067 deg). At the 14th day, I want to perform an east-west maneuver. But I am uncertain what time I should perform the maneuver at the 14th ...
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### Is a polar geosynchronous orbit described by Viviani's curve?

This answer to Is there a name for the great circle where latitude and longitude are equal? says (in part): More generally, a clélie is the name given to any spherical curve where the longitude \$\...
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### What's the method behind this TDRS triplet inclination "madness"?

Previous "method to the maddness" questions: 1, 2. The image below is from Why does TDRS 1's inclination evolve so much differently than that of all the others starting in 1995? and I've used it a ...
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### Why would a mission choose a geosynchronous orbit over a geostationary orbit?

I was going to ask "Are there any missions where a geosynchronous orbit is advantageous over a geostationary orbit?" The TL;DR answer to this question (Are there any satellites in geosynchronous but ...
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### Is an Earth synchronous (?) polar orbit possible?

I don't even know how to exactly ask this question. A coworker is doing some experiments on a data visualization software and he has some test data showing fake telemetry from a simulated satellite. ...
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### How do stable equilibrium points work in GEO? If all geosynchronous spacecraft suddenly lost stationkeeping, would most "fall into" one or the other?

The (currently unanswered) question Quantitatively, how deep are the stable equilibrium points in GEO? How much delta-v to move from one to the other? (also see comments at Delta-v to move from GEO to ...
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### How does the "eccentricity-inclination vector separation" technique work for colocated GEO satellites?

This answer to How are co-located satellites positioned relative to each other? links to the paywalled paper Separation of Geostationary Satellites with Eccentricity and Inclination Vector with the ...
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### In what state are satellites left in when they are left in a graveyard orbit?

I had this idea for a fictional scenario in which a forgotten satellite, like a communications satellite that was decommissioned because it was replaced by a newer model, was hacked into and then ...
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### Are there any satellites in geosynchronous but not geostationary orbits?

I know there are a lot of geostationary satellites out there, but I'm wondering - are there any geosynchronous satellites that are not geostationary (ie - have a notable inclination to their orbit)?
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### Have there ever been cubesats in GEO?

This answer to the question How often do reaction wheels require desaturation, normally? says: One practical example I know of is for a 6U in GEO that is always sun pointed, there's a thruster ...
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### Why would the orbit of a satellite in GEO climb by 21 km in altitude over six months by itself?

This answer mentions several effects that tend to move geostationary satellites out of their "box" over time, but one really surprised me. According to the plot below (from there, but ...
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### How would propagation differ between a GEO and a Retrograde GEO?

A Binary Equatorial Synchronous Retrograde Orbit is an orbit that would travel in the opposite direction of GEO and would pass over the same point on Earth twice per day at the same altitude of GEO. ...
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### What is a typical satellite solar panel mass?

Does anyone know a reliable source to find the mass of solar panels on satellites (in particular GEO satellites)? I know they will vary but I am struggling to even find one data point let alone a ...
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### How would the antenna on a spacecraft in GEO be provided an electrical ground?

I would like to understand better what specifications or guidelines address the electrical grounding/Earthing a parabolic reflector Antenna in GEO to minimize the potential difference with respect to ...
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### How is stability of Geosynchronous Orbits (GSO) affected by Earth’s mass?

I'm researching stable orbits slightly beyond GSO and I need to find out how close to GSO I could place an object without risking collision. If the Earth was homogeneous the altitude should be the ...
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### Teleporting an object into geosynchronous orbit

Assuming that a method was found to teleport objects, and at huge range, if an object was teleported from the surface to a location at the correct height (Wikipedia says about 42,164 km from the earth'...
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### Why do the geosynchronous TDRS satellites have this distribution of inclinations?

From the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) option on Celestrak's NORAD Two-Line Element Sets Current Data TLE page I've compiled current TLE ...
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Satellite communication generally involves three types of nodes: the ground station (also known as teleport), the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, and the satellite receiver/transceiver. I am ...
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### What is the maximum inclination a geosynchronous orbit can have?

A geosynchronous orbit is one where a satellite's orbital period (more or less) matches a planet's rotation period. However, this is distinct from a geostationary orbit, where a satellite must remain ...
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### Who will remove orbiting space debris? [duplicate]

How long until we have something orbiting that can collect up the dead space debris in geosynchronous orbit and make way for new things to be placed in orbit?
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### Difference between Tundra and Molniya orbits?

This excellent answer nicely describes both Tundra orbits and Molniya orbits. They are both repeat groundtrack orbits with periods of rational fractions of a sidereal day, and both have inclinations ...
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### What is the smallest launch vehicle that has put a satellite in a geostationary orbit?

Minotaur V might become a candidate for the smallest current launcher to put a payload in GEO, but it has only launched LADEE yet. The first satellite in GEO seems to have been Syncom 1 which launched ...
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### Is TDRS-M (TDRS-13) where it's supposed to be?

edit: Status 2018-Jan-01 inclination still about 7 degrees, location still not listed in Wikipedia. This question got me thinking about the location of active TDRS satellites, and the newest addition ...
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### ISS Speed required for true geosynchronous orbit

How fast would ISS need to travel at the current altitude (LEO 250mi) to be geosynchronous with say 36 degree N lattitude?
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### How big (broad) is GEO orbit?

This post got me thinking about something I've never quite been able to picture about geostationary orbit. In a perfect model of a spherical earth, there is an infinitesimal circle in the plane of the ...
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### Why are obsolete geostationary satellites re-orbited above the geostationary belt?

That seems a bit counter-intuitive, because in an orbit above the belt, the satellite would eventually lose gain velocity, so its orbit would intersect the orbital plane of the geostationary ...
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### Could you enter this building when it was over New York City?

The Forbes article New York Architects Plan Enormous Skyscraper Hanging From An Asteroid In Space describes a sky scraper suspended from an asteroid in a geosynchronous (but not geostationary) orbit ...
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### How can space junk be dangerous at geosynchronous orbits?

At this orbit wouldn't all space junk be traveling at the same speed as the spaceship/satellite transversing it? To be dangerous it should be traveling at a much faster (or slower) rate than the ...
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### How can I determine if a rotating space station is stable

How can I determine if a rotating thin shell cylinder space station is stable? Its dimensions are: radius = 895m length = 1150m thickness of the shell = 15m The ...
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### What factors prohibit building a space cannon to launch raw materials? [duplicate]

I am envisioning a magnetic cannon to launch materials directly from Earth's surface to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. The parameters I have in mind are a near vacuum launch tube, about 10 km in ...
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### Would it be possible to suspend a space elevator in the stratosphere?

Having a material strong enough to support a space elevator built from the ground up seems like it may never be able to happen. I had also seen another suggestion for building a space elevator ...
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### Why would a space elevator / structure need to be in Geosynchronous orbit?

I've read a bunch on space elevators and from what everyone is saying, it would be required that the elevator is in geosynchronous orbit. From my understanding, that is so that it would stay fixed in ...
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### Why do geosynchronous satellites appear to oscillate in North-Southward direction? How to I trace out their path on the surface of the earth?

During the course of a day, the geosynchronous satellite's position in the sky forms a 8-like figure. I'm having trouble visualizing the movement of geosynchronous satellite when viewed from the ...
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### How do geosynchronous orbits follow the tilt of the earth?

I understand that by sending objects to a specific altitude you can get an object to orbit over a specific area of the Earth. What I have a tough time grasping is how that object then follows the ...
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### Is it possible to deliver enough LEO satellites with one launch to substitute for one in GEO?

Rough estimates shows that having around one hundred satellites would be enough to observe a single spot on Earth continuously and via peer to peer communication deliver that information to an earth-...
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### How do communication satellites remain positioned above a particular region?

From what I understand, an object has to keep moving in an orbit to not come crashing down to Earth. (The ISS is the first thing I think of for this.) How then, do satellites which are purpose built ...
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### min time a direct ascent ASAT rocket would take to reach GEO [closed]

Trying to work out a rough time estimate for an ASAT rocket to reach GEO height?
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