# Questions tagged [gravity-turn]

Questions regarding the tilting of a rocket to gain horizontal velocity once the drag is low enough.

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5 votes
1 answer
356 views

### For launch vehicles, during atmospheric stages, are there constraints on the yaw angle?

Most of the literature discusses the pitch angle and constraints on it, namely, trying to keep it zero for load relief. This leads to the gravity turn. I understand that ideal trajectories are within ...
0 votes
0 answers
130 views

### Space Shuttle: How were I-Load launch programs calculated?

The space shuttle launch program was based on a target attitude profile calculated for the mission and the latest winds. The attitude profile would include roll, pitch, and yaw as functions of time ...
11 votes
4 answers
450 views

### Powered Explicit Guidance: Should rocket be pitching down at orbital insertion?

I simulated an orbital insertion using Powered Explicit Guidance as used in the space shuttle. The PEG algorithm works great. I hit all my targets: altitude, velocity, orbital inclination, longitude ...
1 vote
0 answers
151 views

### Methods to obtain trajectories to reach a specific orbit?

Knowing the performance parameters of a given rocket, is there a methodology to figure out what flightpath the rocket must follow to reach a particular orbit? In other words, is there a direct way to ...
• 83
5 votes
1 answer
343 views

### When does the space shuttle stop its gravity turn?

I am trying to model the launch of the space shuttle (up to 120km of altitude) from Cape Canaveral, Florida. In order to do so I would need to know when the gravity turn part of the flight starts and ...
• 233
5 votes
3 answers
915 views

### Would a standard gravity turn still be the most optimal path to orbit if Earth did not have an atmosphere?

If Earth had no atmosphere, then would a standard gravity turn still be the most optimal path to orbit? Why or why not?
1 vote
0 answers
478 views

### How to reach a target apoapsis with a gravity turn?

Ok, here I go. I have as a project to simulate the launch of a payload by a rocket into polar orbit. Since original question was too big, let's get it into separate parts. First of all, trajectory ...
• 96
2 votes
1 answer
405 views

### Was the gravity turn used in early spaceflight?

Reading through the Wikipedia article about Gravity Turn, specifically the Use in spaceflight section, it seems that the Gravity Turn was not used in early spaceflight. Is that correct? For example, ...
• 12.5k
2 votes
1 answer
380 views

### Would a lunar or interstellar rocket use a gravity turn on take-off, today?

Is a gravity turn only used for rockets interested in orbit or a gravitational slingshot? From this answer it sounds like Apollo 11 only used a gravity turn for the crew to maneuver. Are there ...
• 131
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

### How are rockets gimballed to produce a gravity turn for the space shuttle?

I'm trying to simulate a gravity turn using a gimbaled thruster. I'm using the dynamical system described in a previous post of mine to execute a gravity turn by changing the angle $\phi_T$ between ...
• 1,984
8 votes
2 answers
4k views

### Are 'classical' gravity turns still used and recognizable as such?

If I understand correctly, the term 'gravity turn' refers to a specific way to turn from the initial near-vertical launch direction to a final tangential orbit direction in an efficient manner. It's ...
• 149k