Questions tagged [lander]

Questions regarding devices used to make a controlled descent and touchdown onto another object, usually either to transfer objects, or perform scientific observations.

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How often have dust devils saved a Martian lander or rover?

This answer to How are the Mars Rovers maintained? reminds us that ...much to the surprise of the early Mars scientists and rover teams, Mars takes care of the dust problem for us! Mars' typical ...
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What would the Venus landers look like today?

Between 1966 and 1985, several probes, mostly of Soviet design, successfully landed on Venus. Many of them continued operating long enough to send back audio, images, and various measurements, though ...
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Engine configuration for lander

Which is a more stable lander design: 1.Single central engine. 2.Multiple engines located near the corners Following is the design for Tianwen-1, the Chinese Mars lander: And following is the design ...
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Why not Super-Draco in lunar lander?

The Super Draco rocket motor was originally developed for propulsive landings on earth, right. It has performed great in the test where crew dragon escaped from the Falcon 9 last year. It is supposed ...
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What kind of rocket will ESA(?) launch from Mars? Who will build it?

The NASA-credited images below are from the BBC News article Europe pushes ahead with 'dune buggy' Mars rover which explains that it will drive around quickly on it's big 70 cm wheels (see article for ...
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Is there a list of private companies with products on NASA Mars landers?

I'm trying to create a list of all private companies which have their products on the Mars surface. To make it easier, I'm limiting my search to NASA landers. Is there a comprehensive list of NASA ...
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Why was there never a lander for the Martian north polar cap?

Since the Martian poles are water ice caps, belong to the most likely locations on Mars to host life, and the north pole being the most likely place for a crewed mission, it seems reasonable that one ...
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At what altitude(s) were the Viking BLDT rockets fired?

I'm trying to understand the details of the 1972 Viking BLDT test missions (in earth's atmosphere). I found this diagram in a book and the general description that the (four) BLDT (balloon drop) tests ...
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Would the 6.5 ton capable Blue Moon lander fit in New Glenn?

As the 2 massive projects of the same company, are they designed to be compatible for NASA's CLPS program ? New Glenn's said to have a 7 m payload fairing diameter but as far as I know, Blue Moon's ...
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How do the Dynetics-led team's ALPACA lander's “drop tanks” rendezvous and jettison work in terms of trajectories?

Ars Technica's NASA awards lunar lander contracts to Blue Origin, Dynetics—and Starship says: NASA announced Thursday that it has awarded three contracts to begin initial development of lunar ...
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When things land on Mars what fraction of their velocity do they remove propulsively?

Some recent comments have got me wondering about this What is the distance between one of the mars's satellite revolving near the highest volcano olympus mons and the volcano olympus mons? comments ...
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How difficult is it to convert a hypergolic based Moon human lander to a cryogenic one?

Recently a study performed by Aerojet Rocketdyne indicated that in order to achieve a 2024 landing using storable propellants will be required. Given that NASA is looking to reduce program risk in any ...
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How bright is the Martian landscape during the long (up to two hour) twilight?

The answer to the question "How much more quickly does night come on Mars compared to Earth? Will it be easier to see Mercury there?" says Martian twilight can last up to two hours. Has any lander ...
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Are there methods of lightning detection on Mars?

Teslarati's NASA’s next Mars rover will pave the way for humans includes the graphic below which is an artists conception of a dust storm on mars. It shows what looks like lightning or some kind of ...
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What is the purpose and necessity of this giant structure being used in tests of China's Mars lander?

Question: What is the purpose and necessity of this giant structure being used in tests of landing hovering and searching techniques to be used by China's Mars lander? It is shown in images (and a ...
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Rover vs pathfinder vs lander?

I am confused in difference between rover and pathfinder and lander I have often read/heard all these three terms when searching/studying about Mars Although all 3 of these are parts of space craft ...
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Chandrayaan 2: Why is Vikram Lander's life limited to 14 Days?

I do know that the 13-14 days of its scheduled life is limited by the duration of sunlight and once the far side of the moon goes dark, the lander will be in temperatures as low as -170° Celsius. But ...
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Exactly what was Surveyor 3 doing with a spring-loaded boxing glove-like device?

The thorough moon.NASA.gov/exploration page Moon Missions shows the image below. I learned almost all of what I know about Physics and Engineering from the Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner cartoons, ...
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When will the first Falcon-9 send something to the Moon? Will it be iSpace's HAKUTO-R?

The Teslarati article SpaceX customer iSpace updates Falcon 9-launched Moon lander, rover plans says Japanese commercial space company iSpace has provided an updated schedule for its first private ...
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Why do all recent proposed lunar landers have payloads on top?

Every recently-proposed vacuum lander I've seen has its payload as far off the ground as possible. This necessitates cranes, ladders, and elevators to get things down. (Starship may be a partial ...
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Farthest distance to a solar system object that's been determined by spacecraft transponder?

Bouncing radar off of Venus' surface has yielded a rich body of data about the planet. Based on Venus' aphelion and Earth's perihelion, we know then that the answer is at least 38 million kilometers ...
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Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and lander communications with Earth (IDSN)

In the Seeker video India Could Be the First to Land on the Moon’s South Pole a bit after 04:20 the narrator says: Okay, well right about now you’re probably ...
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Tradeoffs to consider for OBDH system design for a Multi-Spectral Imager payload? (Enceladus Mission)

I am having a problem with designing the On Board Data Handling (OBDH) system for our MSI (Multi-Spectral Imager) payload. Our payload will be detached from Orbiter and it will take photos (for ...
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Why was the origin of the Apollo lunar module coordinate system “underground”?

Even stranger than the origin of the Saturn V coordinate system is that of the lunar module: The X-axis station reference measurements (inches) start at a design reference point identified as ...
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Why does Blue Origin want to go to the moon?

Jeff Bezos's Blue Origin released their first moon lander, Blue Moon. Have Blue Origin published anything about their reasons for going to the moon?
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Images of Mars Phoenix Lander showing what's happened after more cycles of winter ice build-up?

The Mars Phoenix Lander's End of Mission is an interesting story. It was left in a state such that had it survived the Mars winter of 2008, it could potentially be contacted again in 2010. The Phoenix ...
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ELI5: Why do they say that Israel would have been the fourth country to land a spacecraft on the Moon and why do they call it low cost?

In the news they say that Israel hoped to become the fourth country to land a spacecraft on the Moon. Only government space agencies from the former Soviet Union, the US and China have made ...
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How would this two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle work? Where do you sit?

This curious answer shows an image of a liquid-fueled Mars Ascent Vehicle with a sign in front that only says Two Stage Mars Ascent Vehicle Question: Is there some NASA program associated with it ...
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Is there a crewed moon lander currently (March 2019) in the works

Recently, the US vice president directed NASA to land astronauts on the moon within the next 5 years [source]. While there are big rockets (SLS, Falcon Heavy, etc.), and crew capsules (Orion, Crew ...
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Is post-X-prize Beresheet better than the X-prize candidate?

As mentioned in this question the total budget of the Lunar X-prize was about US \$30 million, and that included some other prizes beside the winner. However the budget of Beresheet post-X-prize ...
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Why do countries or companies still bother sending landers/probes to the moon?

Countries like Israel, South Korea, or China most recently and companies like ispace have plans to send landers to the lunar surface. At least according to this list. Is it because there is little ...
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Why is Beresheet doing a only a one-way trip?

Why is the SpaceIL Lunar Lander doing a one-way trip? Is that a common project to do nowadays, to send landers to Mars and the Moon without returning them?
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Where is the debris in the Hayabusa 2 touchdown video coming from?

In the video of the touchdown of Hayabusa 2 (https://www.engadget.com/2019/03/06/hayabusa2-probe-ryugu-touchdown-video/) no debris is visible until touchdown. After that, there is a lot of it (though ...
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Why don't SpaceIL's Beresheet spacecraft and Moon orbits line up?

The question Tracking SpaceIL Beresheet Moon lander links to some data files that are from the site: http://live.spaceil.com (also linked here): Raw data: http://live.spaceil.com/data/data_s1....
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Does the Dragonfly project (quadcopters on Titan) envision attached RTG's or would they be static and revisited for charging?

In this answer I link to the Phys.org article Researcher sets eyes on Saturn's largest moon which describes the Dragonfly project, a way to explore extended areas of Titan's surface difficult to probe ...
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Fate of human-made objects on mars

Now that Opportunity is dead, and since there are ideas for future human missions to Mars, I wonder if there is a project to collect all our rovers and landers or at least label as historical sites ...
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What did JPL's 1939 lunar lander look like and what practical aspects of landing on the Moon did this engineering design address?

According to Wikipedia's Jet Propulsion Laboratory: During JPL's Army years, the laboratory developed two deployed weapon systems, the MGM-5 Corporal and MGM-29 Sergeant intermediate range ballistic ...
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Chang'e- 4 safeguards to biological Contamination on the moon?

What kinds of safeguards does Chang'e 4, China's lander on the dark side of the moon use, in order to prevent biological contamination on the moon? How well are they documented?
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Where is that lunar-grown cotton seed sprout?

Most of us have seen this picture of the cotton seed currently sprouting inside a Chinese lander on the far side of the moon: Source The image shows see a plastic grid with a gelatinous overlay of ...
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How to communicate with a lunar polar mission?

We can easily communicate with a spacecraft on the Moon on the near side. The Far Side allows for a L2 halo communication relay satellite easily enough. How would a polar mission communicate with ...
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Colors of the Moon totally different in the pictures taken by Chang'e-4 in comparison with the Apollo photos. Why?

None of the pictures taken by Chang'e-4 Chinese lunar probe (see the attached images) in January 2019 have colors similar to the photos taken by Armstrong, Aldrin and the other 10 astronauts. The ...
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Transmission time per day for Chang'e 4?

Congratulations for the sucessfull landing on the back side of the Moon. There is continuous line of site available for radio connection from the lander to the Queqiao relay satellite at the Earth-...
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Chang'e 4, what is planned during December 12 and January 3?

Chang'e 4 is in Moon orbit since December 12, the landing is scheduled for January 3. What is planned during the 22 days in orbit?
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Mars InSight mission. From dull to shiny copper in just 8 days?

In just 8 days, that hexagonal piece of equipment installed on the InSight lander changed its general appearance from dull to shiny copper (see image 1 and 2). How is it possible? Img. 1. Nov 26, ...
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Will Chang'e-4 really take a month to “get to the Moon”? With what trajectory?

The Verge's This weekend, China embarks on a historic mission to land on the far side of the Moon says (near the end): We know that the mission is set to launch on top of one of China’s Long March 3B ...
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Brushing clean a Mars lander's solar panels

A comment by SF. regarding the InSight Mars lander caught my attention: I really, really wonder why they didn't just include a small compartment with a duster brush grippable by the robotic arm. ...
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Could InSight lift off and move somewhere else?

InSight used its built-in thrusters for the final stretch of the Entry, Descent and Landing, and the thrusters seem to still be attached. Would it have been at all possible for InSight to lift off ...
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How many sundials & Sun compasses are there on solar system bodies?

According to https://www.seis-insight.eu/en/public-2/seis-instrument/rweb Sundial Around the handle is a small sundial, which enables geophysicists to estimate the azimuth— i.e. the orientation of ...
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How was InSight's vertical seismometer (accelerometer) tested in Earth's stronger gravity?

The BBC article InSight Diary: The silence of space tells an interesting story and has an interesting audio recording of InSight's seismometer signals sped up to audio frequency, made while in ...
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Why is InSight's nylon parachute a “soft good”?

NBC News' Mars InSight's landing team leader is all 'nerves and excitement' ahead of risky touchdown includes a conversation with Rob Grover, "who leads the team in charge of InSight's landing at ...