Questions tagged [lander]

Questions regarding devices used to make a controlled descent and touchdown onto another object, usually either to transfer objects, or perform scientific observations.

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2answers
69 views

Is the available imagery of Europa and Enceladus enough to develop surface missions there?

There are a few mission concepts under development to explore the surface (and subsurface) of Europa and Enceladus. This got me wondering - do the current (or soon to be obtained) surface maps of ...
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Are there diagrams, animations, or even actual photographs of the very first "underground cable" on Mars?

In order to hear earthquakes and other seismic signals better: ...(the Insight) mission team has begun trying to partially insulate the (seismometer's) cable from the weather. They've started by ...
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When will the first Falcon-9 send something to the Moon? Will it be iSpace's HAKUTO-R?

The Teslarati article SpaceX customer iSpace updates Falcon 9-launched Moon lander, rover plans says Japanese commercial space company iSpace has provided an updated schedule for its first private ...
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Why was there never a lander for the Martian north polar cap?

Since the Martian poles are water ice caps, belong to the most likely locations on Mars to host life, and the north pole being the most likely place for a crewed mission, it seems reasonable that one ...
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How would this two-stage Mars Ascent Vehicle work? Where do you sit?

This curious answer shows an image of a liquid-fueled Mars Ascent Vehicle with a sign in front that only says Two Stage Mars Ascent Vehicle Question: Is there some NASA program associated with it so ...
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Premature detonation of explosive bolts when landing on hot Venus?

@Uwe's comment below Parachute material used for the Venera probes to survive 500 °C raises an interesting issue. Venus is really hot, and pyrotechnic actuators (e.g. explosive bolts, frangible ...
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Parachute material used for the Venera probes to survive 500 °C

The Venera landers of the former Soviet Union were quite successful on the very hot surface of Venus. Which material was used for the parachutes to survive 500 °C? What about cotton wool? Yes this ...
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What's the exact location (lat/lon) of Zhurong?

Thus far, CSNA has announced the landing location as 109.7 E, 25.1 N. On Mars, 0.1 degree is about five km. Most Mars landers/rovers have been found in orbital imagery, and their lat/lon measured ...
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Why did the Venera missions land so close together?

I was reading about the Venera missions to Venus, and saw this map on Wikipedia: Venera 7 is missing from the map for some reason, but it landed at 5° S, 351° E, so it would have been very close to ...
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Is there independent evidence that China landed a robot on Mars in May 2021?

I would like to know if there is independent evidence of any kind that China landed a robot on Mars in May 2021? As of May 16, 2021, the last news on CNSA (China National Space Administration) site is ...
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Is this white stuff seen by the Mars Phoenix Lander water or carbon dioxide ice?

Source Here is an image which shows ice is evaporating over time. They use the word "ice". 1st: I'm not sure what they are talking about. Are they talking about the white stuff (like milk) ...
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Mechanical computing hardware for a future Venusian rover? How does it work?

I don't know why Gizmodo says NASA's Latest Venus Probe Concept Looks Like a Tim Burton Creation, because it looks far more like a Theo Jansen creation! Compare videos below as well. I can understand ...
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Brushing clean a Mars lander's solar panels

A comment by SF. regarding the InSight Mars lander caught my attention: I really, really wonder why they didn't just include a small compartment with a duster brush grippable by the robotic arm. ...
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What landings beyond Mars and the Moon are scheduled?

Recent years have brought us some interesting landings: Titan, the comet, the Chinese landed on the Moon, we got a lab the size of a SUV on Mars. Currently, Mars is in the focus of the West, while ...
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Does the Dragonfly project (quadcopters on Titan) envision attached RTG's or would they be static and revisited for charging?

In this answer I link to the Phys.org article Researcher sets eyes on Saturn's largest moon which describes the Dragonfly project, a way to explore extended areas of Titan's surface difficult to probe ...
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What is the purpose and necessity of this giant structure being used in tests of China's Mars lander?

Question: What is the purpose and necessity of this giant structure being used in tests of landing hovering and searching techniques to be used by China's Mars lander? It is shown in images (and a ...
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How many extraterrestrial bodies have hosted a "lander" which returned images?

For the purposes of this question, we will consider a "lander" any probe which was sent to the surface of an extraterrestrial body or entered the atmosphere to a point which exceeds an air pressure of ...
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What cooling improvements did the Venera missions make?

I've been reading about Russia's (former Soviet Union) Venera missions, and one thing about them that has impressed me is the incremental improvements the landers made in their lifespans before ...
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Has anybody ever picked up the signal transmitted by a successful Mars lander or rover sent by the United States? [closed]

It is known that on February 4, 1966, the picture transmitted from the Moon by Luna 9 was intercepted by UK. The question is, has anybody ever picked up a signal transmitted by a successful Mars ...
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How many sundials, Sun compasses and gnomons are there on solar system bodies?

According to https://www.seis-insight.eu/en/public-2/seis-instrument/rweb Sundial Around the handle is a small sundial, which enables geophysicists to estimate the azimuth— i.e. the orientation of ...
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How much more expensive are scientific instruments for space use?

The discussion on How cold is the Martian sky at night? Or the day for that matter? made me wonder. How much more expensive are scientific instruments on spacecraft or landers, compared to their ...
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Why do all recent proposed lunar landers have payloads on top?

Every recently-proposed vacuum lander I've seen has its payload as far off the ground as possible. This necessitates cranes, ladders, and elevators to get things down. (Starship may be a partial ...
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Are there currently any plans for a Venus lander?

I am interested in what the surface of Venus looks like in true color, but have discovered that true color images of Venusian surface are rare, and am hoping that a lander mission is planned to take ...
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How do the Dynetics-led team's ALPACA lander's "drop tanks" rendezvous and jettison work in terms of trajectories?

Ars Technica's NASA awards lunar lander contracts to Blue Origin, Dynetics—and Starship says: NASA announced Thursday that it has awarded three contracts to begin initial development of lunar ...
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How often have dust devils saved a Martian lander or rover?

This answer to How are the Mars Rovers maintained? reminds us that ...much to the surprise of the early Mars scientists and rover teams, Mars takes care of the dust problem for us! Mars' typical ...
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Are there methods of lightning detection on Mars?

Teslarati's NASA’s next Mars rover will pave the way for humans includes the graphic below which is an artists conception of a dust storm on mars. It shows what looks like lightning or some kind of ...
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What would the Venus landers look like today?

Between 1966 and 1985, several probes, mostly of Soviet design, successfully landed on Venus. Many of them continued operating long enough to send back audio, images, and various measurements, though ...
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What criteria was used to select potential landing sites for Hayabusa-2's rovers on Ryugu?

The NYTimes' article Hayabusa2 Prepares to Drop Rovers on Asteroid Ryugu says Sept. 19 Rock Hoppers Hayabusa2 is preparing to deploy two small rovers this week, each about 7 inches wide. Ryugu’s ...
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Exactly what was Surveyor 3 doing with a spring-loaded boxing glove-like device?

The thorough moon.NASA.gov/exploration page Moon Missions shows the image below. I learned almost all of what I know about Physics and Engineering from the Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner cartoons, ...
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How exactly did the floor of an Apollo LM look like after EVA(s)? Seeking photo!

Five years ago I posted a question entitled "How was dust-mitigation addressed during the Apollo program?". While the question was answered rather comprehensively, it left me even more ...
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Engine configuration for lander

Which is a more stable lander design: 1.Single central engine. 2.Multiple engines located near the corners Following is the design for Tianwen-1, the Chinese Mars lander: And following is the design ...
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Why not Super-Draco in lunar lander?

The Super Draco rocket motor was originally developed for propulsive landings on earth, right. It has performed great in the test where crew dragon escaped from the Falcon 9 last year. It is supposed ...
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What kind of rocket will ESA(?) launch from Mars? Who will build it?

The NASA-credited images below are from the BBC News article Europe pushes ahead with 'dune buggy' Mars rover which explains that it will drive around quickly on it's big 70 cm wheels (see article for ...
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Is there a list of private companies with products on NASA Mars landers?

I'm trying to create a list of all private companies which have their products on the Mars surface. To make it easier, I'm limiting my search to NASA landers. Is there a comprehensive list of NASA ...
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How many solar system bodies have had coherent radio transponders?

A transponder amplifies, (often) frequency-shifts, and rebroadcasts a received signal. Old-style telephone and TV distribution satellites in GEO used simple transponders to rebroadcast the uplinked ...
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At what altitude(s) were the Viking BLDT rockets fired?

I'm trying to understand the details of the 1972 Viking BLDT test missions (in earth's atmosphere). I found this diagram in a book and the general description that the (four) BLDT (balloon drop) tests ...
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Would the 6.5 ton capable Blue Moon lander fit in New Glenn?

As the 2 massive projects of the same company, are they designed to be compatible for NASA's CLPS program ? New Glenn's said to have a 7 m payload fairing diameter but as far as I know, Blue Moon's ...
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When things land on Mars what fraction of their velocity do they remove propulsively?

Some recent comments have got me wondering about this What is the distance between one of the mars's satellite revolving near the highest volcano olympus mons and the volcano olympus mons? comments ...
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How bright is the Martian landscape during the long (up to two hour) twilight?

The answer to the question "How much more quickly does night come on Mars compared to Earth? Will it be easier to see Mercury there?" says Martian twilight can last up to two hours. Has any lander ...
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How difficult is it to convert a hypergolic based Moon human lander to a cryogenic one?

Recently a study performed by Aerojet Rocketdyne indicated that in order to achieve a 2024 landing using storable propellants will be required. Given that NASA is looking to reduce program risk in any ...
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Where is the debris in the Hayabusa 2 touchdown video coming from?

In the video of the touchdown of Hayabusa 2 (https://www.engadget.com/2019/03/06/hayabusa2-probe-ryugu-touchdown-video/) no debris is visible until touchdown. After that, there is a lot of it (though ...
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Images of Mars Phoenix Lander showing what's happened after more cycles of winter ice build-up?

The Mars Phoenix Lander's End of Mission is an interesting story. It was left in a state such that had it survived the Mars winter of 2008, it could potentially be contacted again in 2010. The Phoenix ...
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Is there a crewed moon lander currently (March 2019) in the works

Recently, the US vice president directed NASA to land astronauts on the moon within the next 5 years [source]. While there are big rockets (SLS, Falcon Heavy, etc.), and crew capsules (Orion, Crew ...
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995 views

Rover vs pathfinder vs lander?

I am confused in difference between rover and pathfinder and lander I have often read/heard all these three terms when searching/studying about Mars Although all 3 of these are parts of space craft ...
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Chandrayaan 2: Why is Vikram Lander's life limited to 14 Days?

I do know that the 13-14 days of its scheduled life is limited by the duration of sunlight and once the far side of the moon goes dark, the lander will be in temperatures as low as -170° Celsius. But ...
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How was InSight's vertical seismometer (accelerometer) tested in Earth's stronger gravity?

The BBC article InSight Diary: The silence of space tells an interesting story and has an interesting audio recording of InSight's seismometer signals sped up to audio frequency, made while in ...
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Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and lander communications with Earth (IDSN)

In the Seeker video India Could Be the First to Land on the Moon’s South Pole a bit after 04:20 the narrator says: Okay, well right about now you’re probably ...
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During final descent how will InSight know cardinal directions in order to land with proper orientation?

As explained in @karthikeyan's answer the InSight lander will rely upon its landing system to orient the lander properly, so that once on the ground instruments such as the RISE antennas will be ...
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Farthest distance to a solar system object that's been determined by spacecraft transponder?

Bouncing radar off of Venus' surface has yielded a rich body of data about the planet. Based on Venus' aphelion and Earth's perihelion, we know then that the answer is at least 38 million kilometers ...
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Surveyor TD-339 engines - used on all US powered robotic landers?

I've read that derivatives of the original Thiokol TD-339 model of vernier engine for the Surveyor program was reused in the Viking program, and seen a hint that MSL was using the same heritage design,...