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Questions tagged [launch]

Questions regarding the takeoff or the liftoff phase of the flight of a rocket and the set of activities required for preparation of the launch vehicle leading to it.

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Does the 90 million cost for the Falcon Heavy include everything?

SpaceX says that it costs them 90 million each time to launch a Falcon Heavy, does this include fuel? If I where to purchase a Falcon Heavy launch, how much would it cost me to launch it, buying my ...
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2answers
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Solid hydrogen hybrid motor engine for launch?

Would hydrogen unlike water in a solid state take less space or be more stable? How would a rocket work using a block of melting solid hydrogen instead of liquid hydrogen? Has and could any kind of ...
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Launch Vehicle LM2D

As it is well known, the circularization of orbits needs at least 3 stages. How could the Chinese launch vehicle LM2D circularizes its orbit with only 2 stages?
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What is the circular item that fell off of the returning booster during the CRS-16 mission?

During reentry of the first stage booster on the Dragon Resupply Mission (CRS-16), there was a ring-looking item that floated away from the booster. I would imagine it is some sort of ice debris, but ...
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1answer
603 views

Why should the roll program position the shuttle's nose to the east?

The roll program occurred during a shuttle launch for the following reasons: (...) Orienting the shuttle more parallel toward the ground with the nose to the east. ...
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1answer
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At which stage of rocket development does systems engineering become critical/useful? [closed]

Rockets are complicated system and the interaction of the sub-systems are even more complicated. But different subsystems tend to be developed parallels without much interaction but does so when ...
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How does Arduino or Raspberry Pi synchronize time using gps? [closed]

I have been looking at time synchronizing using arduino or raspberrypi. but well still I couldn't find something certain. does it possible with arduino? then how does it have something work? like ...
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3answers
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Could a bottle rocket be up scaled to achieve orbit? [duplicate]

Could a chemical bottle rocket be designed with the shape and balance similar to a chemical bottle rocket to achieve orbit? This question is based on the firework rocket that you light with a pocket ...
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How much noise would the BFR make at launch?

In addition to multi-planetary travel, SpaceX has plans to use the BFR for intercontinental travel. However, would the sound generated by the BFR's launch disrupt local communities and therefore make ...
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1answer
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Is Space X adopting a strategy to move away from the launch segment into being an operator only to fund the Mars Ambitions? [closed]

The recent approval of the FCC towards the launch of the star-link constellation is indicative that from just being a company in the upstream segment,Space X is branching out into the downstream ...
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590 views

Is it possible to navigate space travel with no computer?

From launch to land could a person travel in space with only mechanical devices like a sextant? With enough experience what would be the minimum devices needed? Which vehicle currently would be easier ...
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2answers
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Why is there such a large range of stage numbers, including fractional stages?

Falcon 9 clearly has two stages, but the smaller two-stage Electron has a "kick-stage" so some might call that 2.5. The question Quantitative benefits of Atlas II's engine-dropping or 1.5 staging? and ...
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Which has been the most gregarious rocket, launched from the most sites?

Which orbital launch vehicle has been "getting around" the most? Which rocket has put things in orbit from the largest number of different launch sites? For the purposes of this question, allow for ...
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1answer
131 views

Who's “winning” with launch rate?

Launch rate, or cadence, is not necessarily a fundamental metric for evaluating a launch provider, but it's an easy one. From India Today's Sept. 18, 2018 article 6 months, 18 missions: ISRO sets new ...
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Have there been any correlations between rocket size and the delta V it achieves

Have there been any studies that discuss the delta V of the vehicle and compare it to the altitude of operation, or compare it across launchers. If not, what kind of criteria, would one look for ...
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Could a human jump off Mimas without return?

A similar question has already been asked on dwarf planet Ceres: Could a Human reach escape velocity by jumping from the surface of Ceres (a dwarf planet)? Ceres has 2.9% of Earth's gravity. Saturn's ...
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1answer
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News of eXCITe with QIKcom-2 and SeeMe, have they been launched, or is there currently one scheduled?

Comments under the question What ever happened to SHERPA? about NovaWurks, Inc. led me to search for the DARPA eXCITe microsatellite. Spaceflight 101's page includes: Th(e) objectives of the ...
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Acceleration Profile of PSLV and GSLV

What is the way to find out the acceleration profiles of IRSO's GSLV and PSLV from launch until achieving orbit?
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Is “launch-on-minute” or other discrete launch time protocols currently the norm for wide launch windows?

This excellent answer to a question about collision avoidance practices for launches begins with: While the length of a launch window varies, launches within the window typically occur at discrete ...
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1answer
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What prevents all these man-made objects flying in space from colliding with each other?

Does NASA know the location of every object in orbit and they calculate satellite and shuttle launches around not hitting these objects or are they just rolling the dice that the probability of ...
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1answer
72 views

What were the different tests that were conducted pre-launch of Apollo 11?

I’ve done some research about the Apollo 11, and I don’t really understand what happens with different kinds of pre launch tests. For example, what are first-stage propellant tanking tests? And also, ...
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1answer
143 views

Satellite retrieval, fix and deploy possible remotely?

Is there any satellites that are designed to come back to Earth for repairs or upgrades and then be deployed again? Would there be any benefits to creating a capsule or inflatable heat shield to go on ...
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2answers
142 views

Can a rocket be intercepted in mid air?

Suppose that: 1-an interplanetary crewed rocket such as SpaceX BFR is built in secret. 2-the launch station can be arbitrary located. 3-the rocket is launched without any warning. 4-the rocket is ...
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How to make a orbital launch tube work?

Normal rockets would not work in a pressurized tube, but could a stage be made for the diagonal launch tube to save fuel and weight? Can the bottom stage be nuclear powered? Unlike the piston launch ...
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1answer
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Does a retrograde launch impact the return booster propellant requirements, as compared to prograde?

Space-X's latest launch, of SAOCOM-1A, was a retrograde launch from Vandenberg, with a landing back at Landing Zone 4 - at Vandenberg. A retrograde launch requires more energy (to counteract the ...
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1answer
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Would a Martian landing and take off require a flame trench/deflector?

Flame trenches/deflectors are essential for avoiding reflections of acoustic waves from damaging the rocket system while taking off. This is discussed in this YouTube video - Why doesn't the sound of ...
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1answer
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Should all the Air-Launch systems be deployed at sub-sonic speeds?

There have been several proposals to develop Air-Launched rockets, like what Virgin Orbit or Pegasus rocket doing. All of the concepts are released from aircrafts in a Sub-Sonic velocity (0.7 to 0.8 ...
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8answers
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How would a long pole be transported to space?

Can a long pole or a set of poles be strapped to the out side of a rocket (like a bottle rocket)or on the nose as an external payload without interfering with the aerodynamics of the rocket? How would ...
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2answers
233 views

What happens to rocket stages that land in the oceans, and how many are still there?

When a rocket stage is jettisoned into the ocean, does it typically sink? Assuming yes, how many rocket stages are now lying on the ocean floor? Are there, on the ocean floor, areas where there ...
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1answer
302 views

What do you need to do legally to have an object in orbit?

Hello fellow explorers, I've been looking into amateur satellite and rocket launches. Now, I'm by no means saying I'm an expert and have all my plans ready for launch. However, hypothetically if I ...
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1answer
265 views

Could electric fans lift a rocket strait up like a multi propeller drone? [closed]

Could electric fans like the ones below lift a rocket? What is the amount of electricity needed to lift a interplanetary rocket? Could a nuclear power plant provide enough electricity? https://en....
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1answer
301 views

Are there any dog-leg hot-spots? Where are dog-leg maneuvers used most frequently?

Dog-leg maneuvers are nicely explained in @JakeBlocker's excellent answer. If you go there now (and hopefully come back here) you can see a diagram of a dog-leg maneuver along with a comparison to an ...
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Does the ISS still “need” to be at around 400 km?

The video Why is the International Space Station 400 km above the Earth? first mentions that there are fairly hard limits at 300 km (due to imminence of reentry) and 700 km (loss of protection from ...
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Deciding factors for launch site

While deciding the launch site layout, what parameters are considered? I understand that the various components like monitoring station, propellant storage tanks are kept at some safe distance. How ...
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1answer
244 views

Beyond the Apollo 12 incident, have there been any instances of triggered lightning?

As explained in this answer, the ionised plumes of engine exhausts can provide a low-resistance route for lightning strikes during a launch, potentially endangering the vehicle. This is thought to ...
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2answers
282 views

Aerodynamically - can a rocket be over 30 meters in diameter?

The past and current designs of rocket launchers have diameters up to 8-10 meters (Saturn-5, N-1, SLS, BFR), up to 13-14 meters for max cross-section dimension for Space Shuttle and Energia-Buran (...
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What is 'triggered lightning'?

In NASA's pre-launch briefing for Parker Solar Probe, the Weather Officer Kathy Rice discusses briefly the possibility of 'triggered lightning'. See around 40:55 in this video1. She explains: We ...
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1answer
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Launch cost of a small satellite

The satellite mass is 100 kg. The volume is 150 $dm^3$. The orbit is sun-synchronous (700km altitude) I'm doing a research to find the actual launch price of this satellite by ISRO, Arianespace, ...
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1answer
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Is the atmosphere a positive or a negative for reusability?

Does the atmosphere provide a benefit or detriment in terms of fuel economy for rockets that take off and land back on Earth? We know that the atmosphere plays a large role in helping slow down ...
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1answer
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What is intermediate thrust and brief pause for checkout on launching Soyuz spacecraft?

In a book I'm reading, the author mentioned the launch of Soyuz spacecraft as follows: What made it more spectacular was how close we were when it lifted off the launch pad. Yuri, Tim and I were ...
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Does (or has) the US military launch anything besides weapons and weapons tests into space themselves?

Discussion below this question has lead to this question. I'd like to know if the US military has in the past, or still does, launch non-weapon payloads into orbit themselves. (Orbit, as opposed to ...
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What are “Ohms burns” in the context of Scott Kelly, KSP, and the Space Shuttle?

The Ars Technica video Astronaut Scott Kelly teaches orbital mechanics with Kerbal Space Program (also in YouTube) is a little bit humorous. When Scott Kelley is talking about orbit circularization ...
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How did “the kid” (John Meisenheimer) calculate that there was a wave in the jet stream and Explorer 1 would be okay to launch?

This tough question links to the NASA YouTube video NASA 60th: How It All Began which shows a lot of really nice, historical file footage and stills. After about ...
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1answer
281 views

Temperature and pressure of rocket exhaust

What is the temperature and pressure of the exhaust that comes out of the rocket during the last three seconds of countdown (smoke that stays near ground)? How much carbon dioxide is there in that ...
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What would be the implications of high-altitude or catapult launch for orbital rocket?

There are lots of questions on here which ask "Why aren't rockets launched from railguns/mountains/balloons/etc." and lots of nice answers mainly dealing with the practical difficulties of doing so, ...
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1answer
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Heavier Rockets Launched By Planes [duplicate]

Would it be physically possible to use a plane to assist heavier rockets with their launches (I know orbital ATK launches their pegasus rockets from planes but would it be possible to launch something ...
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1answer
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For an Apollo Lunar Module Ascent Stage launch, what is the optimal profile of $\beta$ (or $\gamma$) vs time?

When Apollo astronauts departed the lunar surface in the Lunar Module's Ascent Stage, it appeared to rise vertically ($\beta$ = 0) for ~10 seconds and then begin the "tipover" (videos of Apollo 15, 16 ...
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Floating Launch

Can a space rocket launch if it had no platform underneath it? If a blimp could lift a rocket into the stratosphere to launch, What problems would arise and how big would it be? What prevents a blimp/...
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1answer
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What is the maximum speed can a space rocket can travel with an air pressure of 14psi? [closed]

What is the highest threshold speed of a space rocket traveling in an air pressure of 14psi with all of its stages if they where able to leave a solo at Mach 1 or more? Related: What benefits can be ...
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What sensors or combination of sensors do rockets use during takeoff for their orientation?

I know that after using up rockets and before reaching final orbit, satellites use Earth, Sun, Star trackers to find the absolute position depending on the application and orbit. After that, they use ...