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Questions tagged [lox]

LOX (liquid oxygen) is pure oxygen kept at a temperature at which oxygen is a liquid, between approximately 54.4 K and 90.2 K (corresponding to -219 °C to -183 °C, or -362 °F to -297 °F). LOX can be used as an oxidizer in liquid-fuel rocket engines.

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Choice of Ammonia and oxygen as liquid rocket propellants in vortex combustion

I have been thinking lately about the benefits of using liquid ammonia and oxygen as rocket propellants, where ammonia is difficult to burn, what if in a fuel rich closed cycle, ammonia is used to ...
kent nelson's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is there any satellite that uses LOX as oxidizer?

With Liquid Oxygen being used as an Oxidizer in Starship and some other rocket engines, I was curious if LOX was also used for propelling satellites as well.
Prayag's user avatar
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Propellant consumption of Starship trip from NRHO to Mars

People, I am trying to estimate the amount of propellant (liquid oxygen+ liquid methane) required by Starship to reach Mars from NRHO (Near-rectilinear halo orbit). Also the propellant consumption ...
Prayag's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
964 views

Is it ever normal to vent LOX from spacecraft with active engines? Isn't it a fire hazard?

This is regarding: "SpaceX Chief Executive Elon Musk says a propellant dump caused the destruction of the Starship upper stage" "Musk said the failure was linked to venting liquid ...
TheMatrix Equation-balance's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
540 views

Has a rocket engine with LOX as the oxidizer ever fired beyond the GEO belt?

Intuitive Machines' Nova-C lunar lander is scheduled to launch in mid-February of this year. Notably, the lander uses liquid methane as fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer, and it will rely on this ...
quinnkenri's user avatar
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Anti-Geyser Test Full Scale

I am working on the thesis about Geysering and Recirculation in Launch Vehicles. And I am having some diffucilties to understand that "do we need to use full-scale model to test geysering?". ...
srule's user avatar
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1 answer
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How much of LOX will have to be generated for SpaceX Starship to get back from 16 Psyche?

Mixture ratio for Oxygen/Methane is 3.6 to 1 Liquid oxygen temperature of -183°C 16 Psyche (in shade) -113.15°C (https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/16_Psyche) Looks like the idea of bringing enough ...
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1 vote
3 answers
523 views

Propellant Density Calculation for LOX/Kero

I am trying to make sense of the equation for propellant density calculation, rho=(rw-1)/(rw/bo+1/bf). Sutton, 7th edition, gives this equation (7-2) as: $ \ \ \ \rho_{av} = \frac {\rho_o\rho_f(1+r)} {...
Mrr's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
351 views

Is the first stage LOX tank on the Falcon 9 monocoque or semi-monocoque?

In the Falcon 9 user guide manual it is noted that the first and second stage LOX tanks are monocoque. That means the tank is made of a single cylindrical shell. Is that possible? How can the first ...
جامکلو حسن's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Relative location of RP1 and LOX tanks in Saturn V [duplicate]

In Saturn V, the 2nd and 3rd stages had their fuel tank located above the LOX tank, but in the first stage, the LOX tank was located above the fuel tank. Is it because the individual stages had their ...
Niranjan's user avatar
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What is "anti-geysering" and why would you turn it off 70 seconds before launch?

Today Rocket Lab launched the Electron from Launch Complex 1 Pad A in New Zealand, and there was something about ...the first time a helicopter will be stationed in the recovery zone offshore to ...
uhoh's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
2k views

F1 engine turbopump

During the initial trials, the LOX pump part of turbopump of F1 engine had some problem with its vanes. They were damaging after approximately 110 seconds of operation. What was the problem and how ...
Niranjan's user avatar
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How to estimate fuel needed to reach LEO, GEO, and L1 earth-moon? [closed]

I'm doing some calculations about fuel production on the moon. To get a sense of order of magnitudes involved. I'd like to know how much fuel is required to get 1kg of mass to LEO, GEO, and L1 Earth-...
dlight's user avatar
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Comparison of rocket engines using LH2 & LOX as propellants

I am a bit confused - If it is correct that RL 10 and LR 87-LH2 both were developed in 1950 by Aerojet, and both used LOX and LH2 as the propellants, if so, then why was there a huge difference in ...
Niranjan's user avatar
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4 votes
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Was liquid ozone + fluorine ever tested as an oxidizer? Ever with jet fuel?

Searching for ozone layer circa 1957 I got Theoretical Rocket Performance of JP-4 Fuel with Mixtures of Liquid Ozone and Fluorine, NACA RM E56K14, Issue 58, Volume 63, Vearl N. Huff, Sanford Gordon. ...
uhoh's user avatar
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3 votes
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Injector design - LOX vs nitrous oxide

What will be the main design differences between using liquid oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizer in a bi-propellant rocket engine? What liquid/gas properties (vapor pressure etc.) play the ...
Kozuch's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
255 views

Concerns/challenges with LOX as a regenerative coolant

What are the fundamental issues that make LOX as a regenerative coolant difficult to work with or less ideal than using fuels as a coolant instead in small scale engines (<7000lbs of thrust/ ...
YuccaWorks's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
519 views

Methane or LOX tank at Boca Chica

As we can see on this picture from Mary "@bocachicagal" on NASASpaceFlight, there are two types of tank near the test stand. Some are black and others are white or bright and shiny metal, ...
Clément's user avatar
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Freezing problem of hydrocarbon fuels in a LOX cooled engine

I assume that in a LOX/RP-1 engine where RP-1 is used as a coolant, we need not consider the freezing issues. The reason for my assumption is that we need not bring the chamber and injectors to the ...
Vasanth C's user avatar
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Is the outside surface temperature of a Falcon 9 below freezing? How is the LOX insulated?

This answer explains how the liquid oxygen in a Falcon 9 is evaporation cooled to maintain a temperature well below boiling, by bubbling helium through it. The temperature difference to the ...
Peter - Reinstate Monica's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
1k views

Falcon-9's subcooled LOX is continuously refrigerated in-situ, what about its subcooled RP-1?

@Uwe's answer to Why would sub-cooled LOX tanks need to “topped-off” until the last minute or so? explains how subcooled LOX is kept cold and dense by "in situ refrigeration"; helium is bubbled ...
uhoh's user avatar
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Why a 900,000 gallons LOX storage tank at Launch Complex 39?

At KSC complex 39 there is a 900,000 gallons LOX storage tank. It was used for Apollo Saturn V, the Space Shuttle and lately for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Full Thrust rocket. But why such a large tank for ...
Uwe's user avatar
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10 votes
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How much liquid oxygen is lost during a Space-X Crew Dragon launch abort?

The tanks of the Space-X rocket should be emptied after a launch abort. I assume the liquid oxygen is pumped back to the storage tanks at the launch pad. But how much oxygen is lost by evaporation? ...
Uwe's user avatar
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3 votes
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How many rising pipes for LOX at the the Saturn V launch tower?

The Saturn V used liquid oxygen for all three stages plus the Apollo Service Module. Were all these LOX tanks filled using the same rising pipe or did they use a seperate pipe for each tank? Using ...
Uwe's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How is Cryogenic fuel kept... Cryogenic in rockets [duplicate]

How is cryogenic fuel & oxidizer kept at cryogenic temperatures in rockets? I am mostly interested in the first stage of launch vehicles rather than something like a Centaur that keeps hydrolox ...
YuccaWorks's user avatar
10 votes
4 answers
5k views

Why can't cryogenic oxygen and cryogenic kerosene be "stored" together?

This question, to my knowledge, is only applicable to Rocket Lab's Electron, pressure-fed engines that use non-hypergolic fuels, and other engine cycles that don't use a fuel/oxygen-rich preburner. My ...
YuccaWorks's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
245 views

What is the record for LOX staying liquid in space?

Liquid oxygen can be used for breathing, for fuel cells, and as an oxidizer for propulsion. However, it is cryogenic, and will slowly boil off in storage, even in a spacecraft. What is the longest ...
DrSheldon's user avatar
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How did JPL detonate a liquid oxygen methane mixture with light?

This answer to Pre-mixing cryogenic fuels and using only one fuel tank quotes John D. Clark's Ignition! Chapter 11: The Hopeful Monoprops, and the quote includes the line: How he avoided ...
uhoh's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
166 views

Cryogenic systems in kwajalein Island- Spacex- falcon 1

Is the LOX (liquid oxygen) required for the falcon-1 launch transported or produced? If transported, how? If produced, did they set up a cryogenic oxygen plant in Kwajalein?
Vasanth C's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
353 views

Role of ground-supplied helium in S-1C stage

In this answer, the attached quote, says that ground-supplied helium was made to bubble up through LOX lines which mixed it and kept it from boiling and geysering. What exactly this means? By ground ...
zephyr0110's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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How do rocket launch sites get liquid oxygen? [duplicate]

How do rocket launch sites obtain their liquid oxygen used for loading the oxygen tanks in the rockets? A while ago I seem to remember reading something that implied SpaceX had equipment to generate ...
Craig McQueen's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why isn't LOX/UDMH used in staged combustion rockets now-a-days?

Liquid rockets usually use a propellant pair of fuel and oxidizer. I've seen some rockets from 1960's that used LOX/UDMH as propellant pair but why they are not used any more although it is mentioned ...
FARRUKH JAVED's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
626 views

Can LOX containing hydrogen peroxide be used as an oxidizer for a liquid fueled rocket?

While searching the internet for designs on liquid fueled rocket engines, I noticed that some bottles of liquid oxygen say they contain some percentage of hydrogen peroxide. Could that be used as an ...
Putvi's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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LOX as annular heat sink

I'm thinking of my time spent working with cryostats. Liquid helium pot on the inside, and surrounded by a liquid nitrogen jacket. And the whole thing insulated with vacuum and superinsulation. (...
Greg's user avatar
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1 vote
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Cryogenic liquid pressurization resulting in overpressurized tank

I want to pressurize a cryogenic liquid (LN2 in this test. Eventually LOX). I have a setup similar to this and follow a similar procedure to what is described, but I don’t see the same tank pressure ...
Vistalop's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
203 views

Loading the LOX into Falcon 9 V1.1 and Falcon 9 Full Thrust

It is clear from the spaceflight101.com that there is difference in Launch sequences of Falcon 9 FT and Falcon 9 V1.1. Clearly, Spacex has found a way to load the tank in 30 minutes (falcon 9 FT) as ...
Vasanth C's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
218 views

Air-launching an Electron-like LOX-based rocket from a plane; technical challenges?

@GremlinWranger's answer and comments to the question Is it coincidence that the Electron has very similar dimensions to the Pegasus? motivates my asking for the technical challenges to air-launching ...
uhoh's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
171 views

Pressurization line (Helium to LOX tank line) chilling while pressurizing LOX tank

I have read that in rockets and launch vehicles Helium is used for the pressurization of propellant tanks. What temperature Helium is stored at? If Helium is stored at room temperature then while ...
Amar's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
1k views

How do they know how much liquid propellant is in a rocket just before launch?

In this answer I wrote: In other words, a few tons here or there could depend on something as simple as the weather, or trying to squeeze a little extra propellant in for a given mission with a tight ...
uhoh's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
860 views

What is the blue/red flare at the Delta IV Heavy launchpad

I was watching the (eventually scrubbed) launch of Delta IV Heavy with the Parker Solar Probe. I noticed a fairly large blue/red flare near the launch pad. I'm guessing it's LH/LOX, but I thought ...
Ludo's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why doesn't carbon fiber overwrapping in LOX catch fire? (watch this video first)

Sir Martyn Poliakoff, also CBE FRS and his team produce a fascinating series of Periodic Videos. In this one they team up with Smarter Every Day's Destin Sandlin to do high speed video of a piece of ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 148k
14 votes
2 answers
4k views

How do rockets keep their fuel in a liquid state?

What are some of the measures engineers would take to ensure that the LOX and other similar fuels are kept below their boiling point during flight?
user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
7k views

Liquid fuel / Oxygen proportions

A question ive been thinking about: If an engine works of a liquid propellant(Hydrogen in this case) and LOX, is there a specific proportion required for the two chemicals to burn completely? If so ...
user148532's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
254 views

In-situ oxygen on Mars - what is MOXIE and SpaceX' ITS relation?

Reading through in-situ methods to manufacture oxygen on Mars, I see the following assets: in future, 100x scale of MOXIE would produce up to two kilograms of oxygen per hour https://en.wikipedia.org/...
J. Doe's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
129 views

What about recycling the helium used for sub-cooling the LOX in the tank of a rocket before launch?

Helium is a rare and expensive noble gas. When it is loaded into a rocket to be used after launch, it is not possible to recycle it. But the helium used for sub-cooling the LOX before launch (see ...
Uwe's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why would sub-cooled LOX tanks need to "topped-off" until the last minute or so?

Here is my understanding, let me know if I've got it right or wrong: Until recently, most cryogenic propellants were at or close to their boiling points. Each unit of heat leaking into the tank would ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 148k
2 votes
1 answer
602 views

Could super-cold LOX be used in every rocket engine?

Super-cold LOX gives advantages in performance for a rocket. But it isn't used in all rockets. SpaceX's Merlin 1D rocket engine uses super-cold LOX. Also NK-33 use sub-cooled LOX. Could super-cold LOX ...
Mark777's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
450 views

Can SLS use subcooled LOX?

The SpaceX Falcon 9 FT is using subcooled liquid oxygen. I understand that LOX gets significantly denser at lower temperatures so more propellant can be filled in the rocket's tank. Can NASA SLS RS-...
Sun Strike's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
1k views

Final conclusion/description of the cause of the SpaceX Sept. 1, 2016 anomaly? What's a "buckle"?

I've just read the phys.org new item which summarizes the conclusions by SpaceX about the cause of the September 1st 2016 anomaly. I'm citing quotes in the news item which come from a SpaceX ...
uhoh's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
681 views

Filling of LOX tanks - 'cryogenic geyser cycling'

This article about the 2016 Sept 1 Falcon 9 explosion mention 'cryogenic geyser cycling' in reference to the filling of the LOX tanks as though it were a particular method of filling tanks. In ...
OrangePeel52's user avatar
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