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Questions tagged [lunar-landing]

Questions on the subject of missions to the Lunar surface - past, present, and future

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What would a candle flame look like in low gravity?

We know what the flame of a candle looks like on Earth in 1g and what it looks like in weightlessness. But do we have an idea of what it would look like in Lunar (0.166 g) or Martian (0.38 g) gravity? ...
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At what surface gravity can't astronauts do full steps anymore?

We know that on the Moon in ~1/6 g the Apollo astronauts couldn't make full steps because they jumped with each step. At what surface gravity could you walk more like on Earth and at what gravity ...
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3answers
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Was it really necessary for the Lunar Module to have 2 stages?

We all know the 2 stages LM design used by Grumman was intended to discard the mass of the landing gear (+ other components) at the moment of launching off the Moon surface to reach back the Service ...
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2answers
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Can we see the USA flag on the Moon from Earth? [duplicate]

Is it possible one day to see landing site flags on the Moon from Earth or from space without having to land using a telescope as technology progresses? Highly Related: Were the Apollo lunar ...
21
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1answer
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ELI5: Why do they say that Israel would have been the fourth country to land a spacecraft on the Moon and why do they call it low cost?

In the news they say that Israel hoped to become the fourth country to land a spacecraft on the Moon. Only government space agencies from the former Soviet Union, the US and China have made ...
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3answers
199 views

What propulsion system would not pollute the surface when landing on a pristine celestial body?

A robotic lander on a science mission, especially to an airless body, would like to avoid disturbing the surface it is landing on with rocket exhausts. MSL Curiosity used a Sky Crane to somewhat ...
2
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1answer
78 views

Moon Polar Days And Night

Moon's rotation axis from the orbit plane of earth is about 1.54° tilted. Just like earth because of tilt, do polar regions experience 6 months day and 6 months night? If so, aren't these places ...
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1answer
132 views

How did Chang'e-4 hover, rotate, and then descend so gracefully? (Video)

In this incredible video we can see Chang'e-4 in it's final approach and landing on the moon from the point of view of the spacecraft. The view is horizontal as the spacecraft seems to stop and hover ...
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3answers
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Why are the rovers finding the long Lunar night difficult to overcome?

Compared to Martian nights, Lunar nights are long and cold. This has posed a lot of challenges in the past. What specific challenges does long duration night pose? What are the methods to over come? ...
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Direct transfers to inclined lunar orbits?

I'm trying to find examples of direct earth–moon trajectories ending in inclined low lunar orbits. I've found a few classes, such as those with plane changes between SOI encounter and capture ...
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4answers
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Exit film of moon landing departure

On Apollo 15, 16, and 17 NASA filmed the Lunar Module taking off and leaving the moon. With no-one on the moon how could the the camera move to follow it and who brought the exposed film back to ...
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1answer
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Was there fuel consumption budgeting for Apollo 11 Lunar module?

Did the astronauts aboard Apollo 11's Lunar Module have any stated or imposed limitation or restriction on the amount of fuel they could use while in lunar orbit and performing landing maneuvers? I am ...
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2answers
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Will Chang'e-4 really take a month to “get to the Moon”? With what trajectory?

The Verge's This weekend, China embarks on a historic mission to land on the far side of the Moon says (near the end): We know that the mission is set to launch on top of one of China’s Long March ...
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1answer
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Was there a technical reason why Apollo 10 didn't land on the moon?

Apollo 10's lunar module Snoopy descended toward the lunar surface, but (as planned) didn't quite make it, returning to orbit only 8.4 nautical miles above the surface of the moon. Was there a ...
7
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1answer
142 views

How different was the Apollo LM descent trajectory from the most fuel-efficient?

In most diagrams of the Apollo Lunar Module descent profile (example at the start of this video), it looks like the LM turns over and points some of its thrust downward relatively early in the process....
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3answers
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Did the Apollo lunar module descent stage have a role as a sort of service module?

To minimize the re-entry mass of the Apollo command module, essentially all of the mission supply of command module consumables was stored in the service module. Was there a similar arrangement ...
6
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1answer
228 views

How does the Apollo LM ascent guidance program P12 actually work?

P12 is the AGC guidance program for normal ascent from the lunar surface to orbit. According to the mission planning documents, after separation and ignition, the ascent stage holds its initial ...
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3answers
107 views

Technical challenges to improving resolution of lunar orbit imaging by using solar UV light?

@Uwe's question and answer seem to illustrate that the resolution of surface-imaging spacecraft orbiting around the Moon has not dramatically improved over the decades, and that this is pretty-much ...
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2answers
755 views

Is SpaceX lunar mission only a flyby mission, or it is going to land on Moon too?

Is SpaceX lunar mission only a flyby mission, or it is going to land on Moon too?
3
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1answer
113 views

When was the topography data for the Apollo 17 landing site gathered?

The presskit for Apollo 17, released one month before the mission, shows the exact topography of the landing site. The data used to re-construct that topography, when was it collected?
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What colors were used in the Apollo Lunar Module interior, and why?

There are lots of publications and blog posts on the exterior colors of the Apollo Lunar Module (a function of material choices), but I've struggled to find any information on the interior colors and ...
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What physiological effects did the Apollo astronauts experience due to the lower lunar gravity?

When humans are exposed to weightlessness they often experience space adaptation syndrome (similar to motion sickness). Also fluid redistribution to the upper body is nearly immediate causing bulging ...
4
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2answers
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Budgetary mission considerations for a disembodied pilot/crew? [closed]

It is not unusual in Science Fiction for a disembodied human to be on spaceship. Either the brain is removed from the body; kept alive artificially and often connected to the ship directly. ...
5
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1answer
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Where to look for newest images from Chang'e 3?

The tomorrow lunar eclipse is bound to look spectacular from the Moon - and as far as I know, Chang'e 3 is still fully operational, including its 3 high-definition stereo cameras. That means a chance ...
4
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1answer
329 views

For an Apollo Lunar Module Ascent Stage launch, what is the optimal profile of $\beta$ (or $\gamma$) vs time?

When Apollo astronauts departed the lunar surface in the Lunar Module's Ascent Stage, it appeared to rise vertically ($\beta$ = 0) for ~10 seconds and then begin the "tipover" (videos of Apollo 15, 16 ...
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3answers
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Why is an airbag landing on the moon not viable?

In this related question, it was explained that the differences in design between a Mars rover and moon rover were too substantial to substitute one for another. One of the points made was that the ...
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1answer
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How did the Russians get moon rocks?

I've read somewhere that the Russians have moon rocks. How did they get them?
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2answers
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How exactly did the floor of an Apollo LM look like after EVA(s)? Seeking photo!

Almost five years ago I posted a question entitled "How was dust-mitigation addressed during the Apollo program?". While the question was answered rather comprehensively, it left me even more curious. ...
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2answers
264 views

SpaceX Lunar Mission when possibly will it take place in future?

As SpaceX has delayed the crewed Lunar Mission which was going to happen in 2018 and now as currently, BFR is in progress, and also as SpaceX has mentioned in the first half of 2019 it will conduct ...
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4answers
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Were all the switches on the Command Module and LM control panels used during a mission?

Given there are so many switches on the control panels, and they each served a specific purpose, was every single switch used during a mission to the moon (with the exception of the abort switch ...
3
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1answer
270 views

As they were all qualified, how/why were the Apollo Astronauts chosen for their individual missions? [duplicate]

Why did some fly multiple Apollo missions, while others flew only once?
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Is anything being done to honor Gene Cernan today? (14 Dec. 2017)

14 December 1972 05:40:56 UTC US astronaut Gene Cernan returned to the Apollo 17 Lunar Excursion Module, becoming "the last man on the Moon" for forty-five years, so far. (as reported in my Space ...
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257 views

What ratio of fuel is needed for launching a mass up to low earth orbit compared to the Lagrange point? [closed]

I've heard an argument that moon landing was at best improbable as it would have required too much more fuel than simply achieving LEO. It seems to me that it would be relatively little more. I'm just ...
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2answers
4k views

With today's technology, how much would it cost to put a man on the Moon again? [closed]

Has there been any current estimates for the cost of putting a man on the moon, today? I'm curious how much the price has dropped with the improvement of technology, compared to the original moon ...
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4answers
733 views

Mining lunar thorium for building nuclear rockets on the Moon

Has there been any research on what lunar in-situ processes would have to be developed to mine and process thorium to build nuclear thermal rockets on the Moon?
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1answer
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Could the Apollo LM abort mode be engaged after touchdown? What would have happened if it was?

The Lunar Module had an abort mode where the crew basically just had to push the ABORT button on the control panel, and the ascent stage would detach from the descent stage, followed by the ascent ...
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1answer
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Could an Apollo LM land unmanned?

I believe that Apollo mission control had the ability to upload data and commands to the LM's guidance computer as long as they had an operational communications link. I'm wondering if, from the point ...
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1answer
856 views

Any potential downside to throwing personal life support out the door on the Moon?

I found this really interesting description of the ALSEP instrumentation placed on the moon during the Apollo 11 landing, written by Hamish Lindsay, (also, author of Tracking Apollo to the Moon). One ...
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188 views

Lunar Descent and Landing Simulation

I am trying to simulate lunar descent and landing as a part of my undergraduate project. For time being, I have included gravity turn guidance scheme and used these equations Now, I can solve ...
10
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1answer
798 views

What was learned from study of Surveyor-3's components, retrieved and returned to Earth by Apollo-12?

A comment by @Hobbes on the question How did Apollo-12 manage to land next to Surveyor-3? First “Space-Tourists”? points out that the "souvenirs" removed and retrieved from the Surveyor-3 lander by ...
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4answers
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How did Apollo-12 manage to land next to Surveyor-3? First “Space-Tourists”?

To me this looks like the first instance of space-tourism (humor, pls don't add the tag, see exemplary documentation at end of question). The astronauts landed next to Surveyor-3 on purpose, got out ...
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How might the Lunar X Prize contestant spacecraft have navigated their descent from orbit, to landing?

EDIT: Please note the following items: The Mission Requirements for claiming the Grand or Second Place Prize include the following: Landing – A team must land its craft on the surface of ...
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3answers
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a “speedy” lunar rover?

Moon's synodic day is 2551443 seconds. Its circumference is 10921 km. At sustained 15.4km/hour a rover traveling along its equator would retain full sunlight at all times; at higher latitudes that ...
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3answers
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Flung debris in lunar landing

When a spacecraft lands on the moon, on unprepared ground, it must fling a lot of rocks and dust all around. If you are building a lunar base, the other components that are already there would be ...
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2answers
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What did Apollo need the crewed Command Module for?

Doubling the life support, almost doubling the crew space, carrying lots of extra mass - the recent question about direct ascent made me ponder this: the fundamental role of the Command Module was to ...
4
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1answer
278 views

Lunar lander, apollo 11, start position

If i were to simulate a lunar module with: $x_0$, $\dot{x}_0$, $y_0$, $\dot{y}_0$. $x$ is horizontal position, and $y$ is vertical position. What would be appropriate values?
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0answers
186 views

Moment of inertia of apollo 11 lunar module

I'm currently modeling the lunar landing in 2D. When I set up the momentum balance: $\ddot{\theta} = \frac{dF_l}{J}$ where $d$ is the distance between the sidethruster and the center of mass. $F_l$ ...
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3answers
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What does it (actually) mean when spacecraft are “intentionally crashed” on the moon?

This List of Artificial Objects on the Moon lists 21 objects as "intentionally crashed". Because of the moon's lumpy gravity due to sub-surface mass concentrations most low lunar orbits will be fairly ...
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1answer
391 views

When Chang'e-3 landed on the moon, did LADEE notice?

The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) entered lunar orbit 2013-10-06, and Chang'e 3 landed 69 days later producing dust and gas on 2013-12-14. These were both quite interesting ...
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3answers
789 views

Using command module as a lander

Question: Why doesn't NASA or SpaceX use the command module as their lander, instead of having another spacecraft as the lander? I was playing Kerbal Space Program the other day, and noticed how many ...