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Questions tagged [lunar-landing]

Questions on the subject of missions to the Lunar surface - past, present, and future

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1answer
12k views

How did the Russians get moon rocks?

I've read somewhere that the Russians have moon rocks. How did they get them?
5
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3answers
197 views

What propulsion system would not pollute the surface when landing on a pristine celestial body?

A robotic lander on a science mission, especially to an airless body, would like to avoid disturbing the surface it is landing on with rocket exhausts. MSL Curiosity used a Sky Crane to somewhat ...
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2answers
851 views

What tonnage can current heavy rockets land on the Moon?

Mass to LEO is somewhat of a standard in superficially comparing the payload capacity of different rocket, at least for the googling general public. There are many LEOs and it depends on where the ...
2
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1answer
75 views

Moon Polar Days And Night

Moon's rotation axis from the orbit plane of earth is about 1.54° tilted. Just like earth because of tilt, do polar regions experience 6 months day and 6 months night? If so, aren't these places ...
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0answers
176 views

How might the Lunar X Prize contestant spacecraft have navigated their descent from orbit, to landing?

EDIT: Please note the following items: The Mission Requirements for claiming the Grand or Second Place Prize include the following: Landing – A team must land its craft on the surface of ...
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1answer
688 views

Does China have the most aggressive moon exploration plan as of 2013?

China is launching a rover to the moon this year, with more launches and returning samples coming soon. They also plan to have humans on the moon within the next decade. The Moon offers many ...
1
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1answer
127 views

How did Chang'e-4 hover, rotate, and then descend so gracefully? (Video)

In this incredible video we can see Chang'e-4 in it's final approach and landing on the moon from the point of view of the spacecraft. The view is horizontal as the spacecraft seems to stop and hover ...
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3answers
191 views

Why are the rovers finding the long Lunar night difficult to overcome?

Compared to Martian nights, Lunar nights are long and cold. This has posed a lot of challenges in the past. What specific challenges does long duration night pose? What are the methods to over come? ...
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4answers
1k views

Exit film of moon landing departure

On Apollo 15, 16, and 17 NASA filmed the Lunar Module taking off and leaving the moon. With no-one on the moon how could the the camera move to follow it and who brought the exposed film back to ...
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0answers
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Direct transfers to inclined lunar orbits?

I'm trying to find examples of direct earth–moon trajectories ending in inclined low lunar orbits. I've found a few classes, such as those with plane changes between SOI encounter and capture ...
10
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1answer
2k views

Was there fuel consumption budgeting for Apollo 11 Lunar module?

Did the astronauts aboard Apollo 11's Lunar Module have any stated or imposed limitation or restriction on the amount of fuel they could use while in lunar orbit and performing landing maneuvers? I am ...
10
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3answers
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Did the Apollo lunar module descent stage have a role as a sort of service module?

To minimize the re-entry mass of the Apollo command module, essentially all of the mission supply of command module consumables was stored in the service module. Was there a similar arrangement ...
4
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1answer
279 views

For an Apollo Lunar Module Ascent Stage launch, what is the optimal profile of $\beta$ (or $\gamma$) vs time?

When Apollo astronauts departed the lunar surface in the Lunar Module's Ascent Stage, it appeared to rise vertically ($\beta$ = 0) for ~10 seconds and then begin the "tipover" (videos of Apollo 15, 16 ...
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2answers
226 views

Will Chang'e-4 really take a month to “get to the Moon”? With what trajectory?

The Verge's This weekend, China embarks on a historic mission to land on the far side of the Moon says (near the end): We know that the mission is set to launch on top of one of China’s Long March ...
6
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1answer
205 views

How does the Apollo LM ascent guidance program P12 actually work?

P12 is the AGC guidance program for normal ascent from the lunar surface to orbit. According to the mission planning documents, after separation and ignition, the ascent stage holds its initial ...
26
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1answer
5k views

Was there a technical reason why Apollo 10 didn't land on the moon?

Apollo 10's lunar module Snoopy descended toward the lunar surface, but (as planned) didn't quite make it, returning to orbit only 8.4 nautical miles above the surface of the moon. Was there a ...
15
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2answers
999 views

What was the mascon “fix” used by Apollo 12?

According to the mascon entry on wikipedia: At that time, one of NASA's highest priority "tiger team" projects was to explain why the Lunar Orbiter spacecraft being used to test the accuracy of ...
7
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1answer
132 views

How different was the Apollo LM descent trajectory from the most fuel-efficient?

In most diagrams of the Apollo Lunar Module descent profile (example at the start of this video), it looks like the LM turns over and points some of its thrust downward relatively early in the process....
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2answers
1k views

What did Apollo need the crewed Command Module for?

Doubling the life support, almost doubling the crew space, carrying lots of extra mass - the recent question about direct ascent made me ponder this: the fundamental role of the Command Module was to ...
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3answers
103 views

Technical challenges to improving resolution of lunar orbit imaging by using solar UV light?

@Uwe's question and answer seem to illustrate that the resolution of surface-imaging spacecraft orbiting around the Moon has not dramatically improved over the decades, and that this is pretty-much ...
13
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2answers
2k views

How much mass could the Saturn V rockets have landed on the Moon if nothing was coming back?

What dry mass could have soft-landed on the Moon if a Saturn V had been reconfigured to launch a robotic mission going entirely to the surface? Obviously, that wasn't possible at the time, but for a ...
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2answers
735 views
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1answer
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When was the topography data for the Apollo 17 landing site gathered?

The presskit for Apollo 17, released one month before the mission, shows the exact topography of the landing site. The data used to re-construct that topography, when was it collected?
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0answers
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What physiological effects did the Apollo astronauts experience due to the lower lunar gravity?

When humans are exposed to weightlessness they often experience space adaptation syndrome (similar to motion sickness). Also fluid redistribution to the upper body is nearly immediate causing bulging ...
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0answers
729 views

What colors were used in the Apollo Lunar Module interior, and why?

There are lots of publications and blog posts on the exterior colors of the Apollo Lunar Module (a function of material choices), but I've struggled to find any information on the interior colors and ...
5
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1answer
103 views

Where to look for newest images from Chang'e 3?

The tomorrow lunar eclipse is bound to look spectacular from the Moon - and as far as I know, Chang'e 3 is still fully operational, including its 3 high-definition stereo cameras. That means a chance ...
3
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2answers
94 views

Budgetary mission considerations for a disembodied pilot/crew? [closed]

It is not unusual in Science Fiction for a disembodied human to be on spaceship. Either the brain is removed from the body; kept alive artificially and often connected to the ship directly. ...
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2answers
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Could the Apollo lunar ascent stage have separated from the descent stage before touchdown in an emergency?

In case the Apollo Lunar module had approached the landing site at way too high velocity, could the ascent stage have separated and returned to the command module before a crash? Thus performing a ...
44
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3answers
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Why is an airbag landing on the moon not viable?

In this related question, it was explained that the differences in design between a Mars rover and moon rover were too substantial to substitute one for another. One of the points made was that the ...
24
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7answers
18k views

How far can you fall on the Moon without injury?

In the book "The Gods Themselves", Isaac Asimov imagines humans living on the Moon would enjoy much greater freedom of movement on the Moon. Each pair went up in unison; each pair rose and fell in ...
17
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1answer
820 views

What does burnt Aerozine-50/N2O4 smell like?

The lunar astronauts universally described the smell of moon dust as similar to spent gunpowder. The exhaust gases from the LM's descent propulsion system (which combusts Aerozine-50 with N2O4) didn'...
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2answers
260 views

SpaceX Lunar Mission when possibly will it take place in future?

As SpaceX has delayed the crewed Lunar Mission which was going to happen in 2018 and now as currently, BFR is in progress, and also as SpaceX has mentioned in the first half of 2019 it will conduct ...
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2answers
1k views

How exactly did the floor of an Apollo LM look like after EVA(s)? Seeking photo!

Almost five years ago I posted a question entitled "How was dust-mitigation addressed during the Apollo program?". While the question was answered rather comprehensively, it left me even more curious. ...
5
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1answer
796 views

Any potential downside to throwing personal life support out the door on the Moon?

I found this really interesting description of the ALSEP instrumentation placed on the moon during the Apollo 11 landing, written by Hamish Lindsay, (also, author of Tracking Apollo to the Moon). One ...
15
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1answer
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Could an Apollo LM land unmanned?

I believe that Apollo mission control had the ability to upload data and commands to the LM's guidance computer as long as they had an operational communications link. I'm wondering if, from the point ...
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4answers
2k views

How did Apollo-12 manage to land next to Surveyor-3? First “Space-Tourists”?

To me this looks like the first instance of space-tourism (humor, pls don't add the tag, see exemplary documentation at end of question). The astronauts landed next to Surveyor-3 on purpose, got out ...
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4answers
674 views

Mining lunar thorium for building nuclear rockets on the Moon

Has there been any research on what lunar in-situ processes would have to be developed to mine and process thorium to build nuclear thermal rockets on the Moon?
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4answers
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Were all the switches on the Command Module and LM control panels used during a mission?

Given there are so many switches on the control panels, and they each served a specific purpose, was every single switch used during a mission to the moon (with the exception of the abort switch ...
2
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0answers
245 views

What ratio of fuel is needed for launching a mass up to low earth orbit compared to the Lagrange point? [closed]

I've heard an argument that moon landing was at best improbable as it would have required too much more fuel than simply achieving LEO. It seems to me that it would be relatively little more. I'm just ...
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72 views

Is anything being done to honor Gene Cernan today? (14 Dec. 2017)

14 December 1972 05:40:56 UTC US astronaut Gene Cernan returned to the Apollo 17 Lunar Excursion Module, becoming "the last man on the Moon" for forty-five years, so far. (as reported in my Space ...
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2answers
3k views

With today's technology, how much would it cost to put a man on the Moon again? [closed]

Has there been any current estimates for the cost of putting a man on the moon, today? I'm curious how much the price has dropped with the improvement of technology, compared to the original moon ...
5
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1answer
1k views

What is the procedure to stop the descent engine on the Apollo 11 LEM?

What is the correct procedure to stop the descent engine on the Apollo 11 LEM? When the LEM has a contact light on Apollo 11, there is some terminology spoken that I'm assuming is important (and ...
38
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3answers
3k views

Flung debris in lunar landing

When a spacecraft lands on the moon, on unprepared ground, it must fling a lot of rocks and dust all around. If you are building a lunar base, the other components that are already there would be ...
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3answers
11k views

Why did Armstrong pilot the LM, when Aldrin was tasked as Lunar Module Pilot?

Buzz Aldrin is credited (or was tasked) with being the Apollo 11 Lunar Module pilot. However in fact it was Neil Armstrong who piloted the craft down when the LM guidance computer overflowed, with ...
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5answers
16k views

Why didn't the Apollo 11 lander blow the dust away? (or why does it look like it didn't)

In this picture, we can see the footprints near the Apollo 11 lander. Shouldn't the dust have been blown away when Apollo 11 landed?
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2answers
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Apollo 17, Lunar Roving Vehicle walkback limit “relaxed”?

I found the following to be interesting. It appears that for the most part (Apollo 15, 16 and maybe parts of 17?) there were restrictions placed on the distance allowed for the LRV to travel. The ...
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1answer
2k views

How did the Apollo astronauts train for the 1/6G lunar landing?

It goes without saying that training/conditioning one's reflexes for a situation is highly relevant to some professions. Pilots train in a computer simulator. During the Apollo missions computers ...
9
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1answer
1k views

Could the Apollo LM abort mode be engaged after touchdown? What would have happened if it was?

The Lunar Module had an abort mode where the crew basically just had to push the ABORT button on the control panel, and the ascent stage would detach from the descent stage, followed by the ascent ...
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0answers
175 views

Lunar Descent and Landing Simulation

I am trying to simulate lunar descent and landing as a part of my undergraduate project. For time being, I have included gravity turn guidance scheme and used these equations Now, I can solve ...