Questions tagged [lunar-module]

The Lunar Module was part of the Apollo program spacecraft package. It rode into orbit beneath the Command Module and required extraction once there. It consisted of a descent stage (which remained on the Moon after landing) and an ascent stage (to take astronauts back into orbit). Use with the [apollo-program] tag any any appropriate mission tags.

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How much open source is the Apollo program today?

What percentage of NASA's Apollo program is considered to be open source as of today? I mean if I wanted to replicate a lunar mission from scratch exactly the same way they did it, regardless of the ...
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Why doesn't NASA just again build the Altair LM or a modified Apollo LM for the Artemis project?

The Altair lunar module was part of the wonderful Constellation program cancelled in 2010; just the Orion spacecraft has been retained which is to deliver a crew into lunar orbit. The new carrier ...
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Improvements in Saturn V, LM and CSM after Apollo 10

Apollo 10 is considered to be full dress rehearsal for Apollo 11. Did the trial flight of Apollo 10 identify any improvements that were needed in the Saturn V, CSM and LM, to be done before Apollo 11 ...
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Why did the CM & LM have to be separated at Apollo launch? [duplicate]

I've just read a bit about Apollo 13, and 1 question that kept popping up in my mind when they talked about the docking between the Command module & the Lunar one is that why did they have to be ...
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Mass of the Apollo Lunar Module cabin pressure vessel?

What was the mass of the Lunar Module cabin pressure vessel - that is, the metal structure that contained the astronauts, including windows and hatches, not including internal fittings and equipment, ...
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How was a safe tilt angle ensured for liftoff of the Apollo LM?

Recently I read that one of the pre-conditions (among many others) of a successful lift off of the LM ascend stage, from the moon surface, was that the LM ascend stage "axis" should be "...
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Comparison of space shuttle, command module, and lunar module window sizes

The space shuttles had a viewing window much similar in looks like the windshield of a car, or like the cockpit of a plane. However, neither the Apollo command module (CM) nor the lunar module (LM) ...
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What other options to egress the Apollo Lunar Module were considered, given the height of the LM hatch above the ground?

The egress hatch of the LM is almost 3.5 meters above the Lunar surface. The astronauts descended using a ladder, which is actually quite high above the ground (see also this question). Were any other ...
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Were more lunar module LiOH cartridges just a spacewalk away?

The modularized equipment stowage assembly (MESA) was a drawer in the base of the lunar module descent stage which stored equipment and supplies. The modularized equipment stowage assembly (MESA) ...
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Did Apollo 13 “barbecue roll” under the propulsion of the lunar module?

Apollo spacecraft were often put in a "barbecue roll" (officially called passive thermal control mode), which slowly rotated the spacecraft along its main axis. Without this maneuver, one side of the ...
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Was LM1 of Apollo 5 equipped with additional sensors and telemetry for the umanned “fire in the hole” test?

The first unmanned test of the Lunar Module was done in mission Apollo 5 LM 1. The separation of the ascent stage from the descent stage was done during flight. Did they install additional sensors and ...
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Had using the LEM's engines for a lunar abort “never been tried like this?”

From the 1995 film Apollo 13, GRUMMAN REP: I just want you to know the engines never been tried like this. That's all I'm trying to tell you. Is it true that Grumman had never considered such a ...
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apollo 11 moon landing longitude latitude from PDI to Touchdown

I'm reconstructing the entire apollo 11 mission trajectory. I'm now at the moon landing. Does someone know specific documents specifying longitudes and latitude at the different interfaces starting ...
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Could the Apollo Lunar Module be flown to a landing without the LEM Guidance Computer?

Inspired by answers to Could the lunar module have moved to a different spot? question but not talking about that specific relaunch scenario: Could the LEM stack (descent configuration) be flown ...
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Could the lunar module have moved to a different spot?

Suppose Neil Armstrong had landed with plenty of spare fuel, only to decide it really wasn't a good spot after all. Could he have lifted back off and landed again, perhaps a couple of hundred feet ...
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Did the Apollo LM's cockpit altitude displays account for the pointing angle of the radar altimeter?

The Apollo LM had a radar altimeter which was particularly critical in the final stages of landing. It could be set to two different pitch angles, either aimed backwards by 24º to be used during the ...
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Apollo altitude vs rate-of-descent schedule

In the final phase of the Apollo landings, the commander would go into "P66 attitude hold" mode, where the computer maintained a steady rate of descent while allowing the commander to change ...
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Why does the LM footpad “flutter” when undocking from the Command Module?

In footage of the LM undocking from the Command Module, the footpad looks like it was "fluttering": At first, I thought it was from the RCS thrusters but then I ...
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Does a full-scale Apollo lunar module mock-up exists that allows visitors to explore the inside?

The Lunar Module was an utterly amazing spacecraft. It's also one for which getting a feel for the inside is extremely difficult from photos$^*$. Has anyone made a full-scale mock up of the lunar ...
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How did LM circuit breakers operate? (famous engine arm CB broken by Aldrin)

From Apollo Lunar Surface Journal: "112:56:28 Aldrin: Houston, Tranquility. Do you have a way of showing the configuration of the engine arm circuit breaker? Over. (Pause) The reason I'm asking is ...
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What antenna is this in an Apollo 15 LM photo?

The video Apollo 15 landing from PDI to Touchdown (found in Why did the Apollo 15 LM violently shake & raise dust after the contact probes touched the lunar surface?) seems to pan across a still ...
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What was pressure and temperature of LM oxygen tanks?

After analysing comments in related question How cryogenic oxygen was heated up for CM cabin repressurization? It appears that LM had oxygen stored as either gas or supercritical fluid but not at ...
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Apollo Cross Pointer Working

The apollo LM panel had a cross pointer that displays the horizontal velocity to the pilot. This ideally have to be made zero during landing for soft touch down by pilot My question is, how this ...
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Why did the Apollo 15 LM violently shake & raise dust after the contact probes touched the lunar surface?

I was watching the Apollo 15 landing and I noticed that after the LM surface sensing probes (contact probe) touched the surface, the view was clear which meant no dust was being raised, but all of a ...
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Are there photos of the Apollo LM showing disturbed lunar soil resulting from descent engine exhaust?

Are there any photos of the Apollo LM descent engine bell and the lunar soil beneath it disturbed by the engine exhaust?
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Did the LEM ever rise above the orbit of the CSM at any time

We all know that the LEM descended from the CSM to the moon's surface and then rose back again to dock with it. But there are some videos that show the CSM floating in the foreground with the moon's ...
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Why is the Apollo LEM ladder so far from the ground?

In an answer to this question, the following photo was posted: (source: NASA Apollo 11 Image Library) This made me recall that the first thing Armstrong did after climbing down the ladder to the ...
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Why were contact sensors put on three of the Lunar Module's four legs? Did they ever bend and stick out sideways?

In the video Brian Eno on Apollo starting at 08:37 there is Apollo-era movie footage of a lunar module taken from the command module as it prepares for descent ...
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How much were the LMs maneuvered to their landing points?

The story of the Apollo 11 landing includes Armstrong having to fly the LM beyond a boulder field at the automatically targeted site. Was this essentially continuing along the same track the LM had ...
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How were the LM astronauts supported during the moon landing and ascent? What were the max G's on them during these phases?

I understand that the LM astronauts descent trajectory had them flying feet first in a standing position during the descent to the lunar surface and again on ascent. But it seems there must have been ...
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How can electronics on board JWST survive the low operating temperature while it's difficult to survive lunar nights?

Compared to the temperatures encountered in lunar nights, the desired operating temperature of the James Webb Space Telescope is very low. Lunar nights are typically -170°C while the operating ...
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What were the problems on the Apollo 11 lunar module?

In the movie First Man we see that there were problems with some button, when Buzz said "We should tell them about that." Also there was an alarm, that they then turned off.
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Could the crash sites of the Apollo 11 and 16 LMs be seen by the LRO?

This BBC article mentions that the crash sites of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 16 Lunar Modules are unknown. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has mapped most of the moon’s surface at 100m resolution and ...
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Why is the ladder of the LM always in the dark side of the LM?

When landed on the moon, the ladder seems to be in the shadow for each Apollo mission. For example, on this photo, the ladder is not in the side exposed to the Sun. (the astronaut go out of the LM in ...
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What “flight-ready version” of the Lunar Module is in a museum on Long Island, NY?

Ars Technica's Via the BBC, find out how Apollo 11’s Eagle actually landed says: I've also learned things about the Lunar Module itself, including that it was made nearby on Long Island, where a ...
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Why could the Lunar Ascent Engine be used only once?

The Lunar Ascent Engine was used during the Apollo missions to ascent from the lunar surface back to the Command and Service Module. There was one risky aspect of that engine: it was not possible to ...
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Why did the Apollo 13 crew extend the LM landing gear?

From the Apollo 13 radio transcript, as they're going through the Lunar Module activation checklist: 060:58:58 Lousma: Okay. The only item on page 10 is to deploy the landing gear. 060:59:06 ...
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Which module had more 'comfort' in terms of living space, the Lunar Module or the Command module?

Where were the astronauts more comfortable spending the day, sleeping, donning space suits, etc: the LM or the Command Module? Considering, of course, that the Command Module would carry three crew ...
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Was it really necessary for the Lunar Module to have 2 stages?

We all know the 2 stages LM design used by Grumman was intended to discard the mass of the landing gear (+ other components) at the moment of launching off the Moon surface to reach back the Service ...
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How would one calculate the Lunar liftoff thrust required for a spacecraft?

I used the thrust to weight ratio of 2.12 to determine the thrust my spacecraft needs for a lunar liftoff, Apollo Lunar Ascent Stage Thrust to Weight Ratio. Is this a proper way of determining and ...
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What happened to Apollo 13 LM descent stage?

I see in the accounts of the Apollo 13 mission that the descent stage engine of the LM were used to propel the joined spacecraft into a return trajectory to earth and that the crew remained in the LM ...
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Docking of CSM with LM

After separation from the SLA (by about 50-100 feet), the CSM "turned around" and docked with the LM to pull it out. This turning around was done by a 180 degree change in orientation. This could have ...
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Lunar module on the moon [duplicate]

I understand that a lunar day is about 13 & half earth days, and so also the lunar night. Since there is no atmosphere on moon, the surface temperature during "lunar day" reaches upto +127 degree ...
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What do you call the Apollo LEM plus CM (Command Module) when they are connected?

In the question How far away can spacecraft be seen with an optical telescope? I used ...Apollo 14 CM & LEM and the Saturn IV B..." for lack of better words. Unlike some people I (don't) ...
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How did NASA get the video camera on the Moon to track the LM ascent stage, considering the substantial delay?

The Moon's distance can be as much as about 406,000 km from Earth. That's a round trip light time of roughly 2 x 406,000 / 300,000 = 2.7 seconds or more, depending on how the signal was relayed to ...
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Was there fuel consumption budgeting for Apollo 11 Lunar module?

Did the astronauts aboard Apollo 11's Lunar Module have any stated or imposed limitation or restriction on the amount of fuel they could use while in lunar orbit and performing landing maneuvers? I am ...
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How long is the Apollo Lunar Module extraction window?

In Apollo lunar missions, the Command/Service Module extracts the Lunar Module after S-IVB's translunar injection burn. Since all three spacecraft were on a transfer orbit, they would be in the ...
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What colors were used in the Apollo Lunar Module interior, and why?

There are lots of publications and blog posts on the exterior colors of the Apollo Lunar Module (a function of material choices), but I've struggled to find any information on the interior colors and ...
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Apollo 10: Where's Snoopy?

During the Apollo program, we launched a total of 9 Lunar Modules (LM's). The Ascent module from Apollo 10, or "Snoopy," is unique in that it was neither deliberately crashed into the Moon (Apollo 11, ...