Questions tagged [mars]

Questions about the science or exploration of the planet Mars. See wiki for related tags.

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8
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What is the highest resolution camera on a Mars orbiter?

The GeoEye-1 satellite has the high resolution imaging system and is able to collect images with a ground resolution of 0.41 meters (16 inches) How about Mars then? From all the Mars orbiter's cameras,...
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magnitude of magnetic anomalies (Earth and Mars)

I've been looking for the magnitude of highest and lowest magnetic anomalies on Earth and Mars (mapped by spacecraft in low orbit), by searching online I couldn't really find a numerical value. From ...
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Is there any current imagery of Mars2020?

Are there any current photos or video from the Mars2020 spacecraft, or since the first burn? It would be cool to check on this daily/weekly.
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If Elon Musk wanted to bring back some martian soil, would US permission be required?

A scenario occurred to me recently where the Chinese space program decided to go all-in on Mars sample return, and their schedule was such that it would happen before the NASA/ESA mission was ...
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How long could the Mars helicopter Ingenuity keep up with the Perseverance rover if it wanted to?

Wikipedia's Mars Helicopter Ingenuity says: It could potentially cover a distance of up to 300 metres (980 ft) per flight. Perseverance is somewhat similar to Curiosity which drove about 22970 ...
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Is Perseverance still in Safe Mode?

Messages in The Pod Bay and Space.com's NASA: Mars rover Perseverance in 'safe mode' after launch, but should recover both said that Perseverance was in "Safe Mode". Is it still?
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Why do Ingenuity's legs differ?

In the pictures below, I notice that not all of the legs of Ingenuity are the same (look at the end of them, directly touching the surface). It looks like a single one is different than the other 3. ...
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How many Raptor engines will Starship use for TMI and Mars landing?

The Starship second stage has 3 sae level engines and 3 vacuum engines. I don't imagine that all 6 will be used for trans Mars injection, as it isn't very efficient. And for the Mars landing which ...
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Mars Sample Return Earth Return Orbiter — which propulsion system for what?

Many sources (eg this one) show the Mars Sample Return Earth Return Orbiter with both ion and chemical propulsion, and also state that it will be launched on an Ariane 6, but I can't find a clear ...
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1answer
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What would be the most viable way to have constant communication with a Mars base?

I am currently working on a project involving designing a Mars base, and a major factor is establishing constant communication between Earth and the Mars ground base. I am thinking of utilizing laser ...
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Will surface samples from Mars orbit it in a spherical capsule until captured?

The abstract of the interesting 2001 NASA JPL paper Covering a Sphere with Retroreflectors says: Abstract- One of the future missions for Mars involves returning a soil sample from the Martian ...
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Is there a specific reason why NASA put MOXIE on a rover?

MOXIE or The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment is to be sent to Mars as a part of Perseverance's scientific payload. Sure the experiment is much needed and very anticipated, and ...
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What makes Earth-Mars transfers more non-Hohmann; inclination or eccentricity?

Answers to Why do many Mars missions launch now, if the Hohmann transfer orbit is the most propellant-saving one? and discussions below them made me wonder what makes Earth-Mars transfers more non-...
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Is ESA's ExoMars TGA getting old and unable to support Rosalind Franklin rover for the full potential duration of its missions and extensions?

Wikipedia's ExoMars explains that the Trace Gas Orbiter or TGO part of the mission was launched in 2016 and the rover was originally scheduled to launch in 2018. This launch was delayed until 2020 and ...
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Will Perseverance's landing be live streamed?

I know that the launch will be live streamed, but I am interested in the landing. Is there a plan to make it possible for the general public to get access to landing video as soon as mission control? ...
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Why do many Mars missions launch now, if the Hohmann transfer orbit is the most propellant-saving one?

The Hohmann transfer orbit is the most propellant-saving transfer orbit to Mars. When using this kind of transfer, the rover/rocket/etc. starts from Earth when Earth and Mars are in conjunction. But ...
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Would Earth without water look like Mars? [closed]

I was watching this slideshow of 4K images of the surface of Mars, and I noticed that the surface looked mostly smooth, with the most rugged features being crater impacts (sort of resembling an Earth ...
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Space Exploration and Religion [closed]

When various civilizations practice religion, its usually linked to some monuments or holy sites in Earth. As an example in Christianity, its Bethlehem, in Judaism, its Jerusalem, in Islam, its Mecca, ...
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How sharp are the bits of sand and rock on mars?

Lunar regolith is quite sharp, so abrasive it can cut kevlar. This is because there is no flowing water or substantial atmosphere to erode the material and smoothen it out, so meteorite impacts break ...
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1answer
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Did the Mars Science Laboratory do any science that wasn't done by Curiosity proper?

This answer to What is the equivalent of Curiosity's “MSL” in the context of Perseverance? What's the official name of the mission? Are the distinctions similar? got me thinking that answers to Where ...
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Why Mars instead of a space station?

Elon Musk has made very clear that his goal is a colony on Mars. That doesn't seem ideal to me at all. Certainly some people will be happy to live on Mars for the rest of their lives, but they will ...
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Engine configuration for lander

Which is a more stable lander design: 1.Single central engine. 2.Multiple engines located near the corners Following is the design for Tianwen-1, the Chinese Mars lander: And following is the design ...
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Why aren't there HiRISE observation footprints near the Martian poles?

Browsing the HiRISE observations of Mars, I noticed that there aren't any observation footprints at a latitude lower than -65° or higher than 65°. Why is this? Is there something I am not seeing? Is ...
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Mars versus the poles of Mercury WRT colonization

From MESSENGER Finds New Evidence for Water Ice at Mercury's Poles : Credits: NASA/John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington/National Astronomy and ...
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How was Jezero crater selected?

Perseverance is going to land in Jezero crater. How was this landing site selected? I assume there were several landing sites that were considered, and different scientists wanted the rover to land in ...
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Is there direct evidence of flowing glaciers on Mars?

I know that analysis of Mars photographs has revealed what appear to be the kinds of surface ripples that occur due to glacial flow. For example, this photo, taken from here: The glaciers appear to ...
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How much altitude will curiosity gain by its climb now from the clay-bearing unit to the sulfate-bearing unit?

According to Space.com's NASA's Curiosity rover starts Red Planet road trip up Martian mountain: Curiosity's last stop from 2019 to this year was the "clay-bearing unit", another ...
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Why do you need a heatshield on Mars entry if the atmosphere is so thin?

Mars' atmosphere is only .088 psi. Is that enough to cause heat at high altitude? Shouldn't you be able to fly close to the surface at orbital speeds like on the moon? How does a parachute work with ...
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Do scientist who study martian geology typically use the term areology?

In the book Red Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson, I came across the word "areology". Is this word often used in scientific publications, or is it a term limited to the scope of science-fiction, ...
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What is the preferred orbital trajectory for a rover/lander to land on a body?

With the new perseverance rover about to launch to mars, I have a question about landers and rover orbital trajectories. Do the landers/rovers circularize their orbit before landing on the body or do ...
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Possible explanations to Mars' exceptionally strong magnetic anomalies

Some of the magnetic anomalies spotted in the southern hemisphere of Mars from orbit are exceptionally high in magnitude and they are an order of magnitude greater than what we would expect ...
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Delta-v penalty for stopping in a distant Earth orbit versus using atmospheric reentry for braking and returning to Earth from Mars?

Comments below this answer to What precautions are planned to prevent an accident or anomaly from releasing Martians into Earth's environment? say: Seems to me like a high earth orbit lab might be a ...
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Could artificial gravity on long space flights reduce deterioration of eyesight?

It has been found that micro-gravity adversely affects blood flow to the human eye. How will this problem be treated on flights to Mars, for instance? Rotating spacecraft, perhaps?
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Delta-v difference between Mars and Moon

Considering a simple Hohmann transfer, does it take less Delta-v and propellant to go to Mars than to the Moon
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What precautions are planned to prevent samples returned from Mars crashing and releasing organisms on Earth?

Bias disclaimer: I think that returning samples from Mars to Earth at a point in time where we also suspect there is a chance that there is microbial life on Mars is ill-advised and arrogant. We are ...
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Why are Perseverance's wheels flatter?

As visible in the image above (and as most of you would have noticed!) the wheels on the upcoming NASA/JPL rover Perseverance seems to be largely different from Curiosity's wheels. A notable ...
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History of investigation of lunar and Martian surface gravity

I wonder when it was discovered that the Moon has about a sixth of the Earth's surface gravity and that Mars has 0.38 g. I think that until Newton, everyone assumed there was the same gravity on every ...
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What kind of rocket will ESA(?) launch from Mars? Who will build it?

The NASA-credited images below are from the BBC News article Europe pushes ahead with 'dune buggy' Mars rover which explains that it will drive around quickly on it's big 70 cm wheels (see article for ...
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Could a helium balloon on Mars and on Triton float at air pressures lower than it could on Earth due to the bodies' low gravities?

The highest altitude ever reached by a balloon above the Earth's surface is about 33 mi (53 km), unmanned above Japan. The 2nd-highest one reached 51.8 km above California. Both reached the lower ...
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Would the national flag planted by astronauts on Mars need an upper horizontal pole like the ones on the Moon?

Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, the Apollo lunar flags had an upper horizontal pole in order to make them fully hoisted, looking like floating in the wind. Now Mars does have an ...
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Is there a list of private companies with products on NASA Mars landers?

I'm trying to create a list of all private companies which have their products on the Mars surface. To make it easier, I'm limiting my search to NASA landers. Is there a comprehensive list of NASA ...
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Are Mars rovers in continuous contact with Earth when in line of sight?

The NASA Perseverance rover Communications page describes the Ultra-High Frequency Antenna, the X-band High-Gain Antenna, and the X-band Low-Gain Antenna but does not mention how often it will be in ...
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When is the next Transit of Venus from Mars?

When will the next transfer of Venus take place from the perspective of Mars? Will the next human to view one be a Martian?
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How could the landing date of Perseverance Rover be fixed irrespective of 26 days launch window?

I am very much aware of this question from 2018 by @uhoh - Why would InSight's arrival date at Mars be fixed, and independent of the launch date?. I was led here by a similar question which arose in ...
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Why was there never a lander for the Martian north polar cap?

Since the Martian poles are water ice caps, belong to the most likely locations on Mars to host life, and the north pole being the most likely place for a crewed mission, it seems reasonable that one ...
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Kinematic and Dynamic viscosity on Mars

I've been looking at the Mars helicopter (Ingenuity) that will be onboard the Mars 2020 rover and I am having trouble figuring out how they determined the size of the rotor blades. Specifically, I'm ...
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What are the advantages of building a human colony on the Moon vs Mars?

The opposite question, What are the advantages of building a human colony on Mars vs the moon? was asked yesterday. I thought it made sense to ask this version as a corollary. As noted in the other ...
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What are the advantages of building a human colony on Mars vs the moon?

Why would humans try to establish a colony on Mars rather than on the moon? Seems to me that both bodies are similarly inhospitable, yet the moon is so much easier to reach (and we should be able to ...
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Sabatier reaction oxygen to methane ratio for Mars ascent propellant

The Sabatier reaction is as follows: $$\mathrm{CO_2 + 4\: H_2 \rightarrow CH_4 + 2\: H_2O}.$$ If water is electrolysed $$\mathrm{2\:H_2O \rightarrow 2\: H_2 + O_2}$$ the global reaction becomes $$...
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Where exactly are those eight steep slopes on Mars revealing structures of buried ice?

Credit:NASA/JPL-Caltech/UA/USGS The image above is from Phys.org's article Steep slopes on Mars reveal structure of buried ice that I came upon by the link in a comment from @Mark Adler after his ...

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