Questions tagged [mars]

Questions about the science or exploration of the planet Mars. See wiki for related tags.

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Why is the Southern Hemisphere of Mars is heavily struck by asteroids while the northern part is relatively smooth?

The northern hemisphere of Mars is smooth with flats lands but areas particularly below the Tharsis rise is heavily cratered, also Hellas basin, one of the largest impact craters is located in the ...
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How Ingenuity ensures it does not fly away from the range of connection from Perseverance?

There must be a range after which Ingenuity cannot communicate with Perseverance. I am not sure what that distance is. How Ingenuity ensures it does not fly away out of that distance? If inadvertently ...
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What does Perseverance listening to Ingenuity reveal?

On 2021 May 7, the science lead for Perseverance's SuperCam Mars microphone said about that microphone's recording of a flight of the Ingenuity helicopter: We had carried out tests and simulations ...
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Which Mars probe went to the highest elevation and which one to the lowest on Mars so far?

Considering Mars' mean atmospheric pressure of 610 Pa (0.088 psi) its "sea level altitude", how high went the highest probe/rover that ever successfully landed on Mars so far (respectively, ...
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Effective bandwidth for Mars rovers to Earth

I'm interested in what the effective bandwidth is for, in particular, the Curiosity and Perseverance rovers back to Earth. By 'effective' I mean 'averaged over a sufficiently long period', so at least ...
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Using inflatable balloons to collect hydrogen from space as a simple solution for radiation shielding

I've seen this video where around the 4:59 mark it states hydrogen is the "best element" to protect humans from cosmic rays: Even if it's not completely true,...
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Hypothetical Internet on Phobos

If there was a ground base on the surface of Phobos, with current or developing technology, would it be viable to have an internet connection? Even with optical communication like DSOC, would it be ...
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Why does NASA route all photography and imagery thru Malin Space Systems? Cant they take their own pictures? [closed]

why is Malin Space Systems the sole source for cameras? Space surveillance satellites use far more sophisticated tech and are better funded. like Hubble, older military hardware could be used by NASA ...
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White crack infill on the surface of Mars in the Gale Crater

The following picture, taken by the Curiosity rover in the Gale Crater on Mars in 2016 shows what appears to be a cracked Martian surface, with the Egg Rock nickel-iron meteorite. Ignoring the ...
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How long would astronauts' footprints on Mars persist?

The Apollo astronauts' footsteps can remain theoretically forever on the Moon as it has no atmosphere. Mars does have an atmosphere but a very thin one. Its pressure ranges from 72 Pa (0.0104 psi) on ...
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Why is there currently so little talk about a Venus gravity assist for a crewed Mars mission?

I just came across this video about manned Mars and Venus missions that were planned in the 1960s. They considered a Venus flyby the best way to get humans to Mars. Indeed, there are also modern ...
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Could Ingenuity use the shadow of its legs for navigation to fly autonomously to the sample cache depot location?

It's summertime now in Jezero crater, and according to the HORIZONS Web-Interface the subsolar latitude for Mars varies between both the end of May and November 2021 from 18.5⁰ N to ~25.5⁰ N and back ...
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Why did the engineers at NASA's JPL put a Morse code on the wheels of Curiosity?

The Engineers at NASA's JPL made Curiosity's tires have a morse code imprint on them so that it would spell out JPL in the Martian soil. However, it has led to many cracks and deformations in the ...
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At the end of the test campaign, could Ingenuity be programmed to fly fully autonomously to the planned sample cache depot location?

From an interview with Tim Canham, Mars Helicopter Operations Lead at JPL in the article How NASA Designed a Helicopter That Could Fly Autonomously on Mars: It has a sequencing engine on board, and ...
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How much oxygen can MOXIE produce?

So MOXIE is using solid oxide electrolysis to produce Oxygen. I assume the amount of oxygen MOXIE can produce is limited so how much can it produce before the solid oxide electrolyzer cell stops ...
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Does Starship reuse actually serve a purpose for Mars, or only LEO/Earth-to-Earth?

(In this question, Starship refers to the reusable 2nd stage, not the full stack w/ Super Heavy). I was thinking about it the other day, and I realized that I'm not sure a reusable Starship actually ...
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Query on artifical gravity via symmetrical tethered rotation

Has there been any consideration to the use of a tether between to identical space vehicles (e.g. two SpaceX Starships) to induce artifical gravity? I think you would need a diameter that could only ...
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Did Mars Express get hit by a “Meteor hurricane”? (2014 October 19, comet C/2013 A1) Was it observed at all?

The abstract of the open access 2014 paper Meteor hurricane at Mars on 2014 October 19 from comet C/2013 A1 says: omet C/2013 A1 will make a very close approach with the planet Mars on 2014 October ...
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Challenges to mapping the surface of mars with helicopters? Would it be better than satellite images?

Presuming that we could build on what we learned from Ingenuity, and we built, launched, and landed a copter platform that was designed to autonomously map the surface of Mars, what challenges would ...
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How do we know what the atmospheric pressure on Mars is?

The martian atmosphere is 6 mbar. How do we know this? Which probe(s) had a barometer on board to measure this?
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Is CO + O ==> CO2 a possibility for propelling rockets off Mars? [duplicate]

Perseverance, the Mars rover, includes an experiment called MOXIE. This is a technology demonstration to show that Mars' atmospheric carbon dioxide can be broken into carbon monoxide and oxygen. ...
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Up to what mach/reynolds numbers will Ingenuity be tested?

From an aerodynamics perspective, velocity alone is insufficient to describe the flow regime experienced during flight. For the Ingenuity helicopter, what specific mach numbers and reynolds numbers ...
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Who said, “Take that, Jezero!” during the Perseverance landing?

During the Perseverance landing broadcast, many of us heard a voice call out, "Take that, Jezero!" Every article I can find simply identifies the speaker as "a controller" (or just ...
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Is it 100x more work to fly on Mars?

After watching the first flight of a rotor-powered craft on Mars, I wonder how similar flying on mars is to earth. I read: Mars has a much thinner atmospheric volume compared to Earth. Earth’s ...
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Local atmospheric pressure and local surface gravity in Jezero crater?

Did Perseverance and/or Ingenuity measure the local atmospheric pressure and local gravity where they are? Ingenuity had been tested in a 0.006 atm chamber on Earth, therefore I guess the local ...
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Is radiation on Mars line-of-sight? [duplicate]

Roughly a year ago, there was a TV show about colonizing Mars; National Geographic channel I think. The habitats were underground to avoid the Sun's radiation. So I'm wondering: does the radiation ...
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What would happen to an astronaut on the surface of Mars if a Carrington-event-like superflare hit the red planet?

If a coronal mass ejection with the intensity of the Carrington event1 or more hit Mars, what would happen to an astronaut on its surface who is too far from their base to return to in time? Assuming ...
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How often does Mars appear at the horizon in our sky? [closed]

How frequently does Mars appear at the horizon in a year(It need not be visible. It just need to be at the horizon)? How long does it take from one of these events to the next one? How long does Mars ...
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What would be the most appropriate shape for a satellite going to mars?

What kind of shape would be best for a satellite studying mars?
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Has any rover dragged a magnet across martian soil to see what gets picked up? Any magnetic measurements of specific rocks or particles of any kind?

On Earth, amateur and sometimes professional scientists collect dust from the tops of buildings or mountians (see also) and separate it with a magnet to obtain meteoric material. Not all meteoric ...
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(Why) aren't there mission updates for Perseverance like there are for Curiosity?

Mission updates for the Mars Curiosity rover in the first months of the mission starting in August 2012 happened almost every day with detailed information about drive planning, the use of the ...
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Are the Perseverance rover's “drivers” working on Martian sols or Earth days right now?

Business Insider's What is it like to drive the Perseverance rover remotely? A NASA engineer explains the challenges of piloting the vehicle's journey across Mars. includes the following discussion of ...
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Identify this Mars helicopter prototype and when and where it was built and tested?

The new NASA video Things are really looking up (on Mars) is a short set of vignettes in anticipation of the Ingenuity helicopter's first tests on Mars. Below is a screenshot of a historical file ...
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What is inside Perseverance? Is the only scientific payload the bunch of instruments hanging from the arm?

Perseverance weighs about one ton, it is as big as a car. But what is inside the vehicle that weighs so much? Is the payload only the instruments hanging from the arm? Is all the remaining hardware (...
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How to calculate the solar irradiance (flux) on Mars. But,measurments are made at Earth orbit or at 1 AU

There are many satellites measuring the solar flux in EUV and X-ray at 1 AU (Ex: SDO, SOHO, etc). In the case of Mars: MAVEN looking sun in a small band of EUV and X-ray at Mars. Is there any approach,...
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Could a Mars rover reliably navigate using the local magnetic fields?

Mars does not have a global magnetic field which guides charged particles entering the atmosphere. Mars has multiple umbrella-shaped magnetic fields mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, which are ...
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What instruments and techniques measured Mars' atmospheric D/H ratio which suggests (all of) it's water didn't evaporate after all?

The Time article Mars Has Much More Water Than Previously Known—But There's a Catch says: The greater weight of deuterium causes it to behave differently in the Martian atmosphere. While free ...
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How to filter NASA MARS2020/Perseverance raw images by altitude and azimuth of mastcam?

This URL allows querying NASA RSS API for Perseverance raw images: https://mars.nasa.gov/rss/api/?feed=raw_images&category=mars2020&feedtype=json&page=0&num=50&order=sol+asc&...
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Why (the heck) did Tianwan-1 insert into a low inclination orbit then execute a plane change from 11.8 to 86.9 degrees?

eoPortal's Tianwen-1 (China's first Mars Exploration Mission) shows the following graphic, caption and link. It's often discussed that orbital plane changes are like certain table wines in that they ...
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In which Mars orbit, Mars Orbiters are rotating around Mars

Like Earthbound satellites are stationed in the polar orbit or Geosynchronous orbit. In which orbit related to Mars the Marsbound orbiters are stations?
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What is the origin of dark streaks on the surface of Mars in Tithonia Catena?

Several dark streaks originating (or ending) from dark spots on the surface of Mars can be seen in this picture. They are no longer than 200 meters, aligned longitudinally, and some of them seem ...
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Would Ingenuity's cameras be capable to spot and/or make close-ups of possible biosignatures?

Mars Helicopter Technology Demonstrator mentions on page 13/14 the sensors that Ingenuity carries, among them two cameras: Navigation (NAV) Camera. This is a global-shutter, nadir pointed grayscale ...
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How do the small radio receivers on space probes catch enough of a signal to communicate with us?

From Scientific American, March 2021: Optics. Traveling Photons. Joanna Thompson. Much of today's space communication relies on radio signals. But these diffract and broaden as they travel, as ...
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How will the future Mars Space Suit Helmet design protect Astronauts from Martian Radiation?

Mars Space Suit Helmet Visor's were mostly made up of polycarbonate [1], the same material used for EMU's visor for performing EVA in earth orbit. Meanwhile, Mars' radiation is 2.5x higher. How are we ...
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Sending Mars rover to the Moon

What would happen if a Mars rover (let it be Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity or Perseverance) would be sent to the Moon instead of the Mars? Let's not deal with the landing and let's ...
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What are those plastic hoses on Perseverance used for?

I've been trying to find out what this plastic tube is for that got cut during descent. It's a single tube so as far as l can tell not a loop. It ends in the lower right corner of the body (in the ...
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How could we grow plants on mars? [duplicate]

I was wondering there are ways to grow plants on the planet Mars and what would be needed to help them grow etc. I know some key factors would be full spectrum bulbs and violet blue lights but there ...
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Difference between “mafic floor” and “olivine-bearing floor” in Jezero crater? (Perseverance landing site)

Figure 3: Main geologic units within Jezero crater shown on a basemap constructed from images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance ...
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Why Perseverance's landing ellipse straddled the cliffs in the river delta; why so ambivalent about the two different geologies?

The Perseverance landing site has now been named for Octavia E. Butler and from here there will be a meandering climb to get up on top of the "cliffs" that are in the delta. I think that ...
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Heating Perseverance components prior to deployment

How is the heat generated by the MMRTG distributed to the operational parts of Perseverance prior to deployment?

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