Questions tagged [mars]

Questions about the science or exploration of the planet Mars. See wiki for related tags.

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How much altitude will curiosity gain by its climb now from the clay-bearing unit to the sulfate-bearing unit?

According to Space.com's NASA's Curiosity rover starts Red Planet road trip up Martian mountain: Curiosity's last stop from 2019 to this year was the "clay-bearing unit", another ...
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Why do you need a heat shield on Mars entry if the atmosphere is so thin?

Mars' atmosphere is only .088 psi. Is that enough to cause heat at high altitude? Shouldn't you be able to fly close to the surface at orbital speeds like on the moon? How does a parachute work with ...
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Do scientist who study martian geology typically use the term areology?

In the book Red Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson, I came across the word "areology". Is this word often used in scientific publications, or is it a term limited to the scope of science-fiction, ...
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What is the preferred orbital trajectory for a rover/lander to land on a body?

With the new perseverance rover about to launch to mars, I have a question about landers and rover orbital trajectories. Do the landers/rovers circularize their orbit before landing on the body or do ...
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Possible explanations to Mars' exceptionally strong magnetic anomalies

Some of the magnetic anomalies spotted in the southern hemisphere of Mars from orbit are exceptionally high in magnitude and they are an order of magnitude greater than what we would expect ...
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Delta-v penalty for stopping in a distant Earth orbit versus using atmospheric reentry for braking and returning to Earth from Mars?

Comments below this answer to What precautions are planned to prevent an accident or anomaly from releasing Martians into Earth's environment? say: Seems to me like a high earth orbit lab might be a ...
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Could artificial gravity on long space flights reduce deterioration of eyesight?

It has been found that micro-gravity adversely affects blood flow to the human eye. How will this problem be treated on flights to Mars, for instance? Rotating spacecraft, perhaps?
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Delta-v difference between Mars and Moon

Considering a simple Hohmann transfer, does it take less Delta-v and propellant to go to Mars than to the Moon
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What precautions are planned to prevent samples returned from Mars crashing and releasing organisms on Earth?

Bias disclaimer: I think that returning samples from Mars to Earth at a point in time where we also suspect there is a chance that there is microbial life on Mars is ill-advised and arrogant. We are ...
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Why are Perseverance's wheels flatter?

As visible in the image above (and as most of you would have noticed!) the wheels on the upcoming NASA/JPL rover Perseverance seems to be largely different from Curiosity's wheels. A notable ...
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History of investigation of lunar and Martian surface gravity

I wonder when it was discovered that the Moon has about a sixth of the Earth's surface gravity and that Mars has 0.38 g. I think that until Newton, everyone assumed there was the same gravity on every ...
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What kind of rocket will ESA(?) launch from Mars? Who will build it?

The NASA-credited images below are from the BBC News article Europe pushes ahead with 'dune buggy' Mars rover which explains that it will drive around quickly on it's big 70 cm wheels (see article for ...
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Could a helium balloon on Mars and on Triton float at air pressures lower than it could on Earth due to the bodies' low gravities?

The highest altitude ever reached by a balloon above the Earth's surface is about 33 mi (53 km), unmanned above Japan. The 2nd-highest one reached 51.8 km above California. Both reached the lower ...
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Would the national flag planted by astronauts on Mars need an upper horizontal pole like the ones on the Moon?

Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, the Apollo lunar flags had an upper horizontal pole in order to make them fully hoisted, looking like floating in the wind. Now Mars does have an ...
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Is there a list of private companies with products on NASA Mars landers?

I'm trying to create a list of all private companies which have their products on the Mars surface. To make it easier, I'm limiting my search to NASA landers. Is there a comprehensive list of NASA ...
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Are Mars rovers in continuous contact with Earth when in line of sight?

The NASA Perseverance rover Communications page describes the Ultra-High Frequency Antenna, the X-band High-Gain Antenna, and the X-band Low-Gain Antenna but does not mention how often it will be in ...
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When is the next Transit of Venus from Mars?

When will the next transfer of Venus take place from the perspective of Mars? Will the next human to view one be a Martian?
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How could the landing date of Perseverance Rover be fixed irrespective of 26 days launch window?

I am very much aware of this question from 2018 by @uhoh - Why would InSight's arrival date at Mars be fixed, and independent of the launch date?. I was led here by a similar question which arose in ...
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Why was there never a lander for the Martian north polar cap?

Since the Martian poles are water ice caps, belong to the most likely locations on Mars to host life, and the north pole being the most likely place for a crewed mission, it seems reasonable that one ...
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Kinematic and Dynamic viscosity on Mars

I've been looking at the Mars helicopter (Ingenuity) that will be onboard the Mars 2020 rover and I am having trouble figuring out how they determined the size of the rotor blades. Specifically, I'm ...
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What are the advantages of building a human colony on the Moon vs Mars?

The opposite question, What are the advantages of building a human colony on Mars vs the moon? was asked yesterday. I thought it made sense to ask this version as a corollary. As noted in the other ...
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What are the advantages of building a human colony on Mars vs the moon?

Why would humans try to establish a colony on Mars rather than on the moon? Seems to me that both bodies are similarly inhospitable, yet the moon is so much easier to reach (and we should be able to ...
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Sabatier reaction oxygen to methane ratio for Mars ascent propellant

The Sabatier reaction is as follows: $$\mathrm{CO_2 + 4\: H_2 \rightarrow CH_4 + 2\: H_2O}.$$ If water is electrolysed $$\mathrm{2\:H_2O \rightarrow 2\: H_2 + O_2}$$ the global reaction becomes $$...
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Where exactly are those eight steep slopes on Mars revealing structures of buried ice?

Credit:NASA/JPL-Caltech/UA/USGS The image above is from Phys.org's article Steep slopes on Mars reveal structure of buried ice that I came upon by the link in a comment from @Mark Adler after his ...
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How does time work on other planets?

I’m a game developer making a space-based game. I want to implement a system where the time is different depending on the planet. I think this would work like time zones, but to be honest, I’m not ...
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Starship fuel temperature at trajectory corrections on it´s way to Mars

There is no problem to use LOX and CH4 at ambient temperature at the many trajectory corrections on it´s way to Mars? I guess that they will not hold cryogenic temperatures so long. I know that the ...
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Parachute characteristics of the Viking mission

I'm looking for the characteristics (diameter, coefficient of drag, altitude and velocity of deployment) of the parachute used by the Viking descent module on Mars. I found in this document [1] that ...
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View the surface of Mars via Hubble

Has the surface of Mars been observed by the mirror of Hubble ? For example, it could be a good idea for humans to be able to see the lovely Curiosity Rover via Hubble from above.
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How do we know how to distribute food supplies to import to Mars between 1st and 2nd tour?

Coming from this question about Mars foundation cargo, how do we know which food to deliver with the first and with the second cargo? (2x2x100t in total) possibly the first tour could carry more ...
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At what altitude(s) were the Viking BLDT rockets fired?

I'm trying to understand the details of the 1972 Viking BLDT test missions (in earth's atmosphere). I found this diagram in a book and the general description that the (four) BLDT (balloon drop) tests ...
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What cargo is currently planned for SpaceX cargo missions to Mars to lay the groundwork for manned missions?

Answers to What are the most difficult challenges SpaceX will face getting astronauts to Mars by about 2025? talk about some initial cargo mission to Mars, as does SpaceX: Here’s the Timeline ...
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Are there (detailed) images or diagrams of the rotating drill carousel and the small robotic arm which are housed in the belly of Perseverance?

The sample handling page at the Mars 2020 mission site shows us the rover with at its front a circle that probably contains the rotating drill carousel ? However it states that the belly of the rover ...
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Balancing Perseverance Mars Rover; couldn't they just “move stuff around a little” rather than add 6+ kg of dead weight?

The NASA News item NASA's Perseverance Mars Rover Gets Balanced says: Just as an auto mechanic places small weights on a car tire's rim to bring it into balance, the Perseverance team analyzed the ...
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How to find the moment of inertia of the Viking capsule?

I have an assignment where I have to simulate a Mars re-entry using the Viking capsule. I have finished it but now I want to go further and try to make my capsule glide. For this I need to enslave the ...
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Proposals being considered for dealing with deceased future colonists on Mars or Elsewhere in the Cosmos

This question assumes that in the future a sizeable colony of humans might be established on Mars, or elsewhere. On Earth, one common way to deal with the dead is burial. This system relies on ...
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Are there any studies or technology envisioned for Mars entry and landing without a parachute?

Are any space agencies examining the possibility of a Mars landing without a parachute? It wasn't clear to me if the use of the HIAD (Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator) would eliminate ...
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Mars Crewed Missions: Use of In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) for the Return Trip Propellant

From what I've read from NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 and other articles, the use of ISRU for the ascent vehicle propellant is usually considered (be it atmospheric based, ...
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When things land on Mars what fraction of their velocity do they remove propulsively?

Some recent comments have got me wondering about this What is the distance between one of the mars's satellite revolving near the highest volcano olympus mons and the volcano olympus mons? comments ...
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What is the distance between one of the mars's satellite revolving near the highest volcano olympus mons and the volcano olympus mons? [closed]

Olympus mons is 27km high-more than three times the height of Mount Everest. Mars needs human landing so would we get a benefit if we landed on olympus mons as our first landing? Would the height be ...
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Will transit time render Mars disease free?

It's going to take us a few months to travel to mars in our spaceships. Will the relatively small size of the ship combined with a few months of "isolation" result in Mars being disease free until ...
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How does a space vehicle which carries Curiosity or Spirit rover reach a planet? [closed]

I don't know much science but was curious about it. So, what I've seen in movies is that there are lot of objects in the space and many other space items (made of rocks, moving stars etc.). So when ...
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Are there still more images of caves on the surface of Mars that could be easily made accessible for humans?

Image captured by Curiosity on sol 1087, click on it and then again for a closer view. This is the first cave on Mars I've seen so far that could be (made) accessible for humans. Are there still more ...
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What “flickering goggles” do JPL scientists rely on to explore the Martian surface “in genuine 3D”?

Gizmodo's NASA Is Using Red and Blue 3D Glasses to Safely Drive the Mars Rover While Working From Home says: To safely navigate the Curiosity rover across the surface of Mars, over 120 million miles ...
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On what kind of martian soil or rock will the Perseverance rover drop its helicopter?

The image below is cropped from the high resolution version of NASA's Mars Helicopter and Perseverance Rover PIA23824 and shows the helicopter in it's stowed position on the underside of the rover ...
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Perseverance Rover to drive carefully for months while helicopter hangs from underside?

The image below is cropped from the high resolution version of NASA's Mars Helicopter and Perseverance Rover PIA23824 and shows the helicopter in it's stowed position on the underside of the rover ...
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Are there any at least somewhat authoritative estimates of how long it will be before people will land on Mars and setting up camp?

While the naive but perfectly valid question Are they building on mars or do they have a camp there? was closed and overly downvoted, I think my answer there was reasonable; the perception by the lay ...
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Why does the Perseverance rover have such complicated shaped spokes in its wheels?

Phys.org's NASA's Perseverance Mars rover gets its wheels and air brakes has some interesting photos includes some nice photos and below I've included a cropped section of a photo of one of ...
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Are they building on mars or do they have a camp there? [closed]

They are making vehicles to go to mars with and they haven't gone yet. And it is said that they want to camp there and bring people and even have a space camp.
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What effects would the longer days on Mars have on humans?

Afaik, humans never tried to live according to shorter or longer days so the Martian astronauts might be the first humans from Earth that have to follow a different cycle. The Martian day (Sol) is ...
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Can any aspect of the brightness of Martian twilight be determined by Curiosity's photo of Earth?

Curiosity took this image of Earth on Jan. 31, 2014, 80 minutes after sunset. Stellarium has the Earth >15° above the horizon 80 minutes after sunset on that day. With Stellarium indicating the ...

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