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Questions tagged [orbital-maneuver]

In spaceflight, an orbital maneuver is the use of propulsion systems to change the orbit of a spacecraft.

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How are retrograde orbits attained?

If a satellite is to be inserted into a retrograde orbit (opposite to Earth rotation direction) is it accelerated straight in the desired "westwards" direction until (after overcoming Earth rotation ...
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407 views

What will the heat shield on the BFS be made of

Musk has stated that the BFS will need a heat shield capable of reentering the atmosphere from interplanetary trajectories. So I take it the ship will come in directly from the transfer trajectory and ...
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Could a satellite in GEO-orbit make an evasive maneuver to avoid an anti-satellite impactor?

Communication satellites orbit at an altitude a couple of hundred times above the satellite that the Indian government recently shot down. Also GPS-satellites are about one hundred times further up ...
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What is the smallest body in which a sling shot maneuver can be performed?

This question asks about the smallest sling shot maneuver performed. What was the smallest intentional, acknowledged slingshot maneuver? I'm asking how small of an object be to perform a sling shot ...
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Rendezvouses in halo or lissajous orbits

If a spacecraft was in an EM-L2 halo/lissajous orbit, and another craft would was going to approach EM-L2 a few days later, could they rendezvous immediately or is there a limitation when the second ...
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287 views

What was the smallest intentional, acknowledged slingshot maneuver?

I'll keep it short but please read through! Gravitation's $1/r$ potential means everything in the solar system is pulling on everything all the time. Gravitational slingshot maneuvers are normally ...
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192 views

Fastest orbit transfer constrained by maximum g-force magnitude

Let's consider an imaginary constant 1g rocket from Earth to Mars. What is the fastest possible trajectory? Intuitively it seems that the fastest travel time is achieved with the "radial" trajectory (...
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203 views

ISS location identification; estimate size and direction of astronaut acceleration puzzler

note: This question addresses the same video and phenomenon described in this answer (which I found after posting this) but here I'm asking for an analysis of the trajectories of the test masses (the ...
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1answer
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Space Shuttle Orbiter VRCS

I am looking for details on the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vernier Reaction Control System (VRCS), used for fine maneuvers on orbit, such as docking. Wikipedia has very little information on the system. ...
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How could transfers between SEL1&2 and EML Lagrange points be utilized?

The Earth has 7 Lagrange points nearby since SEL1 and SEL2 (Sun-Earth Lagrange points 1 and 2, respectively) are only between 3 and 5 LD (lunar distances) away from the five EML (Earth-Moon Lagrange) ...
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Orbit class or library or functions [closed]

I am (like a hundred other people, like a thousand other people) trying to make a space flight simulator. I'm not a student. (That said, I found Orbit – space flight sim. It’s excellent.* You ...
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What's the lowest altitude that an ion engine has been used for a significant orbital maneuver?

I'm thinking about trying to calculate something for Where do ion propulsion's ions go? Do they remain in the solar system or shoot out into interstellar space? Excluding low altitude tests of ion ...
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How often has (or how common is it for) the ISS's orbit been propulsive lowered intentionally?

The question Which engine worked the hardest to keep the ISS in orbit? laments the tireless efforts to keep the ISS from falling from the sky by regularly executing propulsive orbit-raising maneuvers. ...
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How would one calculate the Lunar liftoff thrust required for a spacecraft?

I used the thrust to weight ratio of 2.12 to determine the thrust my spacecraft needs for a lunar liftoff, Apollo Lunar Ascent Stage Thrust to Weight Ratio. Is this a proper way of determining and ...
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Delta-V chart mathematics

Could someone explain me the mathematics behind the Delta-V charts one can find on internet such as:                 &...
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1answer
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What are the practical uses of a state transition matrix?

I am studying different dynamical models of relative motion of satellites. In my work, I've always just used a numerical integrator like RK78 to integrate the cartesian system of equations: $\dot{r}=...
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What is the largest delta-v ever produced in space from mechanically stored energy?

The math behind this answer suggests that while the delta-v delivered from hand-throwing an object from the ISS would not produce prompt de-orbit and atmospheric reentry, it would still lower the ...
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557 views

What is the closest intentional separation achieved by two satellites?

I would like to know what is the closest separation achieved by two satellites. Let's restrict it to Non experimental satellites (or else it would be 0) Operational satellites (no collision) Post ...
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1answer
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Did the astronauts of Gemini 4 have any realistic rendezvous simulator training of orbital mechanic effects?

Gemini 4 was launched on June 3, 1965. It mission included the first attempt of a rendezvous manoeuvrer in space. The rendezvous test failed. Two years earlier, in June 1963, the Rendezvous Docking ...
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What would your altitude be after you had achieved escape velocity from the moon?

I have been trying to work out how much ΔV would be required to deorbit a spacecraft after it had achieved escape velocity from the moon but I don't know how to work out what the radius of the orbit ...
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Use of thrusters for Collision Avoidance Maneuver

I'm building an orbit propagator that gives the position of two satellites at time T. The position are expressed in ECI and after that are being transformed in LVLH frame (as mentioned ECI to LVLH ...
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1answer
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How often does ISS require re-boosting to higher orbit?

I know that ISS, being in low Earth orbit, requires regular boosts. But I can't seem to find information on how often does this happen. Is it done during each resupply mission, only during some of ...
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Help choosing a gravity assist scenario for this problem

The problem stated below is from an assignment I was given. My initial approach involved doing a direct Hohmann Transfer to Saturn. This approach violated the fuel constraints and hence was deemed ...
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1answer
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Why does the Apollo-8 Trans-Lunar Injection burn appear to be pulsing in this photo?

This tweet called my attention to The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum story Photographing Apollo 8's Orbit Toward the Moon. The story is quite an interesting bit of space history and worth a ...
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How do long range space probes adjust trajectory?

More specifically, after the main launch adjustments have been made using the primary boosters and temporary adjusting propellants how might even the slightest trajectory and orientation corrections ...
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1answer
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How does SpaceX's Dragon get to the ISS?

How does SpaceX's Dragon capsule get to the ISS? Does Dragon use the onboard Draco thrusters in order to raise its orbit to the station or does the second stage of the Falcon 9 perform the majority of ...
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479 views

Delta-v to move from GEO to GEO

To move a satellite in geostationary orbit, 166°55′E, to the antipode, 13° 4' 3.2" W, what delta-V would be needed for this to be accomplished? As for time constraints, I do not know what are the ...
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Can you tack against the sun using a solar sail?

Solar sails are a great, inexpensive way to move out from the sun, if you’re not in a hurry. Ocean going ships are able to tack against the wind, and to move up wind. Could a solar sail gain inbound (...
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1answer
219 views

Is the analysis of this maneuver correct?

Can someone out there help explain (guide, give examples etc.), or show a solution of, the following textbook problem that I can't manage to solve? You’ve just completed an analysis of where the ...
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Quantitatively, how deep are the stable equilibrium points in GEO? How much delta-v to move from one to the other?

This answer discusses a spacecraft in GEO using a two-impulse (circular → elliptical → circular) raise & lower maneuver to move (phase) itself by 180 degrees in longitude then return to synchrony. ...
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Which engine worked the hardest to keep the ISS in orbit?

The ISS has spent two decades fighting drag caused by its large size and huge solar panels pushing through the tail-end of Earth's atmosphere only a few hundred kilometers above its surface. Question:...
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2answers
841 views

What will be “unique” about upcoming SES-9 GTO transfer profile by SpaceX?

In the SES-9 mission press kit, SpaceX mentions: "Given this mission’s unique GTO profile, a successful landing is not expected." What is considered "unique" about this transfer orbit's profile? ...
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Injection versus insertion

I've noticed that maneuvers to leave a body's sphere of influence on the way to another body are invariably referred to as injection maneuvers, for instance, translunar injection, while maneuvers to ...
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1answer
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Spiraling out from circular orbit to escape via low thrust, what is γ (gamma)?

@MarkAdler's comment led me to ask Why would a slow spiral from a C3 of zero take about 2.4 times as much ΔV as an impulsive maneuver? which resulted in this tidy and efficient @MarkAdler answer which ...
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Proper handling of terminal guidance of finite burn closed-loop execution for rendezvous conditions?

I'm writing some software which uses Optimal Control Theory / Calculus of Variations / Pontrayagin's Minimum Principle / Primer Vector Theory to do closed-loop execution of finite burns (in KSP). ...
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What orbital maneuver(s) did the SOHO have to execute for halo orbit insertion?

I started, but did not complete, Classical Mechanics as an undergraduate, decades ago so I will not understand a highly technical answer. I am writing a novel where an astronaut needs to execute HOI (...
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109 views

Is it possible to supply 47 tons of payload to the orbit with 5 tons of fuel?

There are 2 orbits: Circular orbit with 200km altitude Circular orbit with 800km altitude The space tug is already on the first orbit. Its dry mass is 960kg, the total mass of fuel is 5250 kg. It ...
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1answer
212 views

Optimal transfer between to identical orbits with different RAAN

Two orbits are given with the identical orbital elements, despite the RAAN, which differs by 90 degrees. The inclination is 80 deg, AOP is 310 deg, apogee is on 10000km, perigee on 1000km altitude. ...
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Multiple revolution Lambert problem

The Lambert problem solution determines the $\Delta V$ required to transfer from r1 to r2 in ...
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1answer
155 views

Is it OK to spend 3 tons of fuel for the orbit transfer?

There are 2 coplanar orbits (same $i$,$\Omega$,$\omega$): Apogee and perigee on 200km Perigee on 700km, apogee on 8000 km I used the izzo.lambert function from ...
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How would a Jupiter flyby have helped to get to the Sun? Why was it later ruled out?

The quote below surprised me. What were the orbital mechanical details of using a Jupiter flyby to get a probe from Earth so close to the Sun? Was a "U-turn" possible; single flyby of Jupiter into a ...
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Difference between approach maneuvers to the insertion points of halo and Lissajous orbit?

I have read that spacecraft use two mid-course corrections to approach the Lagrange point, then do a final orbital insertion maneuver to enter into a halo orbit. Are there any specifics about this ...
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1answer
144 views

What are common guidance strategies for a finite orbital maneuver?

Suppose we have our spacecraft in a circular orbit around the Moon and we want to transfer it to an elliptic orbit with a medium-thrust (10-100N) retrograde burn. Based on the current state estimate, ...
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Will an array of multiple ion engines still be more efficient than a single chemical engine?

I was just thinking the other day and got this idea out of my head. I'm not an aerospace expert or anything even close to it, so please understand even if this turns out to be a really basic question: ...
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1answer
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How to match orbital speeds of 2 or more satellites in different orbits?

Satellite ME is orbit around the Moon and Earth. Satellites E is around Earth. I understand the low orbit satellites orbit at higher speeds. Can Sat ME match the speed of any of Satellites E at any ...
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Maneuver to the optimal point of a given orbit

There is a spacecraft on an initial orbit. There is a target orbit. The Keplerian elements are given for the orbits. The problem is: when and what $\Delta V$ to apply to the SC to move it to the ...
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1answer
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Meteosat 11 big deboost/reboost

Before Feb 2018, the meteosat 11 (MSG-4) were periodically reboosted approximately every 85 days: EDIT: added the orbital inclination plot to show the clearly visible variation to both semi-major ...
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1answer
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Was the gravity turn used in early spaceflight?

Reading through the Wikipedia article about Gravity Turn, specifically the Use in spaceflight section, it seems that the Gravity Turn was not used in early spaceflight. Is that correct? For example, ...
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Piggybacking to Enceladus

The latest NASA New Frontiers selection did not select any finalist proposals to Enceladus, which is one of the most promising targets for life in the solar system. It did however select Dragonfly, ...
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Delta-v obtained from Titan by the Cassini spacecraft; just how much of a “gas tank” was it?

In the video Cassini at Titan: A World Unveiled after about 01:56 Linda Spilker, Cassini Project Scientist, Jet Propulsion Laboratory says: Not only was Titan ...