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Questions tagged [radiation]

Questions about impact of radiation on space exploration.

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Going to the Lunar gateway during the upcoming solar maximum! What will the radiation environment be like?

EarthSky.org's What will the sun do next? says: On December 6, 2018, the Center of Excellence in Space Sciences India (CESSI) reported that two of its scientists have made a prediction for the ...
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How does temperature affect a solar sail?

Is there an ideal temperature which solar sail material operates at? Does a colder reflective surface create more thrust? Related: How will JWST manage solar pressure effects to maintain attitude and ...
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Suggestions required on radiation tolerance solutions

I wanted to know what methods of increasing radiance tolerance for the microcontroller and memory devices for a Cubesat exist. We have read about methods like having dual CPUs but are there any ...
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How effective is the Orion radiation protection plan?

This article gives a basic overview of the procedure for astronauts on deep space missions who need to take shelter from energetic events such as solar flares. The shelter area strongly resembles a ...
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Can an electromagnetic shield protect spacecraft from incoming radiation? [duplicate]

If we used an electromagnetic shield to protect astronauts from radiation, what could we use to power it and could it be possible?
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Did the Apollo missions use the Earth's magnetotail to lessen cosmic radiation?

I see a lot of images like this for the Apollo mission: 99% of them exclude the sun, and the ones that don't I can't be sure if they're accurate and cannot find sources. During the Apollo missions ...
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Why do SD cards perform so much better than SSDs in space?

SD cards and SSDs are based on the same technologies, so why the stark differences in performance? Recently, it was reported that after a year in space, half of the SSD drives on the HPE Spaceborne ...
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106 views

Would radio / wifi and other communications work on Jupiter's moons?

I've read that Jupiter emits a lot of EM radiation, and can also be heard on ham radio. If you were much closer would it drown out radio and other forms of communication, or is it confined to specific ...
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Is it possible to “shape” area impacted by radiation shielding during interstellar travels? [closed]

If I have uderstood radiation/other shielding described in other questions correctly...it will be among other things provided by magnetic field(s) generated by superconductors. Is it possible to ...
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How far from Earth were the Apollo astronauts when they left the Earth's magnetosphere?

I am assuming the Apollo missions recorded radiation levels as they travelled to the Moon. Have those records ever been released, as a way of determining when the Apollo astronauts left the ...
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Is the ISS in danger of the outer radiation belt?

Is the ISS in danger of the outer radiation belt? I know that the ISS is in the low earth orbit and that it briefly passes through the base of the outer RB, but it is actually in danger? How does the ...
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What's up with the “Apollo” computer on the ISS? How is it being used?

There's a high performance computer on the ISS (HP "Apollo" HPC). How is it being used? Is it there just to check the hardware in the low/modest radiation environment of the variety found in LEO with ...
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Have any probes / spacecraft used GPU hardware? If so, what for?

I was reading this question about CPU's used in space and that got me thinking about the practical applications of GPUs for space-bound vessels. I'm wondering if we ever sent a radiation-hardened GPU ...
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How much radiation are astronauts on the ISS exposed to?

From reading this question it would appear is if we do not currently have a great solution to radiation shielding in existing space craft - Different sources have conflicting numbers: This article ...
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How are cubesat electronics protected against the effects of radiation in LEO?

I'm curious to know the various ways that cubesat electronics can be protected from the effects of cosmic rays or solar events while in LEO. How different are the components used in cubesats from some ...
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Does prolonged space flight have any effect on the physical traits of the human body?

Can a variable of physical traits like height, weight, complexion be changed in outer space? Maybe by gravity or by something else that determines these traits (like the UV rays of the sun that ...
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How do we currently protect astronauts and spacecraft from radiation? [duplicate]

What are current ways in which astronauts and spacecrafts are protected from radiation? Are their any new ways/ideas to limit the amount of exposure to radiation?
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How did Apollo missions solve the cosmic radiation problem?

One of the major hurdles of space exploration is cosmic radiation. How did the Apollo missions solve the radiation problem? NASA would have shielded the astronauts to some level by some material. How ...
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Did Apollo-11 have any radiation shielding? [duplicate]

If it did, then what kind? Or if it didn't, was it because the flight didn't last for too long? (7 days or so, from Earth to Moon and back.)
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How many tons of water is needed to surround ISS's living modules, so the rate of radiation exposure will be the same as on the surface of Earth?

If I understand correctly, it wasn't done because it's very expensive ($ per lbs) and there are no launch systems powerful enough for that? Also, could you please provide formulas and calculations? I ...
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What will the condition of the Voyager craft be like far enough into the future so as to have “truly” exited the Solar System?

I am curious about this. I saw this article: https://www.popsci.com/voyager-2-interstellar-space?con=TrueAnthem&dom=tw&lnk=TATW&src=SOC&utm_campaign=&utm_content=...
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Spherical solar radiation model (GMAT)

I'm using GMAT to analyze the orbits. There is a Spherical model for Solar Radiation Pressure. Which equation does GMAT use to calculate it? I've already searched in the documentation, however, there ...
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What type of software is used to make radiation shielding simulations for use in Space or Mars?

Hopefully this is relevant to the board and doesn't get deleted. Quick background: In Thailand. Grad student, mechanical engineering, with very limited knowledge regarding nuclear or space radiations. ...
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Do astronauts have to use sunscreen?

Of course the space suits can block most part of the radiation, but do the astronauts need to use sunscreen to protect their faces from the radiation passing thought the helmet or passing through the ...
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What happens to the space station during a solar flare / magnetic storm? [duplicate]

What are the effects on the ISS during a solar flare / magnetic storm? The news often warns that satellites could be affected during a storm. Does the ISS have special protections for that danger?
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Level of radiation on surface/ocean of Mars AFTER terraforming

I am a Mars enthusiast, and lately have been wondering how safe Mars would be to live on after it hypothetically has been terraformed into a pseudo Earth. Obviously, the bigger health hazard would be ...
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Is Radiation in the Van Allen Belt Anisotropic?

The particle radiation in the Van Allen Belt consists of charged particles (mostly protons in the inner belt, electrons in the outer belt). The charged particles move in helical trajectories along ...
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How much will Bennu rotate faster and faster with mirrors facing the Sun on its left side?

Several answers to the question "Why paint only one-half of Bennu" describe the Yarkovsky effect as an important force acting on the asteroid 101955 Bennu. But what about the radiation pressure of ...
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Which objects in our solar system are naturally protected from solar flares?

Outside of Earth, are there any objects (planets, moons, asteroids) in our solar system that are naturally shielded from the radiation of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs)? Asked ...
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Can you avoid the costs of cooling superconductors for magnetic shields by separating them from the spacecraft and using shades?

As the answer to this thread states, cooling superconductors in spacecraft is necessary because of waste heat from secondary systems and thermal radiation of the sun. The application in which ...
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1answer
184 views

What data was used to estimate accumulated radiation dose for the Apollo astronauts?

Half-year, and occasional one-year stints aboard the ISS, and especially lifetime totals nearing 2.5 years are possible ethically because these missions take place within the Earth's magnetosphere ...
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1answer
181 views

3D Model of radiation in earth orbit?

I am trying to estimate required shielding masses to maintain a radiation level at or below earths average radiation of 3 mSv per year at different earth orbits (LEO, MEO, GEO and 50000 km+). ...
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What are the geological features for a save place to land in the chaos terrains on Mars? [closed]

Chaos terrains on Mars generally consist of irregular groups of large blocks, some tens of kilometers across and a hundred meters high. The tilted and flat topped blocks form depressions hundreds ...
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Radioisotope thermoelectric generator vs Solar? [duplicate]

What circumstance would a radioisotope thermoelectric generator is better to use than solar cells in space probes and rovers?
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228 views

Would a Faraday cage made of gas block radiation?

What is best blocks radiation and is transparent as a gas? Would applying an electrical current through the gas increase the gas from blocking radiation on Mars? Radiation could be blocked by the ...
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Could ozone be used in a biodome on Mars?

How much ozone would it take to block solar radiation on Mars if chambered in double panned glass or material? Said $O_3$ would break down from the UV. Would applied electricity on $O$ and $O_2$ make $...
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Can an ion drive attached to an asteroid move it into another orbit if given enough power?

After watching one of the videos from Curious Droid on Youtube talking about asteroid deflection and strikes I had an idea. Ion thrusters provide bits of mass velocities at the needed Isp (5-6 km/s ...
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If colonists burrowed far enough under the ice on Ganymede or Europa, would the ice provide adequate protection for them from Jupiter's radiation?

This is a hypothetical question I'm asking as a SF writer, and the time setting would be approximately 2,250 AD.
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Why can't permanent magnets be used for radiation shielding in space?

I've been reading a lot about concepts for protecting astronauts from Galactic Cosmic Radiation on interplanetary voyages. I've read about a lot of different ideas, but all of the ones involving a ...
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239 views

Cypress PSOC chips in a Cubesat

The Cypress PSoC line of microcontrollers, especially the PSOC 4 family are very versatile and capable, and seem a natural for use in cubesats. Unfortunately, at least one experiment: http://www.dtic....
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What's the unshielded radiation dose in mSv in Low Earth Orbit?

Say we have a guy orbiting Earth in LEO with no spacesuit (I know, I know), what would be the millisieverts he would be receiving?
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How can SpaceX's Mars spacecraft be protected against solar flares?

When a solar flare hits the earth it can damage certain electrical equipment. If one manages to strike the SpaceX Mars rocket it could possibly damage some significant equipment on board (like ...
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What will J002E3 be like on its return?

J002E3 is believed to be the S-IVB third stage of the Apollo 12 rocket. It is expected to return to temporary Earth orbit in the 2040's. If some enterprising soul decided to build a rocket capable ...
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Is the amount of damage to humans due to x Sievert a function of exposure time?

After looking into the experienced radiation for certain space journeys, I was wondering wether it was correct to state that the amount of biological damage is a function of the exposure time for a ...
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How much radiation shielding would be required for a habitat at Mercury–Sun L5?

Given an O'Neill "Island Three" style cylindrical habitat located at Mercury–Sun L5 orbit, how much radiation shielding would be required to protect the occupants, and how would it need to be ...
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437 views

How thick must a shield be to be better than no shield at all?

Below an answer to a recent question about shielding against radiation on a trip to Mars, there was this comment from dubu (emphasis mine): [..] For high-energy particles entering dense matter, ...
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2answers
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Why can't we use the same radiation shielding in Mars that we used when going to the moon?

Note that this is somewhat related to this question but here I am specifically asking about the suitability of using existing shielding for Mars travel. This is about this article and video titled "...
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Will we all be in voluntary ketosis on Mars?

The EurekAlert! NASA mission tests ketogenic diet undersea, simulating life on Mars University of South Florida researcher will be in nutritional ketosis during NEEMO 22 mission packs a lot of ...
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Radiation shield for Mars [duplicate]

Earth's magnetic field on its surface is 25 to 65 microtesla. Besides earth's atmospheric protection, majority of sun's harmful radiation on the earth is shielded by this small magnetic field. Such a ...
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1answer
169 views

Is there in existence a drug, or additive to protect astronauts from solar radiation?

And what is its life for one dose? I feel like this would be the most feasible cargo for the protection from it.