Questions tagged [radiation]

Questions about impact of radiation on space exploration.

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Is there still a legless phantom crew member on ISS?

The Phantom Torso was designed to gather data on ISS crew Radiation exposure. What was its fate?
Woody's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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How beaten up would Voyager 1 be in 40,000 years?

How much damage would there be, both physically and to the computers, memory etc, upon arrival to Gliese 445 in 40k years by radiation and interstellar debris?
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3 votes
0 answers
103 views

How much lead (kg) would you need to survive for an extended period of time in Jupiter’s radiation belts?

Imagine you have a 1 by 1 by 2 meter chamber that a human needs to survive in for one year, while orbiting in Jupiter’s radiation belts. How much lead, in weight, would have to surround the chamber to ...
ThatDemoGuy's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
169 views

How to screen commercial electronics components for radiation tolerance

How would I actually go about qualifying COTS components for use in space, especially re radiation tolerance. I found some good stuff on the requirements for doing so, especially: How to test the ...
Paul Blase's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
78 views

Where can I find citeable material on radiation shielding solutions utilized on different test missions?

I'm having a hard time finding citeable material on what different radiation shielding solutions different test missions have utilized. So far I've found that: SpectroCube only shields its most ...
Benjamin Åkerlund's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

NASA CAPSTONE Radiation shielding

What solutions in radiation shielding or radiation effect mitigation were made on the NASA CAPSTONE mission? Specifically, anything related to radiation shielding is of interest. I'm having trouble ...
Benjamin Åkerlund's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
354 views

For how long could astronauts stay on the surface of Europa, Jupiter's moon, with our current latest and most advanced spacesuit before dying?

Is it possible for astronauts to land on Europa safely? Given the fact that radiation level on Europa is about 5.4 Sv (or about 540 rem) per day and the temperature is around -260 °F (or about -160 °C)...
ZanMoon-chan's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
84 views

Secondary radiation on the moon? (reference request)

I am studying the radiation environment on the moon and would like to read about how secondary radiation has been measured, simulated or even estimated for the lunar surface. Has this been done? If so,...
Saturn V's user avatar
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2 votes
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Are there already spacecraft equipped with RAD5500 processors?

Just stumbled across RAD750s successor, the RAD5500. Are there already spacecraft using this Chip, or are there plans for this chip? Looks pretty new!
RAD6000's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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How much solar radiation hits a spacecraft in transit to Mars?

How can I solve for the amount of radiation that hits a Mars transit vehicle, in transit? What formulas should I use? I am mostly focused on solar radiation.
Ethan's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Good solar absorptivity and infrared emissivity values for non-anodized machined aluminum

Existing sources that I'm looking at show a wide range of possible absorptivity/emissivity values for aluminum: http://www.solarmirror.com/fom/fom-serve/cache/43.html https://www.thermoworks.com/...
D. Hodge's user avatar
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How to model the kinematics of gases expelled from comets and planetary atmospheres? [closed]

Once the ices of comets sublimate, where do they move to, and with which equations do you describe their motion in the interplanetary medium? Similarly, where do the gases that are stripped from the ...
Astrolien's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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JWST detector heat load

A lot of information has been published about shielding the JWST from solar radiation and the need to maintain the detectors at a low temperature, but little has been said about the other sources of ...
James Pruett's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
202 views

Software to estimate radiation dose for an orbit

I am searching for a software/method, possibly open-source or free, to estimate the radiation dose for an orbit around earth.
Olgidos's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
499 views

Why does the Buzz Aldrin Mars Cycler not play a larger role in planning for Mars exploration?

In 1985 Buzz Aldrin AKA “Dr. Rendezvous” proposed using a pair of space station habitats in solar cycler orbits as “Up and Down Escalators” for crewed Earth-Mars transfers. https://en.wikipedia.org/...
Woody's user avatar
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2 answers
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Are valleys a good alternative to caves for radiation shielding?

Lava tube systems and caves have been discussed a lot when it comes to establishing a base on the Moon or Mars in order to protect it from the continuous exposure to lethal radiation, as well as ...
we'll see's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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A passive radiation shield to protect a space settlement in Jupiter's orbit

I know that passive radiation shielding blocks radiation. Layer 1: tin and lead - 1.5m Layer 2: Kevlar, Mylar - 0.5m for MMOD protection Layer 3: Carbyne - 1m for strength Layer 4: beta cloth and ...
8A 26 KSHITIJ .S .DEEPAK's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
105 views

Feasibility of an artificial magnetosphere for a space settlement

For a space settlement radiation shielding can be categorized into two types, active and passive. Creating high current magnetic fields to counter radiation comes under active and using materials such ...
8A 26 KSHITIJ .S .DEEPAK's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
62 views

Measuring properties of Van Allen radiation belts

How are the properties of the Van Allen radiation belts measured or monitored? Below is the link of my question, that leads me to asking this one. One method is mentioned there but there may be others....
sam2611's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
164 views

Analyzing Van Allen belt's radiation Dataset

Is it possible for us to somehow get the dataset related to radiation of Van Allen Belt, so as to work upon it and analyze it using AI model. I'm looking for numerical data regarding level of ...
sam2611's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
137 views

What are the differences between 'Shield thickness' and 'Sphere thickness'?

In space radiation shielding-related literature, equivalent BFO doses are sometimes provided in terms of sphere thickness (g/cm^2). For example in Fig. 1 of [Ref 1] (the figure is attached below), the ...
Ankan's user avatar
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23 votes
2 answers
4k views

How much UV radiation will Mars inhabitants receive?

I have a new weather station for my home, and it included a UV radiation monitor. But I then thought, “What’s the UV radiation levels on Mars? How much higher is it than Earth?” I tried searching the ...
Ember's user avatar
  • 333
7 votes
1 answer
274 views

Does cosmic radiation have a predominant 'direction of origin'?

Considering some speculative designs, and am going through radiation-shielding options. It seems that, other than during solar flare activity, the main thing to protect against on a day-to-day basis ...
nirurin's user avatar
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29 votes
2 answers
4k views

How did the Apollo guidance computers deal with radiation?

I was wondering how the Apollo guidance computer handled the radiation encountered in space
Devin's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
150 views

Is radiation on Mars line-of-sight? [duplicate]

Roughly a year ago, there was a TV show about colonizing Mars; National Geographic channel I think. The habitats were underground to avoid the Sun's radiation. So I'm wondering: does the radiation ...
Daniel's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
67 views

Highest frequencies of EMPs in space

When a nuke detonates, an EMP at about 100 MHz followd. A pulsar on the other hand, has a comparatively low frequency, and while I know that this frequency depends on its spin and doesn't represent ...
Mat NX's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
75 views

Resources/guidelines on space electronics compliance?

Space hardware suffers from various effects such as radiation, heating, vibration, off-gassing, material degradation and so on. While these effects are mentioned in most space engineering books, I am ...
Spiros Makris's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
278 views

How will the future Mars Space Suit Helmet design protect Astronauts from Martian Radiation?

Mars Space Suit Helmet Visor's were mostly made up of polycarbonate [1], the same material used for EMU's visor for performing EVA in earth orbit. Meanwhile, Mars' radiation is 2.5x higher. How are we ...
FutureMartian's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
190 views

Rad-Hard vs Space-Hard computing

Radiation hardened CPUs like RAD750 are radiation hardened for up to 1000 gray. Cool. But, as CPUs have advanced way ahead their mechanical counterparts in miniaturization and fragility, energy ...
chubakueno's user avatar
15 votes
1 answer
1k views

What makes Insight's RAD750 processor so radiation resistant? (compared to 1998 iMac's PowerPC 750)

Gizmodo's A 1990s iMac Processor Powers NASA’s Perseverance Rover references NewScientist and says: However, there’s a major difference between the iMac’s CPU and the one inside the Perseverance ...
uhoh's user avatar
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27 votes
8 answers
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Can we power things (like cars or similar rovers) on earth in the same way Perseverance generates power?

I was watching a video on the engineering of Perseverance and it states that the rover is powered by 4.8kg of Plutonium Dioxide. I was wondering if that similar process of electricity generation can ...
ParthianShotgun's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
1k views

How radioactive is surface regolith on the Moon?

Use of regolith for shielding from cosmic radiation seems the most practical solution for perspective lunar surface bases. But lunar regolith should gather some secondary radiation while being ...
Heopps's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
69 views

Satellites | Debris & EMR

Over time we are launching plethora of communication satellites into space, with old ones reaching their lifespan and new ones replacing them. My Question is two folds: Are we simply creating more ...
GENIVI-LEARNER's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
867 views

Are Solid State Hard Drives in space made from radiation-hardened FLASH memory, or do they just use older technology with higher voltage and charge?

Answers to Why is the James Webb Space Telescope's data storage space so small? have got me thinking. Solid State Hard Drives (SSDs) are usually made from FLASH memory though alternatives like ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
0 votes
2 answers
347 views

For deep space missions, how thick must the water filled layer within the ship's hull be to effectively shield against cosmic rays? [closed]

Initially i proposed a 27cm thick barrier. But im not really sure thatll be enough
Cori's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
120 views

How close a crewed spacecraft could orbit Jupiter?

How close could a crewed spacecraft orbit Jupiter? I read that Juno was as close as 5,000 km from Jupiter's top clouds, but I'm wondering about a spacecraft with humans inside (provided it's protected ...
Pablo 's user avatar
  • 51
23 votes
2 answers
3k views

How does steel deteriorate in translunar space?

To confirm the identity of a 1966 Centaur booster returning near earth in 2020, NASA took some spectroscopy observations. They didn't match those of the same metal (301 stainless steel) on earth, ...
Camille Goudeseune's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
61 views

What is the required laser intensity to ionize interstellar gas in front of a Bussard ramjet?

In a Bussard ramjet interstellar gas is collected using a large magnetic field to be fused and used as reaction mass. While a number of papers have explored the constraints on the magnetic field, what ...
Anders Sandberg's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
77 views

How do deep-space spacecraft and space stations protect the crew and electronic equipment from radiation during long-duration missions?

Question: How would a deep-space spacecraft protect its crew and electronics from cosmic radiation, solar wind, and solar events? I'm trying to design a hypothetical space station and have been doing ...
Frank W's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
153 views

Could the magnetosphere of Mercury protect humans?

In theory, we built a space station orbiting Mercury like the ISS on Earth. Will the magnetosphere of Mercury similarly protect humans from this radiation (despite being close to the sun)?
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4 votes
0 answers
146 views

Can an electrostatic shield provide protection from the Van Allen belt?

Would an electrostatic shield provide enough protection for a crewed space craft to survive in the Van Allen belt for more then an hour?
billy's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
506 views

Could Laika have survived the Van Allen radiation during the intended duration of her mission?

Laika the dog was the first animal in space, aboard Sputnik 2. According to this answer, her mission was intended for 10 days, but Laika survived only 2 days due to the spacecraft overheating. ...
DrSheldon's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
2k views

What would it take to survive the radiation on the surface of Ganymede?

Out of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter, only Callisto is at a safe distance from its parent planet that the radiation is low enough so one is able to colonize it. Io is totally uncolonizable (from ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
52 views

What is the radiation level at the L2 Mars-Sun point?

This answer shows that the radiation levels at the L2 Mars-Sun point will be lower because it lies within Mars' solar umbra. So what will the level of radiation be at the L2 Mars-Sun point? Also, how ...
BronzeLord's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

Would astronauts on the ISS be affected by the radiation from a global nuclear war?

I was wondering what would happen to the ISS astronauts if some global disaster wiped out all ground support. This question tells us that a 2-person crew might survive up to a year on stockpiled food ...
thosphor's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
715 views

If solar radiation can heat up gas particles in the thermosphere, why will it not heat up a spacecraft?

NASA says that the reason why a spacecraft does not get hot in the thermosphere is because there are not enough gas particles to come into contact with the spacecraft to heat it up. If you were ...
Sean View's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
202 views

How will space suit computers likely be radiation hardened?

Writing this comment inspired the following question: Space suits are critical to life, so if there's a solar storm and the astronaut has received a less-than-lethal dose of radiation, they'll be ...
uhoh's user avatar
  • 149k
5 votes
1 answer
190 views

How Safe Is Phobos in Terms of Radiation Exposure?

I am wondering if Mars' body provides enough protection against radiation on Phobos. The lack of magnosphere is a significant factor highly worsening the radiation exposure, making the planet ...
loceteg166's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
616 views

Influence of solar wind and radiation pressure on a sail

Solar wind is composed of a mixture of materials travelling between 250 and 750 km per second. Radiation pressure involves electromagnetic field travelling at light speed. If considering a sail in ...
user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
154 views

Were there any noticeable immune system changes observed for people staying for long in space?

I have read this article about how difficult is to send ships to another possible habitable world. One aspect deals with the human bacterial companions which might be greatly affected by prolonged ...
Alexei's user avatar
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