Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [radiation]

Questions about impact of radiation on space exploration.

1
vote
1answer
72 views

What was the exact nature of the observations of “solar flare activity” that delayed the launch of Vostok 5?

The interesting story of Vostok 5 recounted in Encyclopedia Astronautica's Vostok 5 (linked in comments below this answer) includes the following passage: Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

Aspects of “true deep space environment” on Gateway not thoroughly explored by decades of habitation of nine space stations already?

The ABC News article President Trump prompts state of confusion over space policy with tweet covers POTUS' tweet and NASA director Bridenstine's clarification tweet a few hours later, as well as cites ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

What is the orientation of ionizing radiation exposure in spaceflight?

It strikes me that, outside of the Jovian system for the most part, the orientation of ionizing radiation exposure is entirely sunward. Thus, if you park a large enough shield between the sun and a ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Is the radiation exposure in a spacecraft window seat significantly different than other areas of the cabin?

Does an astronaut seated next to a window get more exposure to harmful radiation (and if so, which types of radiation) than an astronaut somewhere else in the cabin at the same time? Related: Is ...
4
votes
1answer
892 views

Did the IBM System/4 Pi computer have radiation-hardened versions for Skylab and Shuttle?

Wikipedia's article on the IBM System/4 Pi says: The IBM System/4 Pi is a family of avionics computers used, in various versions, on the F-15 Eagle fighter, E-3 Sentry, AWACS, Harpoon Missile, NASA'...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

Going to the Lunar gateway during the upcoming solar maximum! What will the radiation environment be like?

EarthSky.org's What will the sun do next? says: On December 6, 2018, the Center of Excellence in Space Sciences India (CESSI) reported that two of its scientists have made a prediction for the ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

How does temperature affect a solar sail?

Is there an ideal temperature which solar sail material operates at? Does a colder reflective surface create more thrust? Related: How will JWST manage solar pressure effects to maintain attitude and ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Suggestions required on radiation tolerance solutions

I wanted to know what methods of increasing radiance tolerance for the microcontroller and memory devices for a Cubesat exist. We have read about methods like having dual CPUs but are there any ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

How effective is the Orion radiation protection plan?

This article gives a basic overview of the procedure for astronauts on deep space missions who need to take shelter from energetic events such as solar flares. The shelter area strongly resembles a ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Can an electromagnetic shield protect spacecraft from incoming radiation? [duplicate]

If we used an electromagnetic shield to protect astronauts from radiation, what could we use to power it and could it be possible?
4
votes
1answer
99 views

Did the Apollo missions use the Earth's magnetotail to lessen cosmic radiation?

I see a lot of images like this for the Apollo mission: 99% of them exclude the sun, and the ones that don't I can't be sure if they're accurate and cannot find sources. During the Apollo missions ...
5
votes
0answers
214 views

Why do SD cards perform so much better than SSDs in space?

SD cards and SSDs are based on the same technologies, so why the stark differences in performance? Recently, it was reported that after a year in space, half of the SSD drives on the HPE Spaceborne ...
7
votes
1answer
110 views

Would radio / wifi and other communications work on Jupiter's moons?

I've read that Jupiter emits a lot of EM radiation, and can also be heard on ham radio. If you were much closer would it drown out radio and other forms of communication, or is it confined to specific ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Is it possible to “shape” area impacted by radiation shielding during interstellar travels? [closed]

If I have uderstood radiation/other shielding described in other questions correctly...it will be among other things provided by magnetic field(s) generated by superconductors. Is it possible to ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

How far from Earth were the Apollo astronauts when they left the Earth's magnetosphere?

I am assuming the Apollo missions recorded radiation levels as they travelled to the Moon. Have those records ever been released, as a way of determining when the Apollo astronauts left the ...
4
votes
0answers
84 views

Is the ISS in danger of the outer radiation belt?

Is the ISS in danger of the outer radiation belt? I know that the ISS is in the low earth orbit and that it briefly passes through the base of the outer RB, but it is actually in danger? How does the ...
1
vote
1answer
186 views

What's up with the “Apollo” computer on the ISS? How is it being used?

There's a high performance computer on the ISS (HP "Apollo" HPC). How is it being used? Is it there just to check the hardware in the low/modest radiation environment of the variety found in LEO with ...
7
votes
1answer
196 views

Have any probes / spacecraft used GPU hardware? If so, what for?

I was reading this question about CPU's used in space and that got me thinking about the practical applications of GPUs for space-bound vessels. I'm wondering if we ever sent a radiation-hardened GPU ...
4
votes
1answer
701 views

How much radiation are astronauts on the ISS exposed to?

From reading this question it would appear is if we do not currently have a great solution to radiation shielding in existing space craft - Different sources have conflicting numbers: This article ...
7
votes
1answer
330 views

How are cubesat electronics protected against the effects of radiation in LEO?

I'm curious to know the various ways that cubesat electronics can be protected from the effects of cosmic rays or solar events while in LEO. How different are the components used in cubesats from some ...
6
votes
1answer
183 views

Does prolonged space flight have any effect on the physical traits of the human body?

Can a variable of physical traits like height, weight, complexion be changed in outer space? Maybe by gravity or by something else that determines these traits (like the UV rays of the sun that ...
2
votes
2answers
433 views

How do we currently protect astronauts and spacecraft from radiation? [duplicate]

What are current ways in which astronauts and spacecrafts are protected from radiation? Are their any new ways/ideas to limit the amount of exposure to radiation?
36
votes
5answers
13k views

How did Apollo missions solve the cosmic radiation problem?

One of the major hurdles of space exploration is cosmic radiation. How did the Apollo missions solve the radiation problem? NASA would have shielded the astronauts to some level by some material. How ...
3
votes
0answers
191 views

Did Apollo-11 have any radiation shielding? [duplicate]

If it did, then what kind? Or if it didn't, was it because the flight didn't last for too long? (7 days or so, from Earth to Moon and back.)
3
votes
0answers
68 views

How many tons of water is needed to surround ISS's living modules, so the rate of radiation exposure will be the same as on the surface of Earth?

If I understand correctly, it wasn't done because it's very expensive ($ per lbs) and there are no launch systems powerful enough for that? Also, could you please provide formulas and calculations? I ...
3
votes
0answers
195 views

What will the condition of the Voyager craft be like far enough into the future so as to have “truly” exited the Solar System?

I am curious about this. I saw this article: https://www.popsci.com/voyager-2-interstellar-space?con=TrueAnthem&dom=tw&lnk=TATW&src=SOC&utm_campaign=&utm_content=...
4
votes
1answer
122 views

Spherical solar radiation model (GMAT)

I'm using GMAT to analyze the orbits. There is a Spherical model for Solar Radiation Pressure. Which equation does GMAT use to calculate it? I've already searched in the documentation, however, there ...
4
votes
1answer
165 views

What type of software is used to make radiation shielding simulations for use in Space or Mars?

Hopefully this is relevant to the board and doesn't get deleted. Quick background: In Thailand. Grad student, mechanical engineering, with very limited knowledge regarding nuclear or space radiations. ...
2
votes
1answer
147 views

Do astronauts have to use sunscreen?

Of course the space suits can block most part of the radiation, but do the astronauts need to use sunscreen to protect their faces from the radiation passing thought the helmet or passing through the ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

What happens to the space station during a solar flare / magnetic storm? [duplicate]

What are the effects on the ISS during a solar flare / magnetic storm? The news often warns that satellites could be affected during a storm. Does the ISS have special protections for that danger?
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Level of radiation on surface/ocean of Mars AFTER terraforming

I am a Mars enthusiast, and lately have been wondering how safe Mars would be to live on after it hypothetically has been terraformed into a pseudo Earth. Obviously, the bigger health hazard would be ...
6
votes
1answer
222 views

Is Radiation in the Van Allen Belt Anisotropic?

The particle radiation in the Van Allen Belt consists of charged particles (mostly protons in the inner belt, electrons in the outer belt). The charged particles move in helical trajectories along ...
2
votes
2answers
151 views

How much will Bennu rotate faster and faster with mirrors facing the Sun on its left side?

Several answers to the question "Why paint only one-half of Bennu" describe the Yarkovsky effect as an important force acting on the asteroid 101955 Bennu. But what about the radiation pressure of ...
4
votes
0answers
53 views

Which objects in our solar system are naturally protected from solar flares?

Outside of Earth, are there any objects (planets, moons, asteroids) in our solar system that are naturally shielded from the radiation of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs)? Asked ...
6
votes
3answers
199 views

Can you avoid the costs of cooling superconductors for magnetic shields by separating them from the spacecraft and using shades?

As the answer to this thread states, cooling superconductors in spacecraft is necessary because of waste heat from secondary systems and thermal radiation of the sun. The application in which ...
6
votes
1answer
192 views

What data was used to estimate accumulated radiation dose for the Apollo astronauts?

Half-year, and occasional one-year stints aboard the ISS, and especially lifetime totals nearing 2.5 years are possible ethically because these missions take place within the Earth's magnetosphere ...
6
votes
1answer
201 views

3D Model of radiation in earth orbit?

I am trying to estimate required shielding masses to maintain a radiation level at or below earths average radiation of 3 mSv per year at different earth orbits (LEO, MEO, GEO and 50000 km+). ...
0
votes
1answer
111 views

What are the geological features for a save place to land in the chaos terrains on Mars? [closed]

Chaos terrains on Mars generally consist of irregular groups of large blocks, some tens of kilometers across and a hundred meters high. The tilted and flat topped blocks form depressions hundreds ...
0
votes
1answer
194 views

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator vs Solar? [duplicate]

What circumstance would a radioisotope thermoelectric generator is better to use than solar cells in space probes and rovers?
1
vote
1answer
245 views

Would a Faraday cage made of gas block radiation?

What is best blocks radiation and is transparent as a gas? Would applying an electrical current through the gas increase the gas from blocking radiation on Mars? Radiation could be blocked by the ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Could ozone be used in a biodome on Mars?

How much ozone would it take to block solar radiation on Mars if chambered in double panned glass or material? Said $O_3$ would break down from the UV. Would applied electricity on $O$ and $O_2$ make $...
0
votes
0answers
114 views

Can an ion drive attached to an asteroid move it into another orbit if given enough power?

After watching one of the videos from Curious Droid on Youtube talking about asteroid deflection and strikes I had an idea. Ion thrusters provide bits of mass velocities at the needed Isp (5-6 km/s ...
19
votes
1answer
3k views

If colonists burrowed far enough under the ice on Ganymede or Europa, would the ice provide adequate protection for them from Jupiter's radiation?

This is a hypothetical question I'm asking as a SF writer, and the time setting would be approximately 2,250 AD.
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Why can't permanent magnets be used for radiation shielding in space?

I've been reading a lot about concepts for protecting astronauts from Galactic Cosmic Radiation on interplanetary voyages. I've read about a lot of different ideas, but all of the ones involving a ...
6
votes
1answer
254 views

Cypress PSOC chips in a Cubesat

The Cypress PSoC line of microcontrollers, especially the PSOC 4 family are very versatile and capable, and seem a natural for use in cubesats. Unfortunately, at least one experiment: http://www.dtic....
3
votes
1answer
454 views

What's the unshielded radiation dose in mSv in Low Earth Orbit?

Say we have a guy orbiting Earth in LEO with no spacesuit (I know, I know), what would be the millisieverts he would be receiving?
3
votes
2answers
360 views

How can SpaceX's Mars spacecraft be protected against solar flares?

When a solar flare hits the earth it can damage certain electrical equipment. If one manages to strike the SpaceX Mars rocket it could possibly damage some significant equipment on board (like ...
16
votes
1answer
560 views

What will J002E3 be like on its return?

J002E3 is believed to be the S-IVB third stage of the Apollo 12 rocket. It is expected to return to temporary Earth orbit in the 2040's. If some enterprising soul decided to build a rocket capable ...
2
votes
2answers
87 views

Is the amount of damage to humans due to x Sievert a function of exposure time?

After looking into the experienced radiation for certain space journeys, I was wondering wether it was correct to state that the amount of biological damage is a function of the exposure time for a ...
4
votes
1answer
271 views

How much radiation shielding would be required for a habitat at Mercury–Sun L5?

Given an O'Neill "Island Three" style cylindrical habitat located at Mercury–Sun L5 orbit, how much radiation shielding would be required to protect the occupants, and how would it need to be ...