Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [reentry]

Questions related to the movement of human-made objects as they enter atmosphere of Earth or other planetary bodies with atmospheres from space after being successfully launched.

4
votes
1answer
108 views

What does “Poisson's formula” refer to in this calculation?

I am not entirely sure if this question belongs to this forum, but I don't know where else to ask. I am following a Rocket Propulsion course. There is a section concerned with the Velocity ...
1
vote
0answers
74 views

Would the right shape dimple heat sheild create more wake? [closed]

In this question: Would a dimpled heat shield reduce heat transfer during reentry? the answer says no it would not help more or less. My new question is would reverse dimples or bumps or a ring/s ...
12
votes
4answers
471 views

Why can't you just parachute down right from orbit?

This will surely seem, at least at first sight, a completely stupid idea, seeing the usual “space isn't high away, it's fast away”, and that the heat shields which actually are used need to withstand ...
13
votes
5answers
4k views

Have Air-breathing Engines ever been used on a reentry vehicle, could they be?

For the purpose of this question I would like to assume there is no risk of life for the astronauts, or that the design would only be used for delivery of a non-ethically-sensitive payload. Looking at ...
31
votes
2answers
6k views

Why didn’t the Spacecraft used for the Apollo 11 mission melt in the Earth’s Atmosphere?

My brother has recently been converted to a Flat Earther and is convinced that something that proves his theory is the moon landings being faked by NASA. I have managed to counter argue the majority ...
5
votes
0answers
103 views

Nature of “the silky black 'highly flame-resistant felt'” on Block 5 Falcon 9's, and its intended functions?

The Teslarati article SpaceX Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket’s drone ship return captured in stunning detail [gallery] and accompanying photo spread shows many interesting details of "SpaceX’s first West ...
8
votes
0answers
310 views

Have spacecraft ever dipped below the Karman line and then safely continued spaceflight?

The item in Science Alert's A Harvard Astrophysicist Says Outer Space Is Actually Closer Than We Think (see also Science; Outer space may have just gotten a bit closer) talks about the recent Acta ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

How was/Was Kalam-sat Recovered from the Ocean?

I was reading this article about Kalam-SAT and it states that: "Kalamsat fell into the sea. It will be recovered and NASA will be sending it back to us for decoding the data," [Srimathy Kesan, ...
13
votes
6answers
4k views

Dangle a cable down to earth - fundamental Physics question

If I had the material that had the tensile strength, would it be possible to have it dangle from the lowest most practically possible geostationary object down into the atmosphere? Would it not ...
4
votes
1answer
306 views

Can a reentry be done slowly?

The usual approach to reentry is fast and hot. There's a lot of energy to be lost, and doing it quickly has some advantages: You can dump energy into hypersonic air, and then leave that heat behind ...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

How would the space shuttle fare without payload doors? [duplicate]

If the space shuttle had the doors locked open, blown off, or otherwise unable to close, would it be able to re-enter and land somewhat intact? Was there any procedures in place on the off chance this ...
5
votes
1answer
92 views

Would landing on mars during a storm considerably increase atmospheric drag?

Any chance we could harvest all those dust particles for an significant improvement in aero-breaking capabilities or would it destroy most heat-shields?
3
votes
2answers
100 views

With what attitude does Soyuz reenter, and in what way might this angled pattern on Exp. 53's return a result of attitude?

The BBC article Soyuz space capsule brings ISS crew back after five month mission describes the return of ISS Expedition 55's "Russian Anton Shkaplerov, American Scott Tingle and Japan's Norishige ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Looking for atmospheric density models of various planets and moons

Looking for atmospheric density models of various planets and moons, any sort of data/resources/database of this information would be extremely useful as I am working on recreating these models for ...
16
votes
2answers
3k views

Why will the BFS reenter broadside rather than engine first?

Musk has stated that they added the delta wing to the BFS design because; from one flight to the next the ship may have differing payloads and differing fuel loads. These changes shift the center of ...
12
votes
1answer
748 views

Is this smoke from Expedition 53 returning Soyuz capsule?

I was clicking through YouTubes and came across the NASA Video ISS Expedition 53 Landing in Kazakhstan (also here). I don't recall seeing such prominent and continuous smoke from returning Soyuz ...
1
vote
1answer
165 views

How to calculate the stagnation temperature at the tip of the nose of a reentry module?

A re-entry module flies with Mach 10 at an ambient temperature of –27°C with. CP = 840 J/kg-K, gas constant R = 140 J/kg-K. What is the stagnation temperature at the tip of the nose of the re-entry ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Is there real footage of Tiangong 1 reentry?

There are a couple of videos on the net showing some reentries and claiming them to be Tiangong 1. Is any of them authentic? I could not find any footage on the websites of the major space agencies (...
5
votes
2answers
280 views

Why are Tiangong-1's Apogee and Perigee Graphs Wobbly?

The apogee and perigee graph of the Tiangong-1 space station, about to re-enter and break up Real Soon Now, is depicted in this graph (source: Wikipedia): Why are the graphs wobbly? Is it because the ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Why is there a need for getting rid of ISS trash using the empty ATV and similar vehicles

Why is trash from the ISS sent down in some of the cargo vehicles. Would it not make more sense to dump it overboard in the downward + retrograde direction (as described here) and use reusable cargo ...
5
votes
2answers
228 views

How are impact probability maps rigorously calculated?

This is one example of an impact probability map. It was posted in this question and is from Aerospace Corporation. But My question is about the process, not this particular map, although it is a good ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Nano spacecraft reentry

Suppose if one designs a Small size reentry capsule. What will be the typical deacceleration achieved by atmosphere. More precisely, what is the relationship of the size and drag by atmosphere. I am ...
2
votes
1answer
289 views

Would a rubber party balloon pop if dropped from space?

A party rubber balloon is inflated in space and then released. Dropped either from orbit or dropped outside the atmosphere would it pop or would the weight to surface area be enough to land intact? ...
13
votes
2answers
1k views

Tiangong-1 reentry impact place probabilities

Following all the news concerning Tiangong-1, I have seen the following plot made by the Aerospace Corporation where Blue area: null probability of impact Yellow area: high probability of impact ...
6
votes
2answers
428 views

How long does trash jettisoned by hand from the ISS fall before burning up on reentry?

NASA proposed a policy for the jettison of trash from the ISS space station. This article notes that a recent ISS space station spacewalk by Russian cosmonauts involved one man jettisoning by hand a ...
3
votes
2answers
211 views

How are old satellites removed from orbit? [duplicate]

Once the satellite is nonfunctional how are they removed from orbit?
3
votes
1answer
174 views

How stable is an orbit of 335.9 km?

Spacex has recently begun deployment of its satellite constellation that will provide internet services. In their initial filings with the FCC they propose that they may have over 7,000 VLEO (very low ...
4
votes
1answer
228 views

Which crewed spacecraft provides the gentlest decent and/or landing?

Landing with a Soyuz capsule is often compared to being in a car accident1, it's pretty violent on touch-down. On the other hand, I imagine the Space Shuttle's touch-down to be a little like a rough ...
7
votes
1answer
353 views

Why does NASA still use film cameras?

According to this video, NASA still operates some cameras for tracking rocket launches that use film: According to NASA, they even have some film cameras placed around their launch site loaded ...
2
votes
0answers
261 views

What will the heat shield on the BFS be made of

Musk has stated that the BFS will need a heat shield capable of reentering the atmosphere from interplanetary trajectories. So I take it the ship will come in directly from the transfer trajectory and ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

What happens with re-entry at different angles?

I was reading the article on J002E3, and it mentions that most other S-IVB have entered the atmosphere and mostly burned until reduced to relatively small pieces. They did, however, enter the ...
10
votes
2answers
998 views

What aspects of reentry heating 'scale as the 8th power'?

Elon Musk just commented in the post Falcon Heavy Test Flight press conference that reentering at interplanetary velocities means dealing with 'some of the heating things that scale to the 8th power'. ...
3
votes
1answer
275 views

How do re-usable boosters handle re-entry damage? [duplicate]

Watching Falcon Heavy's side boosters land, I was amazed that they could withstand the stresses of re-entry yet still fire again for a (relatively) slow, smooth landing. I see there are heat shields ...
6
votes
3answers
386 views

Soyuz has a Space Periscope?

The image Photo ID: ISS049-E-003166 can be found in Flikr and Wikimedia Commons as well as in Spaceflight Now. There is a long (perhaps 1 meter?) green structure that is sticking out from the side of ...
6
votes
1answer
261 views

Is it possible to develop a small orbital rocket, like RocketLab's Electron, for a weapons delivery system?

Now that Rocket Labs has proven that orbit is well within the range of small nations and medium-sized companies, I have to wonder about the strategic implications. AFAIK the Electron rocket has an ...
7
votes
2answers
354 views

How will BFS maneuver during aerobraking?

Pictures of SpaceX's "Big Falcon Spaceship" (BFS) delta wing don't seem to show presence of any aerodynamic control surfaces. How will it's attitude be controlled when encountering the atmosphere? To ...
5
votes
1answer
318 views

For a given amount of fuel, what is the best de-orbit profile for the ISS?

Reading this question, what is the best way to make sure most of ISS (or any other large object planned to be destroyed in the atmosphere) will burn and break into relatively small pieces in the ...
4
votes
0answers
35 views

Atmospheric Entry Vehicle: Wind frame representation and Visualization

I am looking at entry dynamics for a convex blunt aeroshell. We use Heading angle, bank angle and flight path angle for description of attitude from local horizon axes system. While it is sufficiently ...
2
votes
2answers
117 views

Atmospheric drag vs. atmospheric heating. Which occurs first?

If I was in a circular 10km orbit (theoretical) around Earth, what will occur earlier? Will I burn up in atmosphere or be stopped by atmospheric drag?
3
votes
1answer
177 views

Why a donut-shaped balloon decelerator in the Aldrin-Purdue proposed Mars lander descent?

I saw this project linked within this excellent answer. Why is this proposed balloon (assisting in deceleration of the proposed Martian atmosphere entry) donut-shaped? Are there aerodynamic, stability ...
5
votes
1answer
184 views

Would a dimpled heat shield reduce heat transfer during reentry?

Would a large ceramic golfball absorb less heat on reentry than a standard sphere? From aerospaceweb.org: The difference in the flowfields around a smooth sphere and a rough, or dimpled, sphere ...
6
votes
1answer
124 views

Are there any viable hot structure orbital spacecraft designs capable of re-entry?

The current design of all orbital spacecraft capable of re-entry is cold-structure, using ablative materials, insulating tiles other approaches to keep the structure of the spacecraft relatively low ...
0
votes
4answers
570 views

g-forces of suborbital versus orbital passenger travel

I would like to pose a fact-checking question about this article, which is about the Musk/SpaceX idea of using rockets for travel between terrestrial locations. https://www.theverge.com/2017/9/29/...
1
vote
2answers
248 views

How to model the martian atmospheric density variations with respect to altitude?

I'm creating a mars re-entry simulation and i need a model for density variation w.r.t. altitude on mars. I know that earth can often be modeled using an exponential density model with a "sea level" ...
12
votes
2answers
156 views

Is the location and time of a scheduled re-entry (e.g. Soyuz) announced in advance?

I’m aware of NOTAMS (notice to airmen) which are issued for launches of rockets, as for example mentioned in this answer. The same seems to be the case for deorbiting second stages (see here and here)....
3
votes
2answers
416 views

Why do SpaceX rockets' re-entries seem to burn (as in heat the hull) less than the space shuttle? [duplicate]

Why do SpaceX rockets' re-entries seem to burn (as in heat the hull) less than the space shuttle ? Is it because of less friction surface ? Thanks !
3
votes
1answer
109 views

Roughly what is the rate of energy loss of survivable capsule re-entries?

In this answer I've estimated the peak rate of energy loss of a particularly unwise re-entry as 3 to 4 gigawatts. Never mind that it's 15-20 gees of acceleration, that's a lot of power injected into ...
4
votes
2answers
442 views

If there was a non-rotating skyhook in Earth orbit, what would re-entry be like after dropping from its foot?

I have been looking at a space station that orbits Earth at an altitude of 3500 km above the equator, and has tethers that extend from it downwards to 250 km above the surface, and outwards to 6500 km ...
2
votes
2answers
494 views

What happens to materials which burn up during reentry?

The common conception of satellite reentry is that they just burn up and are "gone". But the total mass must still be somewhere, right? What forms does it all end up as, and where?
1
vote
1answer
171 views

Why can't spacecrafts create a complete heatshield cover around them during re-entry?

Like the Soyuz or Apollo spacecrafts, the crew module detaches itself from the service module during re-entry, is it possible to cover the total space-craft with a sleek-aerodynamic heat shield at the ...