Questions tagged [reentry]

Questions related to the movement of human-made objects as they enter atmosphere of Earth or other planetary bodies with atmospheres from space after being successfully launched.

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14
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2answers
3k views

Did any Columbia debris continue orbiting Earth?

For reentry the Space Shuttles lowered their perigee to 28 nautical miles (52 km) above sea level. Shuttle Columbia disintegrated around 60 km altitude, and the first debris fell off as high as 70.5 ...
8
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1answer
774 views

Would it be feasible to decelerate a crewed vehicle from ~25 km/s only using the atmosphere of Mars (in the context of an "express transit")?

I boldly assumed it would some day be possible to accelerate a crewed vehicle from a refueling station (LEO, GEO, Moon orbit?) to ~35-40 km/s (with several stages) relative to Mars, so it would make ...
3
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1answer
110 views

Heatshield during re-entry of space vehicles

All the CMs for Apollo, as well as the space shuttles, basically used "Blunt body" technique for re-entry. While Apollo CMs used "ablative" type of heatshield, the space shuttles ...
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Could sheets of stacked graphene be used as part of a heat shield, since its melting point is 3000k to 5000 K

Since graphene material is the strongest manmade material, with "magical" properties, I wonder if it could be considered for use as a heat shield, since its melting point is 3000 to 5000 K ...
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2answers
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Can an ISS module survive reentry?

Nasa is making plans to de-orbit the ISS safely over the pacific ocean, this eventually leads to the question of whether or not an ISS module can survive reentry (survive meaning it is recognizable ...
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3answers
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Has SpaceX chosen to drop the Transpiration cooling of Starship? If so, why?

Earlier, there was news about a proposed concept for Starship to include "transpirational cooling" in its reentry heat shield design. These days there is less news about this and tests so ...
2
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0answers
102 views

Do reentering capsules always make a(n Earth-shattering ka-)boom and look like a fireball if at night? Time & epicenter predictable w/ public info?

SpaceX enjoys press. So the unexpected events popping up in the news is good for them. March 26, 2021: Fire ball burning over Woodland WA- SpaceX second stage re-entry and burn up. A ‘spectacular’ ...
3
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1answer
169 views

Dragon re-entry flight profile?

I was looking online for a profile depicting the Dragon re-entry similar to those showing the launch and first stage re-entry (e.g. https://www.elonx.net/wp-content/uploads/...
11
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1answer
218 views

What is the heat shield refurbishment procedure for a crew Dragon capsule?

How, specifically, is the heat shield replaced or refurbished? More precisely... How do they know it will work for the next mission? :-P
3
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1answer
57 views

Soyuz: Do you know the coefficient drag and lift to drag ratio are during reentry?

I've been learning Python as a hobby the last two years. I like spaceflight too. Therefore I wrote this code to simulate the reentry of a Soyuz. I'd appreciate some feedback: https://github.com/fra-...
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0answers
117 views

How does a returning Falcon first stage decide when to end its re-entry burn?

When a Falcon 9 first stage is returning to Earth to land, it performs a brief re-entry burn in order to slow down. My question is, what criteria does the first stage control software use to decide ...
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Space Shuttle Challenger bringing back Salyut-7

We know that on February 11 1985, right after the Soviets lost control of their Salyut-7 station. US Space tracking assets also started noticing that the station was starting to tumble. Kidnapping a ...
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50 views

Has there been any bolide-spacecraft near-miss?

Has there been any incident where a reentering spacecraft nearly collided with a meteor?
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Do aeroshells need to be super smooth to survive atmospheric entry?

IIRC, one of the arguments against Shuttle Columbia's hole being repaired was that the repair would not be smooth. Apparently, the heat shielding relied on a sensitive boundary layer. Even a small ...
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0answers
69 views

Would it have made a difference to the TPS design if the Shuttle used skip reentries?

The Space Shuttle needed silica tiles and carbon-carbon panels to survive the sustained high temperatures of reentry. These materials were fragile and high-maintenance, and this led to the Columbia ...
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139 views

What if the Starship fins were fixed?

The body flaps on Starship have the responsibilty of controlling attitude during atmospheric flight. They are also needed to deal with the large moments created by carrying payloads in the nose. ...
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2answers
176 views

How can SpaceX receive data from Starship during re-entry communications blackout

Surviving re-entry will be one of the initial critical aspects of the Starship development program. If there are locations on the vessel where the heat-shield fails, leading to its destruction how ...
27
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2answers
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Gagarin not ejecting from capsule

I'm currently reading a dutch book about the earlier days of manned spaceflight (Ruimtevaart B. van der Klaauw). Published in 1962 In a chapter about Vostok 1 the book reads as following Translated ...
2
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1answer
168 views

Into what non-navigable Pacific Ocean area did structural elements of the Progress MS16 cargo ship & Pirs module fall? Are there maps of these areas?

This recent Roscosmos tweet (found in CNET's See astronaut's wild view of a discarded ISS module burning up) says: The non-combustible structural elements of the #ProgressMS16 cargo ship and the #...
4
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1answer
150 views

Can Mars orbiters be disposed in the atmosphere, as it is done on Earth?

There are a fair number of spacecraft currently orbiting Mars, and each will eventually reach the end of its useful life. Satellites in low Earth orbit are routinely de-orbited at the end of their ...
1
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1answer
148 views

Could a steel drum perform reentry with a heat shield?

Suppose you have a regular steel drum with an ablative heat shield on the bottom. Theoretically, could this steel drum with heat shield perform a reentry from low earth orbit?
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1answer
178 views

Measurement and estimation of temperature of Space Shuttle nose cone during launch and re-entry

During the launch and re-entry of the Space Shuttle, what are the measured and estimated temperatures (or distribution) of the shuttle nose cone as a function of altitude? How is the temperature ...
2
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1answer
153 views

What orbits are Starlink satellites now deployed into? How low to do they go on their first perigee?

In my answer to Delta-V of Starlink Satellites I ballpark spherical-cow envelope-back estimated 190 m/s with 2 kg of krypton based on raising only from a 445 km circular orbit to a 550 km circular ...
2
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1answer
86 views

Change in drag coefficient when Dragon flips over on launch escape?

Consider the Falcon 9. In emergencies, the launch escape system will fire to separate and propel the crew module away from the rocket. After the engine shuts down, the payload trunk will separate ...
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Why does the landing trajectory of a blunt body take an S shape in the lower atmosphere?

I coded some Matlab plots of altitude vs time for the re-entry of a point mass (so no aerothermo analysis included). In all the trajectories, there is an S shape closer to the ground. Why? Please ...
5
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1answer
192 views

If a Space Shuttle tile deorbited on its own, what percentage of it's mass if any would remain in one piece until it reached the surface of the earth?

If a Space Shuttle tile deorbited on its own, what percentage of it's mass if any would still be in one piece if and when it reached the surface of the earth? The question was inspired by one of the ...
5
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2answers
150 views

How much debris will hit the ground from the Long March 5B compared to the debris from a GTO upper stage?

It was commented that there are currently 22 SpaceX upper stages in orbit that will eventually reenter in an uncontrolled fashion. PcMan pointed that out when I asked Why the Long March 5B wasn't ...
4
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1answer
243 views

Why couldn't China's space agency do a controlled deorbit burn for the Long March 5B?

China has succeeded in launching the main module of its future space station, Tian He. Cool! The Long March 5B core that launched it is now in an uncontrolled decaying orbit. It's estimated it will ...
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2answers
152 views

Deorbit first stage?

I have read the answers about deorbiting second/upper stage. But since the lastest launch of Long March 5B raised concern about its uncontrolled reentry (yeah, too big). Unlike SpaceX's Falcon, other ...
7
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1answer
365 views

Nighttime reentry of occupied spacecraft?

In looking at details of the tomorrow early morning (Sunday, May 2, 2021) reentry of the crewed SpaceX Dragon capsule, I see that it's reentry plan is for a nighttime splashdown in the Gulf of Mexico. ...
6
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1answer
153 views

Is there a very light material that could deorbit without burning up?

Is there a very light material that could deorbit without burning up? I am thinking of a very light, strong, heat resistant thread, rope, net, or sheet that sheds heat so fast as it deorbits that it ...
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2answers
1k views

Minimum reentry velocity ideal for a spacecraft returning to Earth

During the return trip from Mars or Moon, SpaceX starship can refuel it's propellant tanks before reentry. It can use these propellants for reverse thrust to bring the spacecraft velocity to near idle ...
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60 views

Falcon 9: transonic attitude control on reentry

Attitude control on the falcon 9 is done with engine thrust vectoring, cold gas thrusters, and grid fins. After the reentry burn, when the rocket stage is in the atmosphere, there is a short period ...
3
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2answers
313 views

Would it be possible to avoid the heat-from-friction problem when re-entering the atmosphere by performing (vertical) "U-turns"?

If you lift a swing at a children's playground and release it will swing back and forth for a while, losing some altitude in each swing, mostly (?) due to drag. Eventually it has lost all energy and ...
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1answer
95 views

State vector update on reentry

The integration errors from IMU state measurements would seem very problematic when you're coming in for a landing, where error tolerances would probably be as small as they could get. This must mean ...
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0answers
41 views

Falcon 9 landing speed estimate?

How fast is a Falcon 9 stage 1 going when it touches ground? Rough estimates are OK. An upper limit would be helpful too. I'm getting 5.5 m/s (12 mph) in simulation and wondering how reasonable this ...
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0answers
46 views

Falcon 9 Reentry Burn Duration?

The videos and simulations I've seen suggest the reentry burn lasts 30 seconds. This is followed by the final landing burn and it may be preceded by a boostback burn. I'm interested only in the ...
2
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1answer
84 views

Help understanding vectors in diagram from "Magnetohydrodynamic flow control during reentry" and the actual goal of this research

A link to the ESA Advanced Concepts Team page Magnetohydrodynamic flow control during reentry was recently shared under Re-entry Heat Shield Alternative. It says: During the reentry phase, spacecraft ...
5
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1answer
219 views

ISS battery "de-orbit" burnup?

In reading these two questions: How many kilograms of nickel particles will be dispersed in Earth's atmosphere by dumping old ISS batteries overboard? and Why does it take so long for ISS garbage ...
5
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3answers
341 views

Why does it take so long for ISS garbage to fall out of orbit?

The ISS recently jettison some garbage and expects it to take 2-4 years to de-orbit and burn up. From Gizmodo's ISS Ditches 2.9-Ton Pallet of Batteries, Creating Its Most Massive Piece of Space Trash: ...
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0answers
264 views

How many kilograms of nickel particles will be dispersed in Earth's atmosphere by dumping old ISS batteries overboard?

Weighing 2.9 tons... this heap of old batteries is now the heaviest single piece of garbage to be jettisoned from the International Space Station. begins Gizmodo's ISS Ditches 2.9-Ton Pallet of ...
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1answer
2k views

This ISS trash deployment looks more like 2 feet than 2 inches per second, was it too fast or are these articles incorrect?

Digital Trends' Watch a NASA astronaut jettison part of the ISS into space which was linked in says: Writing in Air & Space last year about the process of jettisoning objects, veteran NASA ...
4
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1answer
222 views

Regulations for cubesats designed to survive reentry and be retrieved?

I'm currently thinking about the potential of manufacturing certain items (ZBLAN, Semiconductors, Organs, Drugs, etc.) in LEO and I want to know whether it would be possible/legal to design a cubesat ...
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0answers
84 views

During space shuttle reentry, why was the sign of GALR based on mach number rather than directly on alpha?

(My apologies if this should go in Aviation.SE instead - I'm not quite certain where questions regarding the behaviour of the shuttle's flight controls during reentry should go.) For flight in ...
2
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1answer
158 views

How fast was NASA Perseverance flying at when it hit Mars' atmosphere?

Do we know how fast Perseverance was flying at relative to Mars when it hit its atmosphere? The closest figure I could get to was "over 12,000mph" according to this article: https://www....
2
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1answer
87 views

During reentry, does the flux stay laminar? Should become turbulent the capsule could not mantain attitude

This a thing that, instinctively, I find it hard to grasp. The capsules are designed with a centre of gravity slightly to the direction of the thermal shield, this assures the right attitude, but how ...
6
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1answer
110 views

Why did Mars Pathfinder have such a high atmospheric entry velocity?

I was wondering what the highest atmospheric entry velocity of any lander was at Mars, for direct-entry landers (as opposed to those released from an orbiter), the atmospheric entry velocity tends to ...
1
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1answer
227 views

How long is Falcon 9 suicide burn?

My question is How long is a Falcon 9 suicide burn? I assume the answer might vary between rides, depending on the payload lifted and its destination orbit so the time might not be the same for a ...
1
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1answer
75 views

What were the Shuttle TPS repair patches made of?

Following the incident on STS-107, three methods of dealing with damaged tiles were developed. The method for large tile damage involved screwing a very thin plate over the hole, after loosely filling ...
3
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0answers
66 views

How large can heatshield holes be?

The tiles on the underside of the STS Orbiter had gaps between them to allow for the frame underneath to shift slightly. However, if the gaps were too large fillers were used. What controls the ...

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