Questions tagged [reentry]

Questions related to the movement of human-made objects as they enter atmosphere of Earth or other planetary bodies with atmospheres from space after being successfully launched.

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85 views

How many solar system bodies have “knees” in their atmospheres?

Discussion lead to citing Why does Earth's atmospheric density have a big "knee" around 100 km? Is there a good analytical approximation? who's answer is "monatomic oxygen". ...
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How did the Space Shuttle prevent flying up when reentering the atmosphere?

Always when reentering the atmosphere, the shuttle was pitched up, right? When gliding through the mesosphere, how was it that it didn't fly up again then? Was it due to a certain distribution of ...
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Did the Apollo Command module really “skip” within, or off of the atmosphere as a part of it's reentry program?

This answer to a question about the Shuttle reentry begins: Skipping reentries aren't unheard of. The Apollo command module performed a single skip when returning from lunar missions. but Wikipedia'...
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How will SpaceX land its rockets on the unleveled surface of Mars?

SpaceX plans to send the Starship to Mars and to land it there, tail first in a vertical position. Unlike the Perseverance rover, which seems to be able to land on uneven terrain without the need for ...
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How will NASA set Perseverance to enter the atmosphere of Mars at the right location after traveling 7 months in space?

The Perseverance rover is set to land on Jezero crater on Mars, in February 2021. It is clear that if you want to land in location X you need to enter the atmosphere at point Y. From the animated ...
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How is PICA different from other heat shielding materials?

What are the differences and why did SpaceX prefer to use PICA?
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Can the Space Shuttle land on Mars assuming there is a paved surface for landing?

Can the Space Shuttle land on Mars if it had a paved runway? Can the Space Shuttle use aerobraking and will its control surfaces provide attitude control? Can the parachute and braking systems stop ...
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Why did Columbia disintegrate lower into the atmosphere, not during its peak heat phase?

Space Shuttle Columbia entered a period of peak heating at 46 mi (74 km) altitude. Before the contact got broken, the temperature on Columbia's wing leading-edges had sunk already (and the heat shield ...
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Chance of ceramic board surviving re-entry on 3U CubeSat?

We're building a 3U CubeSat and have concerns about a ceramic PCB used in one of our experiments. Since ceramics have such a high melting temperature, we're not sure if the heat transfer during re-...
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Could an electrically pumped rocket stage position its batteries to enable it to re-enter stably nose-first?

Are the batteries in existing or planned electrically pumped rocket stages massive enough to change the centre of mass of the empty stage such that new re-entry strategies are available? e.g. Could ...
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What if a Space Shuttle entered the atmosphere of Venus?

How would a U.S. Space Shuttle's atmospheric entry on Venus differ from reentry on Earth? Say there's a Space Shuttle in a low Venus orbit performing a (re-)entry burn. How would the following ...
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What is the terminal velocity of SpaceX Starship?

What is the terminal velocity of starship on earth and mars during descent? Has SpaceX revealed or hinted the values of projected surface area and drag coefficient of the vehicle?
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How does Hayabusa2's return capsule orient and stabilize after separation and before and during reentry?

How does Hayabusa2's return capsule orient and stabilize after separation and before and during reentry? Have it some onboard system like RCS or reaction wheels, or does it rotate around longitudinal ...
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Starship surface heating on Mars landing

Mars atmosphere is much thiner than Earth's And then how much will Starship heat on a Mars landing comparing to a landing on Earth?
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Testing of rocket heat shield on Earth

One Space Shuttle was destroyed due to failure of the insulation tiles. SpaceX is reportedly using another technology, which replicates sweating , for wearing off the reentry heat. How is the ...
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Do aeroshells really get hotter than the surface of the sun?

This answer to How to design heatshield bluntness? says: Curiosity reentry dumped about 98% of its entry energy into the atmosphere, the aeroshell can still get to be temps greater than the surface ...
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g-forces entering and leaving atmospheres, how would they vary from one body to another?

I was wondering how launching from and returning into atmospheres of other bodies such as Mars, Venus, Titan, etc. would differ from Earth's. Specifically, I am wondering how many g's would be ...
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What is the use of the belly-flop maneuver?

Why the Starship needs a bellyflop maneuver? Why not to return vertically like Falcon 9? The term is used in articles like this one: During such a flight, experts believe SN8 will perform an unusual “...
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Lunar landing in cotton candy?

When spacecraft land on Earth, they use the atmosphere to slow down. On the Moon there's no atmosphere, so spacecraft must instead use rockets to slow down from orbital velocity. Would it be possible ...
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Is the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator scheduled for any upcoming Mars mission? Is the program still active?

Back in 2014 and 2015, some tests of the Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator were performed. The LDSD is intended to land heavier payloads on Mars than is currently possible. Mark Adler (the project ...
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Why Falcon 9 doesn't need heat shield tiles? [duplicate]

The Space Shuttle and the Starship need tiles for termal Protection while reentry. Why Falcon 9 doesnt need them?
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Seeking Book about Aerodynamic Design of the Space Shuttle

a few years ago I found a book written by an engineer working on the aerodynamics of the shuttle during design, ALT, and early STS. I have since forgotten the title and author's name. Does that ...
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Soyuz/spacecraft deceleration speed for reentry

I recently saw a program by Prof. Brian Cox (Human Universe Ep.1) where he mentioned that just by using two equations - f=ma and the universal law of gravitation, you could calculate how much a ...
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What was the leeward surface temperature of the Apollo Command Module during reentry?

From the Apollo Experience Report: Thermal Protection System, there is a diagram that shows the surface temperatures of the Command Module at various points (image was obtained from this answer). It ...
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Which deorbit trajectory minimizes reentry heating?

Atmospheric reentry, as I understand it, is a balancing act between minimizing delta-v needed and not burning up or breaking up in the atmosphere. The higher the velocity on reentry, the greater the ...
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Falcon 9 landing stages

I know the first stage of Falcon 9 separates at about 2:30 min and it lands at about 8:30 min But what are the distinct stages of the descent? Like deorbit burns, grid fin deployment, leg deployment ...
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Why not bring a rocket to idle velocity for less violent and safer re-entry? [duplicate]

Since kinetic energy have to be converted into heat during re-entry, the re-entry into the earth's atmosphere seems very violent. Why most rockets or crew re-entry modules plunge into the earth's ...
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What impact will the deorbiting of thousands of satellites have on the atmosphere?

With the creation of mega satellite constellations like Starlink, there are several thousand satellites being launched each year. This means that as these satellites go out of order in a few years, ...
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Why will OGO-1 reenter from an elliptical orbit rather than circularize first?

According to all the sources cited in Why does OGO-1's trajectory and imminent reentry come from sky surveys and NEO tracking rather than normal satellite tracking? OGO-1 is in a highly ...
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Why does OGO-1's trajectory and imminent reentry come from sky surveys and NEO tracking rather than normal satellite tracking?

Space.com's 56-year-old NASA satellite expected to fall to Earth this weekend says: "OGO-1 is predicted to re-enter on one of its next three perigees, the points in the spacecraft's orbit ...
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How much do on-demand, artificial meteor showers cost these days?

On-demand, artificial meteor showers are discussed in Artificial Shooting Stars - how could this possibly work (economically/technologically)? Why would a box full of 1cm balls released into LEO be ...
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Is there an official flight profile of the reentry of the Dragon spacecraft?

I wonder whether there's an official plan of the reentry and landing of either the former Dragon spacecraft or the Dragon V2/Crew Dragon, with details like altitudes, velocities, burn length and ...
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Is there any video footage of a full reentry?

Did any orbital craft ever fully film its reentry into the atmosphere, either as long as the camera worked or until the craft landed if it could? The Space Shuttles had a front camera that showed live ...
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What is the constant g-phase in Apollo re-entry, and why does it not show up on the graph?

On the Apollo 11 Flight Journal Day 9: Re-entry and Splashdown, it says something about the "Constant g-phase". This is what the ALSJ says: Planned drag level (deceleration) during the ...
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At what altitude did the Skylab space station disintegrate?

On the Wikipedia page it is written that SkyLab's reentry began at 16:37 UTC on July 11, 1979. But neither on the page nor in the source is it written how high the Skylab workshop started ...
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What is the splash down speed of the manned dragon capsule?

What's the rated speed of the crewed dragon capsule? Do we have any data on the actual measurement for the demo mission? I'd also appreciate any info on speed for Soyuz, other soviet manned, Apollo, ...
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Is there an equivalent of the Dragon 'claw' and Apollo umbilical fairing between the Soyuz crew and service modules?

The Apollo service module provided power etc. to the command module through umbilical connections covered by a fairing. When the two modules were separated, a 'guillotine' cut through the cables and ...
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Is there a risk that re-entering capsules or other components will hit ships or islands?

How precisely can the splash-down point of re-entering capsules (from Mercury onwards) be known in advance? Wasn't there a risk that capsules would hit a ship or an island? Likewise, Russian and ...
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Create something for the module when it lands into the ocean to drive it to shore

Food for thought: SpaceX has designed its new aircraft. Why doesn’t their team, develop some thing that will allow the astronauts to drive the module back to shore?
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What are the main stages of a Crew Dragon descent?

From answers to How much time it takes for the capsules to descend from ISS back down to Earth? I understand it takes 19 hours from the undocking from ISS until it touches the land. But what are the ...
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How hard would it be to get some comms during reentry?

As I type, a Crew Dragon is out of touch while it reenters. While I see how the plasma around the spaceship would make it very hard to communicate, I'm surprised that it is really impossible. How hard ...
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Would Dragon reenter safely if the nose cone stayed open?

If its nose cone does not close before reentry, would the Dragon capsule be safe after reentry? The nose cone protects important components like the forward hatch and guidance systems. How damaged ...
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191 views

Number of segment in Wing leading Edges

Can anyone highlight the basis of having 22 NO’s of segment in wing leading edges of space shuttle.
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How to design heatshield bluntness?

How is the bluntness or curvature of a heat shield of a reentry spacecraft designed? If the answer depends on size and mass, consider a deep space sample return "mini capsule" 50 cm in ...
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How long was Sputnik 1's second stage rocket body in orbit? Are there TLEs for it?

Early artificial satellites were tracked by radio and visually by amateurs, scientists and military personnel for various reasons including fun and improving the understanding of orbital dynamics ...
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Falcon 9: Why does F9 first stage always lose Video Link during Entry Burn?

Typically the F9 first stage and the drone ship each lose the video connection once during landing: F9 first stage during entry burn Drone ship during F9 first stage touch down (see here and here) ...
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What caused STS-129's low energy condition on the HAC?

I've never heard anyone comment on the trouble STS-129 seemed to experience during the Heading Alignment Cone (HAC) phase. I was hoping someone who was involved with the program might know why it ...
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What would be the minimum distance from the launch/landing platform to be not be bothered by Starship sonic booms?

One version of Starship has also been proposed to be used for Earth to Earth transportation medium. It won't be anytime soon but when they become normal, how far would the human settlement have to be ...
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stage 2 possible hollow cylinder design

I was watching this video from Everyday Astronaut: In the video, it highlights why Stage 2 landing is considerably more difficult than stage 1 landing. There is a 1:...
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What is the speed of crew Dragon upon splashdown?

After reentry, what is the speed of the Dragon 2 capsule right before splashdown? What g-force is received upon splashdown? At the time of writing, this answer gives such information for many other ...

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