Questions tagged [reentry]

Questions related to the movement of human-made objects as they enter atmosphere of Earth or other planetary bodies with atmospheres from space after being successfully launched.

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Is Martian wind strong enough to produce aerodynamic forces on a spacecraft?

If a spacecraft is entering the Martian atmosphere (say Curiosity rover in a Sky Crane capsule), is the wind strong enough to actually produce forces on the spacecraft? (like you would see during an ...
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421 views

For a given amount of fuel, what is the best de-orbit profile for the ISS?

Reading this question, what is the best way to make sure most of ISS (or any other large object planned to be destroyed in the atmosphere) will burn and break into relatively small pieces in the ...
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How do I determine what materials will burn up during reentry?

The NOAA Application for Earth Remote Sensing asks "If the satellite disposition involves an atmospheric re-entry the applicant must provide an estimate of the total debris casualty area of the ...
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Any other advantages to passive atmospheric reentry besides reaction mass economy?

From Vostok 1 to date, atmospheric reentry has been essentially passive. Passive here means that retrorockets are used to de-orbit, and then aerobraking is provided by the atmosphere. In contrast, ...
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Would a spacecraft landing on Io need a heat shield?

Io is Jupiter's only moon with a considerable atmosphere. Its atmosphere is extremely thin (up to 40 nbar) which obviously is too thin to use a parachute. However a spacecraft would maybe need a heat ...
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Why does the Apollo reentry trajectory show a few climbs?

In this answer the following graph is displayed: It shows two slight increases in altitude (after 1st peak g and at the end of the blackout). For me, it looks like zoom climbs (trading kinetic ...
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287 views

How are ultra-sensitive aerogel suspended samples secured for Earth reentry and touchdown?

For example, how were the Stardust particle collector samples, that were suspended in brittle and extremely low density (0.014 g/cm3) silica aerogel, secured prior to atmospheric reentry so they ...
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How are impact probability maps rigorously calculated?

This is one example of an impact probability map. It was posted in this question and is from Aerospace Corporation. But My question is about the process, not this particular map, although it is a good ...
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322 views

Why can't infomation be transmitted during descent?

Apparently, no information could pass through plasma, therefore during descent of spacecraft, no information can be transmitted. Why so?
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Would landing on mars during a storm considerably increase atmospheric drag?

Any chance we could harvest all those dust particles for an significant improvement in aero-breaking capabilities or would it destroy most heat-shields?
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White papers on alleged 1960s Chinese wooden ablative reentry heat shield

Popular sources, like Vintage Space and New Scientist, allege that the Chinese experimented with (oak?) wood ablative heat shields for manned reentry vehicles in the 1960s, but I have not been able to ...
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What would be the minimum distance from the launch/landing platform to be not be bothered by Starship sonic booms?

One version of Starship has also been proposed to be used for Earth to Earth transportation medium. It won't be anytime soon but when they become normal, how far would the human settlement have to be ...
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631 views

Could the Orion or Apollo command module safely land on land in an emergency due to a navigation error?

So we all know that the Apollo missions used a water landing, as will Orion, while the Soyuz lands on land but can land on water if needed. What would have happened if an Apollo crew began reentry in ...
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How long would a plasma trail last during a lander's Mars atmospheric entry?

In this video of the Orion reenty, ᴴᴰ Full Onboard Re-entry into Earth’s Atmosphere ● New NASA Spacecraft, the plasma trail appears to last about 90 seconds. Screenshot from video Considering how ...
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Tiangong-1 reentry

I’m trying to understand what could happen when the Tiangong-1 will reenter the atmosphere (probably on march 2018). Starting from an initial state obtained from a TLE, I integrate the position and ...
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Has any (additional) debris from Mir de-orbiting been found?

After reading the answers from this question and reading the excellent article here that goes through the de-orbiting in detail, I wondered if any debris had been found after it plunged into the ocean?...
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ISS battery “de-orbit” burnup?

In reading these two questions: How many kilograms of nickel particles will be dispersed in Earth's atmosphere by dumping old ISS batteries overboard? and Why does it take so long for ISS garbage ...
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Titan vs Mars for colonization

This question is along the same vein as Venus vs Mars for colonization but without the person at the table. Is Mars better than Titan which to me seems a more realistic option for colonization? With ...
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471 views

Why was ISRO's CARE reentry demonstration at 5300 m/s so slow?

This community wiki answer to What are some details of ISRO's Gaganyaan Mission currently says: Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) was launched on 18 December 2014 at 04:00 UTC. ...
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Can we significantly reduce entry velocity with this method by airbraking alone for interplanetary travel?

For example, can a space ship overshoot Mars in a reverse gravitational slingshot mixed with a little air breaking, steering to keep the spacecraft from orbit and then land on Mars with a near 0 ...
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What is the use of the belly-flop maneuver?

Why the Starship needs a bellyflop maneuver? Why not to return vertically like Falcon 9? The term is used in articles like this one: During such a flight, experts believe SN8 will perform an unusual “...
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Can you accurately control the reentry point by deorbiting with ion propulsion?

With decaying orbits, the point of reentry depends heavily on solar activity, and is very hard to predict or control. When there are things that could survive reentry and potentially be harmful, or ...
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Why can't we deorbit to earth more gently? [duplicate]

Atmospheric re-entry from orbit seems such a violent affair with tons of speed and energy having to be shed, which necessitates heat shields and what not. I do understand that the velocity of the ...
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Can I use an ice cube as a re-entry heat shield?

A comment on recent popular question brought me to Stirring Tea and this entry To boil a cup of water, you'd have to drop it from higher than the top of the atmosphere. If that is true, in theory ...
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Help Finding A Book

I am trying to find the book that contains the following chapter: https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/aam/cami/library/online_libraries/aerospace_medicine/tutorial/...
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Could a spacecraft produce lift using sublimating material?

Following this question, could a spacecraft approaching upper atmosphere from very low circular Earth orbit, produce lift to soar propulsively, bleeding speed at constant apoapsis, by sublimating ...
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316 views

What does “Poisson's formula” refer to in this calculation?

I am not entirely sure if this question belongs to this forum, but I don't know where else to ask. I am following a Rocket Propulsion course. There is a section concerned with the Velocity ...
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387 views

How stable is an orbit of 335.9 km?

Spacex has recently begun deployment of its satellite constellation that will provide internet services. In their initial filings with the FCC they propose that they may have over 7,000 VLEO (very low ...
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441 views

Why are deorbited satellites allowed a slow orbit decay instead of burning them up rapidly?

In "What are the conditions for re-entry of an object in a (highly) elliptical orbit?" Eerie asks about orbital mechanics of orbital decay of decommissioned satellite: starting with extremely ...
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How will BEAM be deorbited?

Almost all the articles I’ve read about BEAM say something like: “At the end of BEAM's mission, it will be removed from the ISS and burn up during reentry” Source: Wikipedia. But I can’t find ...
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Are there any techniques of heat shielding an irregularly shaped object?

NASA is planning to bring an asteroid into a lunar orbit. As I understand, it's a tremendous task, even when using high specific impulse ion drives. It seems nearly impossible to safely land one on ...
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How much do on-demand, artificial meteor showers cost these days?

On-demand, artificial meteor showers are discussed in Artificial Shooting Stars - how could this possibly work (economically/technologically)? Why would a box full of 1cm balls released into LEO be ...
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With what attitude does Soyuz reenter, and in what way might this angled pattern on Exp. 53's return a result of attitude?

The BBC article Soyuz space capsule brings ISS crew back after five month mission describes the return of ISS Expedition 55's "Russian Anton Shkaplerov, American Scott Tingle and Japan's Norishige ...
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Would astronauts need a heat shield to land on Titan from orbital speeds?

At orbital speeds around the Earth, things tend to burn up on striking the atmosphere, since they're going so fast. To get an astronaut (for example) home safely from those speeds, they need to have ...
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200 views

Satellite retrieval, fix and deploy possible remotely?

Is there any satellites that are designed to come back to Earth for repairs or upgrades and then be deployed again? Would there be any benefits to creating a capsule or inflatable heat shield to go on ...
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Regulations for cubesats designed to survive reentry and be retrieved?

I'm currently thinking about the potential of manufacturing certain items (ZBLAN, Semiconductors, Organs, Drugs, etc.) in LEO and I want to know whether it would be possible/legal to design a cubesat ...
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Is it realistic to assume the Chinese Long March 5b “just missed New York”?

The Chinese successfully launched a Long March 5b... that apparently fell off the West Coast of Africa On Monday, a massive, out-of-control Chinese rocket fell out of the sky off the west coast of ...
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How do I calculate re-entry velocity when decaying from a circular orbit?

I am trying to find the velocity of an object during re-entry so that I can calculate the peak heat flux but I'm a bit stuck. I know how to find the velocity of the original, circular orbit (300km) ...
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Why did Mars Pathfinder have such a high atmospheric entry velocity?

I was wondering what the highest atmospheric entry velocity of any lander was at Mars, for direct-entry landers (as opposed to those released from an orbiter), the atmospheric entry velocity tends to ...
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SpaceX Dragon Maximum Return Payload

For one of my university courses, we were asked to assess the viability of an asteroid exploitation mission. Assuming that we can somehow mine and refine the material (platinum in this case), we still ...
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Orion reentry plasma

Below are two screen shots from the video of the Orion reentry, Astronaut’s-Eye View of NASA’s Orion Spacecraft Re-entry, and a diagram. Is the plasma contained, or primarily within the viscous wake, ...
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Apollo re-entry guidance

I am referencing chapter 7 of the book "Spacecraft Navigation and Guidance" by Maxwell Noton. Can anyone tell me how to determine control gains C1 and C2 in equation 7.58 and 7.59 in respective ...
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How does the entry angle of a meteor affect the straight line distance traveled?

I'm trying to help a student solve the following problem: A 15 meter in diameter asteroid with a mass of approximately 10,000 metric tons going 20 km/s. The entry and time for disintegration was 28 ...
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Ways to mitigate the forever violent re-entry? (Moon landings vs Earth landings)

The frequently used reasoning for why the re-entry should always be performed at neck-breaking speeds is that it would take almost as much fuel to slow the craft down as it takes to launch it into ...
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Why can't deep-space missions escape orbit by skipping off the atmosphere?

If skipping off the atmosphere during re-entry runs a real risk of of the spacecraft "escaping" from orbit, why don't deep-space missions use this method instead of using power to reach escape ...
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Why do SpaceX rockets' re-entries seem to burn (as in heat the hull) less than the space shuttle? [duplicate]

Why do SpaceX rockets' re-entries seem to burn (as in heat the hull) less than the space shuttle ? Is it because of less friction surface ? Thanks !
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How long can a LEO Satellite maintain its orbit if it loses all power?

Basically if it becomes a rock, how long until it reenters and burns up?
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Would a balloon pop if dropped from space?

Could a "simple" inflated party balloon be dropped from space entering an atmosphere? The first case at orbital speed, the second case just outside the atmosphere and the third interplanetary? The ...
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Would it be possible to avoid the heat-from-friction problem when re-entering the atmosphere by performing (vertical) “U-turns”?

If you lift a swing at a children's playground and release it will swing back and forth for a while, losing some altitude in each swing, mostly (?) due to drag. Eventually it has lost all energy and ...
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Number of segment in Wing leading Edges

Can anyone highlight the basis of having 22 NO’s of segment in wing leading edges of space shuttle.

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