Questions tagged [rockets]

Questions regarding the boosters or thrusters used to propel man-made objects. For rockets firing opposite the primaries, see [retrorockets]. See wiki for other related tags.

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11 votes
2 answers
926 views

What makes aluminum aerospace grade?

So what is aerospace grade aluminum? Aerospace grade and regular aluminum or both aluminum. Do they have a different composition or strength? What makes one aerospace grade?
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2 votes
1 answer
84 views

How many times has SpaceX reused Falcon 9 first stage until now? [closed]

How many times has SpaceX reused Falcon 9 first stage until now? Not about the possibility. I want to know the current progress with the Falcon 9 first stage.
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0 votes
0 answers
39 views

How do I convert from one local NED frame to another?

A little bit of background in case you are interested. I am running a re-entry simulation, and I am dealing with two different reference frames. The one with the higher fidelity dynamics is in the ...
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18 votes
5 answers
11k views

Why doesn’t NASA build its rockets using graphene?

Graphene would be a great material to build a rocket out of. Graphene is extremely thin. One single atom thin layer of graphene can withstand 15 000 000 pascal . A square meter of this material only ...
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8 votes
1 answer
740 views

What is the purpose of the shrouds surrounding these rocket engines?

While researching the purpose of some rocket engine components, I came across several images of perforated shrouds surrounding the combustion chambers of rocket engines. I was highly curious about ...
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1 vote
1 answer
149 views

What is the point of having a central rocket engine when it receives performance losses?

Recently I asked this question about center engine performance and received an excellent answer from @OrganicMarble. The first sentence of the answer is If anything, the flow field interactions hurt ...
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-2 votes
2 answers
218 views

Why isn't oil used for rockets? [closed]

Most people know that when you add oil to a fire, it grows rapidly and becomes more powerful. So, why isn't added into the propellant just before it comes out of the engine?
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5 votes
2 answers
1k views

Resources on Coking?

I'm trying to do some background research on the coking process that occurs in rocket engines, but haven't found any resources that fit what I'm looking for. To be more specific, I'm just looking for ...
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1 vote
2 answers
151 views

Has asparagus staging (fuel crossfeed) ever been studied by a space agency?

There are two known examples of fuel crossfeed: The Space Shuttle and the Atlas. The Space Shuttle had fuel lines running from the ET to the main engines. Meanwhile, the Atlas fed fuel from a main ...
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3 votes
1 answer
112 views

Insights about launch vehicle engine configuration

When dealing with launch vehicles (specifically heavy lifters), there have been a number of different mindsets in terms of engines. The Saturn V used some absolutely massive engines, which was great ...
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2 votes
0 answers
60 views

RCS thruster temperature

How fast does an RCS thruster heat up if it's fired continuously? Will it stabilize at a maximum temperature? Does it need to be shut off before it melts itself? What would that temperature be if so? ...
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46 votes
1 answer
5k views

What safety protocols did this Pythom Space rocket crew ignore?

The video below of Pythom Space's first rocket test has raised a few eyebrows The video prompted hundreds of replies on Twitter, including some from rather horrified rocket scientists. "We knew ...
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2 votes
1 answer
209 views

How much energy would be required to launch a 10km x 10km x 10km cube into LEO?

I know this is a bit of a ridiculous scenario, I am just looking for a very conservative estimate as to how much force would be required to get something orders of magnitude bigger and more awkard ...
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1 vote
1 answer
132 views

Cold Gas Thruster to space engineering challenges

I have seen this question. The natural extension of this question would be - could you lift a human or an equivalent payload to LEO with cold gas thruster only? For numbers, take 100 kg mass for the ...
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3 votes
0 answers
94 views

How to find the altitude of a rocket?

I know this may be a very simple question, but is there any formula from which I can estimate the altitude of a liquid fuel (model) rocket based on the propellant, oxidizer, mass, density, etc? I've ...
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1 vote
1 answer
67 views

Formula for Determining Time to Perform Delta-V Burn Given Propulsion System Parameters

Question is as stated. Determining how much delta-V one needs to change orbits is pretty straight forward with the rocket equation. However, I’d like to see if there’s a way to calculate delta-V from ...
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3 votes
1 answer
188 views

Why does Vandenberg have the most launches?

Why does Vandenberg SFB have the most launches? Is it related to location, when it was founded, something else, etc? It would make more sense for Florida to have more launches. It is illegal for ...
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  • 45
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

What happens to the parts of rockets after they burn up?

For some first stages and second stages, and some failed launches, their fate is to burn up in the Earth atmosphere. Once the stage has broken into thousands of smaller parts, aerodynamics changes. ...
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3 votes
1 answer
160 views

Calculating the propellant needed for a trip from LEO to Low Mars Orbit at constant acceleration of 1g

I’ve been trying to calculate how much propellant a spaceship from Earth /LEO/ to Mars /LMO/ at constant acceleration of 1g would need. Here’s the data given: dry mass mf=100 t; g=9,81 m/s^2; Isp=...
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  • 73
7 votes
0 answers
153 views

How exactly does depressurization work in a solid rocket motor?

How does the extinction process actually work in a solid rocket motor? Most people initially always read that once a solid rocket fuel is ignited there is no way to actually stop its operation until ...
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1 vote
1 answer
94 views

What is the equation to find how much fuel you need to reach a velocity? [closed]

Theoretically, I need to launch a rocket, and I need to find how much fuel I need to reach a velocity however I do not know the equation.
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3 votes
1 answer
490 views

What is the equation for fuel equals distance for a rocket? [closed]

Theoretically, I am trying to launch a rocket from space and trying to figure out how much fuel I would need to get to a certain distance.
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1 vote
2 answers
1k views

How do second stage rockets ignite their engines?

When launching, the fuel mixes and then ignites when it hits oxygen in our atmosphere. How does a second stage ignite once in the vacuum of space?
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33 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why all the 'dust' on liftoff?

To bring things back to earth (literally), why is there such a plume of what I can only imagine is dust on liftoff from launchpads on Earth? Every launch I see from Earth has a huge cloud shooting out ...
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  • 543
3 votes
1 answer
148 views

European orbital rocket companies?

Besides the obvious Arianespace (France) with Ariane 5/6 Avio (Italy) with Vega/Vega C I found a few other new companies that haven't launched yet (to my knowledge), such as RFA (Germany) Isar ...
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1 vote
1 answer
103 views

Using Chimborazo as a rocket launching platform

Please consider this. Chimborazo is a sleeping volcano at 01°28′09″ S 78°49′03″ W. Its peak is 6263 metres above the sea level and because it is very near of the equator, the peak is more than 2 ...
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  • 13
4 votes
0 answers
85 views

What is the highest RPM achieved through a spin-stabilized rocket/spacecraft?

The title explains it all. I know that the Star 48 kick motor rotated at 60 rpm through its burn. I'd like to know the fastest a rocket/stage has spun during a launch, as well as the highest ...
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6 votes
1 answer
263 views

Can gas bubbles form in the fuel and oxidizer rocket engine pumps due to insufficient flow from the tanks?

In a staged combustion cycle rocket engine, the fuel and oxidizer are fed into turbo pumps which are in turn powered by a pre-burner. My question is how do they ensure that the fuel and oxidizer are ...
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  • 63
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is this South Korean rocket and why does it have separate yellow and blue exhaust plumes?

The BBC's Watching North Korea from a supersonic fighter jet (screenshot from YouTube) shows the launch of a South Korean rocket. I notice that it has both a very long, nicely expanded blue exhaust ...
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  • 148k
7 votes
2 answers
689 views

Are In-Flight Electrically Heated Steam Rockets Possible?

I wonder if a rocket that uses electricity from internal batteries to heat water in its tanks to high pressure would be able to use that pressure to take off. Is it possible? I've researched here and ...
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4 votes
1 answer
131 views

Are Interplanetary mission trajectory computations based entirely on Newtonian mechanics?

I am wondering if the application of General Relativity is ever needed(?) I assume that Newtonian mechanics is sufficient with some trajectory corrections applied as needed on route. I also assume ...
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4 votes
1 answer
135 views

How is a desired chamber pressure achieved in a liquid rocket engine

Before everyone responds that this has been asked before, I have read through every relevant post I could find here and believe my question has not been clearly covered. I also understand that "...
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3 votes
1 answer
117 views

Specific impulse of a rocket engine

Keeping other things (fuel, oxidizer, their ratio, mass flow rates, throat diameter, other hardware like pump, injector nozzles & impinging pattern etc.) same, if I changed only the geometry (...
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3 votes
1 answer
206 views

Where do the numbers 101,972 and 3,600 come from in terms of Thrust-Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC or SFC)?

Online, on sites such as Wikipedia's for Specific Impulse and Thrust-specific fuel consumption, there are these units: 101,972/x g/(kN·s) and 3,600/x lb/(lbf·hr) Perhaps 3600 comes from the number of ...
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0 votes
1 answer
111 views

Where is Webb Space Telescope?

In this NASA application page Where is WEBB? about the recently launched Webb space telescope the information provided tracking the cruising speed of the telescope widely changes (i.e. dropped from 0....
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  • 103
5 votes
0 answers
117 views

What is the benefit of an inverted rocket stage?

For example the Chinese rocket Jielong 1 has an inverted 4th (final) stage. So the payload sits between 3rd and 4th stage. When 3rd stage separates it has to do a 180 degree turn before igniting the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
746 views

Why did the James Webb Space Telescope briefly lose altitude during its launch? [duplicate]

As shown in the center panel of this screenshot from NASA's livestream of the James Webb Space Telescope's launch, the telescope briefly lost altitude during its launch trajectory (and this was ...
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4 votes
0 answers
67 views

How to estimate total CO2 emission per year due to rocket manufacture?

I'm working on a study on greenhouse gas emissions related to rockets. While I have the post-launch (atmospheric) emissions, I need data for emissions related to production. For example, according to ...
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4 votes
1 answer
158 views

Calculating time for several transfer orbits

I was watching a video that displayed how the time to get to Mars varied with the production of varying delta-v and was looking for the mathematics behind such a calculation. Here is the link to the ...
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  • 459
2 votes
0 answers
65 views

Thrust needed for Ion Thruster Lift off from Earth surface

I've been calculating the needed mass flow rate for a hypothetical ion rocket, lifting off from Earth's surface and propelled with a Dual-Stage 4-Grid ion thruster. Data given: mass of the spaceship /...
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  • 73
2 votes
1 answer
95 views

electric depositing on rocket engine

I saw a video from Everyday Astronaut in which he mentioned electric depositing on a rocket engine. How can thin depositing stand for high pressures?
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2 votes
1 answer
91 views

How is delta-v calculated for an interstellar journey?

Just recently I have been learning about orbital mechanics and I came across the following article: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/life-unbounded/why-chemical-rockets-and-interstellar-travel-...
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  • 459
6 votes
1 answer
185 views

What limits pressure buildup in SRB's?

According to st. Robert's Law, propellant burn rates increase with pressure. When an SRB is ignited, propellant starts to burn, making the pressure rise in the combustion chamber. The flow through the ...
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  • 163
24 votes
6 answers
4k views

Why do rockets have multiple stages?

I guess, almost all the rockets have multiple stages. But, I was wondering, why do they have multiple stages? Couldn't they have just 1 stage? With more stages, they would require more engines (...
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1 vote
1 answer
75 views

Designing of CD nozzle with respect to Mass flow rate of propellants

How do I calculate the flow rate of exhaust gases required at the throat of a CD nozzle, with given throat diameter of "D", so as to achieve a "Choked flow condition" (velocity of ...
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  • 3,190
3 votes
1 answer
74 views

How we can relate rotary inverted pendulum to a rocket system?

Initially I posted this question on EE Stack Exchange but I am also posting it here in Space Stack Exchange so I may get attention from a much related audience. I am interested in control systems ...
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  • 31
2 votes
2 answers
227 views

Why aren’t vacuum engines turned on after Mach 1?

In rockets, smaller nozzles are used at lower altitudes because atmospheric pressure would cause problems by pushing air into nozzles with higher expansion ratios. However, it seems to me that once ...
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6 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is it possible to propulsively land an SRB?

I am wondering if it is possible to propulsively land a solid rocket booster after it detaches from the core booster. I know you could use thrust termination ports to stop thrust, but it would drop ...
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  • 317
39 votes
6 answers
8k views

How much has fuel efficiency increased in rockets since the Apollo missions?

I have been talking with a friend of mine and the subject turned to modern rockets versus Apollo era rockets and fuel efficiency. My friend stated that today’s rockets use half the fuel of the rockets ...
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5 votes
1 answer
123 views

How do kick motors distance themselves from their payload after their burn, if at all?

I saw Space News' An object is now orbiting alongside China’s Shijian-21 debris mitigation satellite recently about a "new object" orbiting near a relatively newly launched satellite. The ...
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