Questions tagged [rockets]

Questions regarding the boosters or thrusters used to propel man-made objects. For rockets firing opposite the primaries, see [retrorockets]. See wiki for other related tags.

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Pre burner design for cryogenic propellants [closed]

I have to design a preburner to change the phase of my propellants from liquid to gas and they are stored as cryogenics. I have tried to find resources on preburners but none of them specify how to ...
5 votes
1 answer
113 views

Have there been any rockets whose payload fairings consisted of more than two parts?

Most cargo rockets, such as Falcon 9, Delta IV, and many others, incorporate payload fairings to protect payloads from aero forces and heating during ascent. All of these rockets' fairings split in ...
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How do different stages attach to each other?

I started learning about rockets recently, and while searching for information, I found some ways that different stages separate, but I wandered if it was possible that they could reattach to a ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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Developing intuition about altitude and velocity in multi stage rockets

I just started learning some basics of rocketry and am struggling to understand the outcomes of a simulator I’m programming. All other things being equal, when I attempt to simulate the altitude over ...
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0 answers
43 views

Actuator bandwidth [closed]

What is the relationship between the slew rate of the linear actuator and bandwidth? What should be the slew rate if I want 5 Hz actuator bandwidth? For more details:- I'm using a 2nd transfer ...
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3 votes
3 answers
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Which orbital class rocket has highest TWR at liftoff?

Which orbital class rocket (active or retired) has the highest thrust to weight ratio at liftoff?
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3 votes
0 answers
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How Spacex's Raptor Rocket Engine starts?

How does the Spacex Raptor rocket engine start? What are the different stages of startup? Is the propellant pressure in the tanks sufficient to drive the turbopumps and ignite the preburners and then ...
14 votes
2 answers
3k views

Which regulatory agency (if any) is in charge of investigating civilian rocket anomalies?

Yesterday Blue Origin's New Shephard had an anomaly during launch. Happens around 1:22:58 in this video The accident happened around 29,000ft and the capsule fired its ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Would ejecting propellant close to light speed result a '"dream engine"?

"Dream engine" I assume as pictured in the old science fiction: a single stage rocket that can take off from the Earth and then freely travel at least over Solar system, landing multiple ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is the exhaust temperature of a liquid oxygen + liquid hydrogen vacuum engine?

Ideally the exhaust of stochiometric liquid oxygen + liquid hydrogen rocket would be fast moving chunks of ice at zero kelvin. In this way all the potential chemical energy in the fuel/oxidizer is ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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Resources for Rocket Propulsion

I am a Mechanical Engineering student who is very much interested in Rocket propulsion. Lately I have been searching for good resources to learn concepts about rocket propulsion. I'd be glad to get ...
1 vote
1 answer
160 views

What color would the exhaust of an antimatter rocket be?

For the purpose of this question assume that the problems associated with antimatter drives have been solved. Let's say my spaceship is using a Matter-Antimatter rocket that reacts Antihydrogen with ...
-3 votes
0 answers
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Can rockets walls be thick for more strength?

I hear rocket engine walls are thin like 8 mm or 15 mm. Can rockets be 10 cm or even 6 cm in thickness which make the rocket light but strong? I want to know because I plan on having a company of my ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Question Deriving Mass Flow Rates for an Engine

I am trying to follow the calculations made in this blog post for a $50$ lbf. IPA/Nitrous Oxide engine, but cannot seem to get the values the author made for their propellant flow rates. Since the ...
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2 answers
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Are the Raptor engines too numerous and close together on Booster 7?

SpaceX is in the process of scaling up their highly successful re-usable Falcon first stage to a much larger version with more powerful engines for their Starship program. These new Raptor engines ...
2 votes
2 answers
188 views

What is the likelihood of being able to see the Artemis exhaust plume from St. Augustine Beach, Florida?

Artemis 1 moon mission set for launch: What you need to know A two-hour launch window begins on Monday at 8:33 a.m. ET, meaning the launch could take place anytime over the ensuing two-hour period. I ...
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Solar powered spacecraft electrolyzing water as it goes; would ion drives or burning the H +O be more efficient?

I keep trying to think of ways that future asteroid mining might be facilitated, with cost effective in space transport a major challenge; I have been wondering about different ways that a spacecraft ...
3 votes
0 answers
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Temperature distribution of air around a rocket

I am doing some simulations in ANSYS Fluent of a rocket traveling at speed of 100 m/s at an altitude of 12000 m where the surroundings temperature is 216.7 K. The image above is the temperature ...
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2 answers
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What is the maximum weight a raptor 2 engine can lift up at sea level on earth?

Regardless of target orbit, how can I calculate the maximum weight one engine can lift? If the raptor's TWR is 140 and its Thrust is 1.81 MN then: W = F / TWR = 12,900 N ==> m = W / g = 1.3 tons ...
17 votes
3 answers
3k views

What is the best chemical rocket fuel from a purely specific impulse standpoint?

A variety of different rocket programs use a variety of different fuel types. Researching this, the main fuel combinations I saw were: RP-1 / LOX (SpaceX's Falcon rockets, early stage Atlas and Saturn ...
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11 votes
1 answer
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Does the debris from the re-entry of Long March core stage ever reach the surface?

It's common for SpaceX to de-orbit the second stage over the ocean (since they still have fuel for controlled re-entry,) but for the Long March core stage that is not the case. Meteorites have hit the ...
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15 votes
1 answer
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Is it possible to turn rockets without fuel just like in KSP

When playing KSP if you click a Key (A,S,D,W) then the rocket turns without using fuel. I thought that a rocket needed RCS to turn. Is it even possible to turn a rocket in space without using any fuel?...
13 votes
1 answer
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Does NASA have any rocket options to replace ISS segments?

Roscosmos has announced their ISS partnership will end in 2 years This might have been seen as an indication that the new administration at Roscosmos was in a more cooperative mood. Any such hopes ...
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1 vote
4 answers
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Selecting an optimal Isp / what makes an Isp too high (mostly for high Isp)

When, and why, is it possible to have an Isp (usually of an ion or nuclear engine with Isp far beyond the limits of chemical fuel) that's too high? What makes the Isp too high, and (other things being ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Restartable Solid Rocket Motors Through Expanding Throats?

I recall seeing diagrams on a solid rocket motor that could "blow" itself out through suddenly expanding its nozzle, leading to the propellant no long burning or producing any thrust. First ...
11 votes
1 answer
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What is a rocket engine spin up test?

Recently I came across internet about SpaceX's Booster 7 explosion in a ball of fire during an engine spin up test. I searched Google about rocket engine spin up test but I got no hit. What is a ...
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1 vote
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Matching reference thrust to engine given certain parameters

I am running a simulation where a reference thrust value is meant to be matched by a liquid engine which I know the following information about: $"F_{vac}=100000"$ N, $I_{sp}=364$ sec, $D_e=1.01$ m, $...
7 votes
1 answer
991 views

Is there an ultimate break-even point with rocket nozzle length or expansion ratio in a vacuum?

I know that in an atmosphere, you don't want your expansion ratio to be too high, or it will cause some big problems, and that vacuum engines are restricted by the space they have to fit in, but if we ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Dataset of Rocket Launch Data

I needed actual data of any space rocket for a project that I am doing. Information regarding Altitude or trajectory Thrust Sp. Impulse etc was needed at each step of time. It would be great of the ...
1 vote
1 answer
106 views

What is the difference between a Trans-Mars Injection and a Mars Transfer Orbit?

So I'm using this transfer orbit calculator and when simulating a transfer from LEO to Mars, in the delta-v breakdown, appear two different values: TMI (Trans-Mars Injection), at around 3000 m/s, and ...
1 vote
0 answers
80 views

Liquid propellant rocket engine igniter [closed]

I have a project in which I will have to design a rocket engine igniter. It is for the big scale rockets for space missions. But, there is no information available on the internet regarding the ...
4 votes
0 answers
132 views

What is the largest number of rocket engines ever successfully used on a single craft as of 2022?

A fully stacked Starship was rolled to the pad this week for testing. The byline caught my eye, though (emphasis mine) SpaceX moves a massive rocket with 33 engines to its launch pad for tests No ...
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11 votes
1 answer
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What's the typical temperature of a reactor core in a nuclear thermal rocket?

I am curious of the typical temperature of a nuclear fission reactor in a NTR and I heard that increasing temperature could increase Isp but couldn't find any useful data online. Please provide viable ...
0 votes
1 answer
247 views

Why does igniting propellant provide more thrust?

My confusion stems from the relationship between thrust and the pressure distribution in the thrust chamber. For a given chamber pressure the wall static pressure along the nozzle is a function of ...
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5 votes
1 answer
145 views

basis for designing fins of a space launch vehicle

What was the basis for deciding the size, shape, location and number of fins for the Saturn V (or any other rocket for that matter)? Does it have any calculations or were they designed based on ...
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6 votes
2 answers
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using either liquid hydrogen or liquid methane based rocket fuels?

I am working on a near-hard scifi story that mainly involves travel across a single widely populated solar system. I imagine that realistically there will probably be a wide variety of ship designs, ...
3 votes
2 answers
161 views

How would building rockets on other planets and moons influence their design?

John D. Clark's Ignition! says that a frequent problem with choosing propellants has been that they can be very challenging or dangerous to handle, or that they have a high melting point or a low ...
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1 vote
1 answer
186 views

Horizontal vs Vertical Takeoff

What is the reason that some space planes take off with the help of a rocket and others take off with nothing but their own engines. For example the X-37 uses an additional rocket while the VSS Unity ...
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1 answer
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Why aren't clusters of F-15 or SR-71 engines used for a boost stage for rockets? [duplicate]

A cluster of say 8 F-15 or SR-71 engines in my mind could make a viable first stage for a small rocket. Second they can land the stage back to the ground and if my guess is right they could go to up ...
7 votes
4 answers
3k views

What is "aerospace grade"?

I recently asked this question. There, I was also linked to this other question. Both, however, could benefit from the answer to one fundamental point. What is "aerospace grade"? If ...
18 votes
6 answers
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What makes aluminum aerospace grade?

So what is aerospace grade aluminum? Aerospace grade and regular aluminum or both aluminum. Do they have a different composition or strength? What makes one aerospace grade?
1 vote
1 answer
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How many times has SpaceX reused Falcon 9 first stage until 20th May 2022? [closed]

How many times has SpaceX reused Falcon 9 first stage until now? Not about the possibility. I want to know the current progress with the Falcon 9 first stage.
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0 answers
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How do I convert from one local NED frame to another?

A little bit of background in case you are interested. I am running a re-entry simulation, and I am dealing with two different reference frames. The one with the higher fidelity dynamics is in the ...
18 votes
5 answers
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Why doesn’t NASA build its rockets using graphene?

Graphene would be a great material to build a rocket out of. Graphene is extremely thin. One single atom thin layer of graphene can withstand 15 000 000 pascal . A square meter of this material only ...
8 votes
1 answer
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What is the purpose of the shrouds surrounding these rocket engines?

While researching the purpose of some rocket engine components, I came across several images of perforated shrouds surrounding the combustion chambers of rocket engines. I was highly curious about ...
1 vote
1 answer
165 views

What is the point of having a central rocket engine when it receives performance losses?

Recently I asked this question about center engine performance and received an excellent answer from @OrganicMarble. The first sentence of the answer is If anything, the flow field interactions hurt ...
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2 answers
282 views

Why isn't oil used for rockets? [closed]

Most people know that when you add oil to a fire, it grows rapidly and becomes more powerful. So, why isn't added into the propellant just before it comes out of the engine?
5 votes
2 answers
1k views

Resources on Coking?

I'm trying to do some background research on the coking process that occurs in rocket engines, but haven't found any resources that fit what I'm looking for. To be more specific, I'm just looking for ...
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2 answers
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Has asparagus staging (fuel crossfeed) ever been studied by a space agency?

There are two known examples of fuel crossfeed: The Space Shuttle and the Atlas. The Space Shuttle had fuel lines running from the ET to the main engines. Meanwhile, the Atlas fed fuel from a main ...
3 votes
1 answer
124 views

Insights about launch vehicle engine configuration

When dealing with launch vehicles (specifically heavy lifters), there have been a number of different mindsets in terms of engines. The Saturn V used some absolutely massive engines, which was great ...
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